Cost Excursion Study of Various Insulin Preparations Available in IndiaCorrespondence Address :
Smita A Tiwari,
Department of Pharmacology, B. J. Government Medical College and Sassoon
Government Hospital, Pune-411001, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Poor drug compliance affects clinical outcome and increases healthcare costs in various disease setting. Several type II diabetes mellitus patients, not controlled on oral hypoglycaemics eventually require insulin therapy. Antidiabetic treatment is to be taken lifelong and in such a setting insulin price variation imposes a huge economic burden on poor diabetic patients. Moderating drug cost is associated with improved adherence to the medication regimen.
Aim: To study the variation in cost amongst various brands of insulin analogues.
Materials and Methods: This was an observational, crosssectional study. Data regarding the 116 formulations and cost of 18 types of insulin preparations was collected from sources like Current Index of Medical Specialties (CIMS), National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA), Government of India official website (https://nppaimis.nic.in/nppaprice/ pharmasahidaamweb.aspx) and compared with its lowest counterpart. The cost ratio and percentage cost variation was analysed and expressed as percentages.
Results: This study showed a noticeable variation in the prices of insulin analogues. The highest percentage of cost variation was found for Insulin (Highly Purified) Zinc-40 IU (135.17%), followed by Insulin (Analogue) Glargine-100 IU (109.31%). The lowest percentage were for: Insulin (Human-Isophane Recombinant)- 40 IU (1.40%), and Insulin (Analogue) Aspart100 IU (6.26%).
Conclusion: A noticeable variation in cost prices was observed especially in commonly used intermediate acting insulin that help basal glycaemic control. Similarly, the lowest variation was observed with recombinant counterparts as an effect of pre-existing high prices of each. Need for vital medication like insulin at affordable costs has incited national and global efforts to make it cheaper and accessible to maximum beneficiaries.
Cost variation, Diabetes mellitus, Drug price, Insulin analogues, National pharmaceutical pricing authority, Pharmacoeconomics
Date of Submission: Dec 13, 2020
Date of Peer Review: Jan 14, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Apr 07, 2021
Date of Publishing: Jul 01, 2021
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: No
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? No
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. No
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