Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Dr. Arundhathi. S
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Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2021 | Month : August | Volume : 15 | Issue : 8 | Page : AC06 - AC09 Full Version

Effect of Colours on Perception and Cognition of Students Belonging to Two Different Age Groups: A Cross-sectional Study

Published: August 1, 2021 | DOI:
Shubham Gupta Lalbabuprasad, Anita Rahul Gune

1. Third Year MBBS Student, Undergraduate, Department of Anatomy, D.Y. Patil Medical College, D. Y. Patil Education Society (Deemed University), Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. 2. Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, D.Y. Patil Medical College, D. Y. Patil Education Society (Deemed University), Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Anita Rahul Gune,
Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, D.Y. Patil Medical College, D.Y. Patil Education Society (Deemed University), Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.


Introduction: Colour is believed to stimulate senses. It improves the attention span and helps in developing cognitive abilities and hence, can be beneficial in the educational set-up. There is a void in literature about usefulness of colours in the education settings in India.

Aim: This study was conducted to assess students’ preference, perception, emotional responses, memory, and cognition related to colours.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted over a period of two months (January-February 2018) comprised of 300 students divided into two equal groups: Group A with 13 to 18 years of age, Group B with 19 to 25 years of age. On four consecutive days, both the groups were exposed to the same power point slide with some words highlighted with a single colour (red: material related to discovery of earth’s polarity, blue: material related to arbovirus, yellow: material related to pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, or green: material related to Mangalyan). At the end of the fourth session, a validated questionnaire was used to evaluate the students’ perceptions and responses to various colours. The data were analysed using R software v 3.6.1. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to find significant differences within the group, p<0.05.

Results: In group A, the highest mean preference was observed for the colour red (mean=8.02±2.83; p=2.20e-16), blue was found to be a soothing colour (n=65) and yellow helped in better recollection of facts (n=44). In contrast, in group B, the highest mean preference was observed for the colour blue (mean=8.35±3.59; p=5.90e-15). Yellow was considered a more soothing colour (n=43), and black helped in better recollection (n=41).

Conclusion: Colour perception varies in different age groups. It also affects emotions, memory, and influences mood disposition.


Attention, Education system, Emotions, Senses

Colour is a visual enhancement element that is vital in improving the learning process (1). It is known that visual stimulation through colour helps in improving the attention span, developing cognitive abilities and in refreshing one’s perception. Finding an appropriate colour for educational settings is complex as it involves personal preferences, perceptions and differences in emotional response (1).

Human memory is stimulated by different contrasting values of colour (2). Colours have been proven to be effective in patients with dyslexia and autism as it helps in minimising reading difficulties (3),(4). Colours are instrumental in regulating emotions/mood. Light reflected from coloured objects is converted into electrical impulses by the retina and relayed to the brain that governs our hormones and endocrine system and in turn affects various aspects of cognition and perception (5).

Educators also use different colours to improve learning outcomes. It has been noticed that red ink is conventionally used by teachers to check assignments. It is done to draw an individuals’ attention towards their errors. Red is perceived to be a threatening colour but also makes one apprehensive and improves the learning outcome, in that it reduces the repetition of errors (6). Colours, therefore, have a significant role to play in the educational set up (7).

In the educational setting, high demands are placed on students for academic excellence. There needs to be strategies to enhance cognitive abilities which in turn will facilitate the learning process. It has been seen in the study conducted by Olurinola O and Tayo O, that colour helped in increasing retention rate of learners (7). Studies on the usefulness of colour in educational settings in India are few (6),(8). Therefore, the study was conducted to assess colour preferences and perception, emotional responses towards colours and colours related to memory and cognition in different age groups in India.

Material and Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 subjects over a period of two months (January 2018 to February 2018), following approval by the Institutional Ethics Committee (DMCK/148/2018, 14/05/2018). The study was conducted among students from Shantiniketan School (CBSE), Kolhapur, Maharahtra and DY Patil Medical College, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Assent was taken from students between the age of 13 to 18 years and consent from students between 19 and 25 years. Assent was signed by students along with the guardian teacher.

Inclusion criteria: Students between the age group of 13-25 years and willing to participate in the study were included.

Exclusion criteria: Students with learning or memory related disorders were excluded.

Sample size calculation: Participants were divided into two groups according to age (Group A-13 to 18 years, Group B-19 to 25 years; n=150 each). Considering α=5%, β=20%, power=80% the sample size was calculated as 150 for each group.

Two groups of students were shown the same presentation at different session. In four consecutive days, both groups were exposed to the same power point slide some words highlighted with a red, blue, yellow and green colours respectively. Different colours, red: material related to discovery of earth’s polarity, blue: material related to arbovirus, yellow: material related to pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, or green: material related to Mangalyan were used for the slides and were displayed for 15 minutes. At the end of the fourth session, a validated questionnaire was used to collect the data (Annexure). The sessions were conducted in the morning for two hours; to maintain uniformity in both groups and to avoid any kind of cognitive bias.

Study Tool

The questionnaire tool was validated by six experts from various departments of the tertiary care hospital. The final questionnaire consisted of 20 questions regarding colour preference, perception, emotional responses as well as memory and cognition related questions. The colour black was also given as an option apart from red, blue, yellow, and green. The questionnaire included both close-ended and open-ended questions.

Statistical Analysis

The data were analysed using R software version 3.6.1. Colour preferences, perception, emotional response as well as memory and cognition related colours were represented using frequency distribution. A minimum Content Validity Ratio (CVR) value of 0.99 was considered the cut-off value to retain an item in the proforma (9). Colour preference based on age group was represented using mean±SD. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to find significant differences among colours within the group. The p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


The mean age of students in group A and group B were 15.2±2.5 years, 21.5±3.0 years, respectively. In Group A, red appeared to be the most attention-grabbing colour (26.0%). Yellow was the colour that helped in better recollection of facts in 29.33% of the study sample (Table/Fig 1).

