Exposure of 4-Nonylphenol: Effect on Physiology and Reproductivity of Male MiceCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Radha Chaube,
Professor, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: The number and accumulation of hazardous chemicals are increasing gradually in the environment. These chemicals directly or indirectly affect the human health, and now-a-dayâ€™s these mostly include Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs). These EDCâ€™s interfere with the normal hormonal signaling, leading to reproductive or physiological imbalance causing different diseases. Studies suggest that in these EDCs, 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is most commonly used after industrialisation and it is hazardous for all of us. But the complete or detailed studies regarding its effects on reproduction and physiology, mode of action, pathway followed and other related causative factors are yet to be studied.
Aim: To examine the multigenerational effects of environmental EDC 4-NP on reproductive, histological and hormonal fitness of male mice exposed for 21 days.
Materials and Methods: Male mice were given oral doses 21.25 and 85.0 mg/kg Body Weight (BW) of 4-NP for 21 days. After 21 days BW, organ weight, sperm viability tests were done to analyse the difference with respect to control group. Further histopathological [via Haematoxylin-Eosin (H&E), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques]and stress parameters (Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Lipid Peroxidation (LPO)) examinations were done in different organ tissue samples for detailed study.
Results: The results showed that in male mice, 4-NP had a significant negative effect on the weight of its body organs. It further has an adverse effect on spermatogenesis and sperm quality with a resultant impact on male mice fertility with hormonal imbalance. Histopathological examination of the liver and testes biopsy samples illustrates that exposure to 4-NP at high doses induces occurrence of anomalies. 4-NP also causes decrease in SOD and increase in LPO, a parameter for increasing toxicity in the organs.
Conclusion: Exposure to 4-NP induces reproductive and physiological toxic effects on male mice by causing hormonal imbalance.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, Immunohistochemistry, Lipid peroxidation, Superoxide dismutase
Date of Submission: Sep 06, 2020
Date of Peer Review: Oct 12, 2020
Date of Acceptance: Dec 17, 2020
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2021
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: As declared above
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? No
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. No
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ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin
- Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
- Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
- Academic Search Complete Database
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
- Google Scholar
- HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
- Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
- Journal seek Database
- Popline (reproductive health literature)