Chronic Pain and Depression: A Community Based Study in a Rural Area of West BengalCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Rivu Basu,
3, Gauranga Mandir Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Introduction: Chronic pain is one of the most neglected health problems throughout the world. A close association of depression with chronic pain adds to the burden. There is severe dearth of epidemiological studies regarding depression in chronic pain among general population in India.
Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic pain among the selected rural population and to find out association between chronic pain and depression, if any.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done with the objective of studying the relationships between sociodemographic factors, depression with characteristics of chronic pain among adult population in a community setting. Data was collected from 697 adult (>18 years) chronic pain (>12 weeks duration) sufferers chosen randomly with proportionate representation from all 81 villages of Amdanga block, West Bengal, through a household-based survey in cross-sectional design. A pre-designed, pre-tested structured questionnaire containing socio-demographic information where Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Physical Functional Ability Questionnaire (FAQ-5) were used. During analysis, indices representing perceived pain, impairment and functional ability were generated from the questionnaire by principal component analysis.
Results: Low Back Pain (LBP) was found to be significantly higher among females that is 57.7% (p-value=0.022), followed by knee pain (54.8%). Age (p<0.001), Educational level (p<0.001), Income (p<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with perceived pain, impairment, and functional ability, which again show significant monotonic relationship with severity of depression. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is found in 9.04% (95% CI: 7.95%-10.13%) of chronic pain sufferers.
Conclusion: Frequency of knee pain increases with aging, this points towards its degenerative nature. Perceived pain and impairment get higher while functional ability gets lower as the severity of depression increases.
Brief pain inventory, Major depressive disorder, Perceived pain, Suffering
Date of Submission: Oct 28, 2020
Date of Peer Review: Jan 06, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Feb 16, 2021
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2021
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA
PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS: [Jain H et al.]
• Plagiarism X-checker: Oct 31, 2020
• Manual Googling: Feb 10, 2021
• iThenticate Software: Feb 22, 2021 (17%)
ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin
- Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
- Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
- Academic Search Complete Database
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
- Google Scholar
- HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
- Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
- Journal seek Database
- Popline (reproductive health literature)