In group B, Blue appeared to be the most attention grabbing colour (30.67%) and was also considered as a captivating colour by 43.33% of the subjects. Black was the colour that helped in better recollection of facts (27.33%) (Table/Fig 2).

Among group A participants, most of the students felt that colour was related to mood and emotions (78%). Maximum students felt that colour plays an important role in memorising things (67%). Colours were found to be the most memorable aspect in advertisements or commercials among group A study subjects (89%) (Table/Fig 3).

Among group B participants, most of the students felt that colour was related to mood and emotions (96%). Many students felt that Colours play an important role in memorising things (69%). Colours were found to be the most memorable aspect of advertisements or commercials among group B study subjects (71%) (Table/Fig 4).

There was a statistically significant difference among Cognition/Recall Memory of Colour Preference in group A, with the highest mean value for red colour (mean=8.02±2.83; p=2.20e-16) (Table/Fig 5).

There was a statistically significant difference among Cognition/Recall Memory of Colour Preference in group B, with the highest mean value for blue colour (mean=8.35±3.59; p=5.90e-15) (Table/Fig 6).


Colour has a profound effect on our mood and behaviour. It impacts our emotional state, cognition, memory, and general disposition and has an impact on almost every aspect of our being. Given the powerful influence of colour on an individual and on the community, it would be prudent to utilise the impact of colour on the human mind, especially in an educational set-up where the human mind is trained and tuned. In the educational setting, the utilisation of cognitive abilities by students is very important and may contribute to better academic achievement (10). Hence, it is important to understand the influences of colour on learning and what colours are best for specific age groups (7). Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the perception and effect of colour on cognition in various age groups.

Variations in the preferences and perceptions were observed in both the groups. Differences could be explained by the fact that as the individual gets older, his/her preferences change based on their life experiences (11).

In the 13-18 years age group highest mean was observed for the colour red. This can be ascribed to the longer wavelength of red; and hence is perceived to be stimulating, lively and friendly (12),(13). In contrast, in the 19-25 years age group, the highest mean was observed for the colour blue. This can be ascribed to different amounts of irradiance from 440 nm to 490 nm (14). Hence, blue colour is perceived to stimulate intellectual activity, reason and logical thought that develops as the individual grows older (12).

In group A, blue was perceived as a soothing colour. In the state of relaxation, blue stimulates the alpha band in the occipital areas (14). It is often associated with openness, peace and tranquility (15). On the contrary, in group B, yellow was perceived as the more soothing colour. This can be attributed to changes in the oxygenated haemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in the Left Prefrontal Cortices (L-PFC) (16). It is often perceived as the colour that lets the sunshine in (5).

The colour that increased appetite was red in group A. In contrast, in group B, blue colour was found to be appetite stimulating. Students in group B agreed that colour affected taste/appetite and this has been studied in previous literature as well (17),(18). This can be ascribed to hormones that are released in the brain, when colour perception is transmitted from the eye to the brain. In turn, colours are used to “level out” emotions or to create different moods (5). Colours could thus be used to stimulate or reduce appetite and could play a significant role in weight management issues among adolescents. Blue is the colour of intellect and stimulates clear thoughts (19). It was perceived as the colour which defines the participants’ personality among both the groups.

In both groups, blue was the preferred colour for dressing and made them feel calm. Participants in both groups agreed that their mood was affected by colour, as observed in previous literature (20). Their attitude was also affected by the clothes’ colour of other people. This can be ascribed to the fact that colour is an essential part of our lives and its existence is seen in everything that we perceive. Hence, colour has a profound effect on our feelings and expressions (21).

Among group A students, red was the most attention-grabbing colour. In contrast, in group B, blue was considered the most attention-grabbing colour. The most captivating colour among both the groups was the colour blue. Among group A students, the colour yellow helped in better recollection of facts. In contrast, in group B, the colour black helped in better recollection. Participants in both the groups agreed that children love to read from coloured books and also felt that coloured diagrams fetched more marks in exams. Students in both the groups agreed that colours helped in memorising better as observed in previous studies (22). This could be explained by the fact that colour draws on cognitive powers to influence learning, facilitating memorisation and identification of concepts. It also affects the way we perceive and process information and can upgrade our ability to recall both words and pictures (23),(24),(25).

Students also felt that the most memorable aspect of advertisement and commercials are colours as seen in previous studies as well (26),(27). This can be attributed to the fact that colours can evoke perceptual and emotional responses in consumers and influence their behaviour (28),(29).


Limitations of the study include the fact that colour perception based on gender, age wise stratification within the group was not assessed and provides scope for further research in the arena.


Colour perceptions/cognition varies among different age groups of students. Colour has the potential to transmit the stimuli to a more permanent state in the memory of students. Colour is perceived to help in memorisation of facts and its integration in papers, books and presentations can improve cognition and learning outcomes among students of all age groups.

Authors contribution: Design and conception: SGL, ARG; Collection and gathering of data: SGL, ARG; Clinical monitoring and laboratory detection: SGL, ARG; Data analysis and interpretation: SGL, ARG; Manuscript preparation: SGL ARG; Approval of Manuscript: All authors.


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DOI and Others


Date of Submission: Oct 20, 2020
Date of Peer Review: Jan 09, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Apr 16, 2021
Date of Publishing: Aug 01, 2021

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Oct 21, 2020
• Manual Googling: Mar 13, 2021
• iThenticate Software: May 04, 2021 (4%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

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