Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Rural Population of Developing Country- A Cross-sectional StudyCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Atul Tiwari,
Department of TB and Chest, Azamgarh-276128, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is characterised by the clustering of central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia that predisposes patients to Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). It is a representative group of conditions with systemic inflammation, which is a potential mechanism responsible for both Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and MetS.
Aim: To detect incidence of MetS in COPD patients and its correlation with severity of COPD.
Materials and Methods: The present study was an observational cross-sectional study which was conducted on 62 COPD patients in SS Hospital, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, from June 2015 to June 2017, diagnosed on basis of Global initiative for Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. 62 age and sex matched control having no cardio-respiratory history were included. All relevant investigations were done for all selected subjects and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea grading was done in all the subjects. Standardised treatment modules were followed and spirometry and post-bronchodialater spirometry was performed 15-30 mins after inhalation of 400 mcg Salbutamol. Patients obstruction was classified according to the severity of airflow limitation based on post-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) as follows: mild (≥80% predicted); moderate (80>FEV1 ≥50% predicted); severe (50%> FEV1 ≥30% predicted); very severe (<30% predicted). Complete work-up and data collection were analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 software, descriptive cross tables, univariate and multivariate analysis. Independent Studentâ€™s t-test was used to compare the means of cases and controls. The p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Total 62 patients along with age and sex matched 62 healthy control in 1:1 ratio have been taken in the study, majority were in age group of 50-70 years. On comparing the mean values of different parametres of MetS in COPD cases and controls, significantly raised triglyceride level and fasting blood sugar in COPD cases (p-value <0.001 and 0.005 respectively) were observed. MetS was present in 29 cases (46.8%) of COPD whereas in healthy control population only 19 people (30.6%) were positive for MetS. Total of 55.2% cases of COPD with MetS was in group D whereas 84.8% cases of COPD without MetS were in group B of GOLD staging. Statistically significant (p<0.001) higher incidence of acute exacerbation was observed in cases of COPD with MetS.
Conclusion: MetS was more prevalent among the COPD patient in 50-70 years age group with mild to moderate airflow limitation. More waist circumference i.e., central obesity, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, increases the risk of cardiovascular complication in these patients. MetS is an important co-morbidity in patients of COPD which fasten the natural course of disease by increasing the frequency of acute exacerbation.
Airflow obstruction, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Global initiative for lung disease, Morbidity, Spirometry
Date of Submission: Nov 03, 2020
Date of Peer Review: Dec 05, 2020
Date of Acceptance: Jan 21, 2021
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2021
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: No
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA
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