Umbilical Cord Abnormalities and Maternal and Perinatal Outcome: A Prospective Observational StudyCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Kalpna Kulshrestha,
A-29, Sector-27, Noida, Gautambudh Nagar-201301, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: The umbilical cord is the vital extension of the fetal circulatory system which regulates blood flow in both directions, thus allowing mother-child communications viz., immunological, oxygenation, fetal nutrition, cardiac function. Umbilical cord abnormalities are associated with the adverse maternal and perinatal outcome..
Aim: To assess prevalence of various umbilical cord abnormalities and its association with maternal complications and perinatal outcome.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences Pilkhuwa, Hapur, Uttar Pradesh, India from June 2019 till March 2020. The approval for the study was taken from the Institutional Ethical Committee. Total number of deliveries during this period were 1284. After satisfying exclusion criteria, total 600 deliveries of more than 37 weeks of gestation were included in the study at random. Examination of cord was done during delivery for presence of loops of cord around the neck or body, any knots, true or false. After the delivery, the cord was clamped 5 cm from the fetal end and the total length was measured from the cut end till the placental insertion site, and 5 cm added therein. Umbilical cord was examined for any abnormalities and numbers of coils recorded and Umbilical Coiling Index (UCI) measured. Apgar score and NICU admissions noted.
Results: Out of 600 patients, umbilical cord abnormalities were seen in 194 (32.33%) patients, while in 406 (67.67%) no abnormality was detected. The mode of delivery was vaginal in 441 cases (73.5%) while 159 (26.5%) had Lower Segment Cesarian Section (LSCS). Out of 194 cases with umbilical cord abnormality, 89 (45.87%) had LSCS and out of 406 cases with no cord abnormality, only 70 cases (17.24%) had LSCS (p-value<0.0001). Mean UCI was 0.25±0.09. Total 269(44.83%) had maternal complications and 143 cases (53.16%) had umbilical cord abnormalities. While 126 (46.84%) cases with maternal complications did not show any cord abnormality. Apgar score of <7 at one minute was seen in 43 cases (22.16%) and 23 (11.86%) were admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with umbilical cord abnormality.
Conclusion: The umbilical cord abnormalities were associated with the adverse maternal and perinatal outcome and increased rate of LSCS (p-value <0.0001). The study shows the importance of knowledge of cord abnormalities. The cord abnormality should be looked for after each delivery, with the aim to reduce perinatal morbidity.
Apgar score, Caesarean section, Fetal, Nuchal cord, Placental, Vaginal delivery
Date of Submission: Sep 19, 2020
Date of Peer Review: Nov 20, 2020
Date of Acceptance: Jan 21, 2021
Date of Publishing: Apr 01, 2021
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes
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