Reference Value of Nasal Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate in Indian Children: A Cross-sectional StudyCorrespondence Address :
Skyline Lakeview Complex, H Block Flat 1B, Purbapara, Laskarpur, Kolkata-700153, West Bengal, India.
Introduction: Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) measurement is a basic, convenient, easy use and low-cost method of determining the openness of nasal airway patency. However, normative data for paediatric population is scarce and not available for Indian children aged 6 to 12 years.
Aim: To establish reference value of PNIF in Indian children aged 6 to 12 years age.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2013 in the Himalayan range of east Sikkim district and Sub-Himalayan Terai region of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Total 1001 children aged 6 to 12 years were selected from 16 schools by simple random sampling. Of these 1001 children, 784 children were enrolled in the study after taking into account inclusion and exclusion criteria. Repeated PNIF measurements were taken from these 784 children. Mean PNIF value was calculated. The effect of age and height on PNIF was studied. The mean and standard deviation of Peak Inhalation Flow Rate (PIFR) are calculated and compared across groups using a one-way ANOVA test. Regression analysis was done to establish an equation of predicting PNIF level based on height for normal children. The analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 statistical software. An alpha level of 5% was chosen, which means that any p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Mean value of PNIF as per age group; 6-7 years-53.36 L/min, 7-8 years-58.79L/min, 8-9 years-63.91L/min, 9-10 years-69.45L/min, 10-11years- 80.71L/min,11-12 years-85.69 L/min. PNIF increases with age and also height. A simple formula has also been established to calculate mean PNIF at a given height. PNIF or PIFR (L/min)= -52.716+0.945×height in cm.
Conclusion: PNIF measurements are possible in children aged six years and older older. Age and height also affect PNIF.
Nasal airflow, Nasal obstruction, Normal value, Peak nasal inspiratory flow, Reference range
Date of Submission: Feb 08, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Mar 01, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Apr 16, 2021
Date of Publishing: Jul 01, 2021
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA
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ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin
- Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
- Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
- Academic Search Complete Database
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
- Google Scholar
- HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
- Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
- Journal seek Database
- Popline (reproductive health literature)