Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case Series
Year : 2021 | Month : August | Volume : 15 | Issue : 8 | Page : OR05 - OR07 Full Version

Hyponatremic Unconsciousness as a Presenting Symptom of COVID-19: A Case Series


Published: August 1, 2021 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2021/50139.15214
Ajay Chauhan, Asmita Gupta, Kari Suguna, Shashikant Shukla, Parul Goyal

1. Professor, Department of Medicine, ABVIMS, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India. 2. Postgraduate Resident, Department of Medicine, ABVIMS, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India. 3. Postgraduate Resident, Department of Medicine, ABVIMS, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India. 4. Postgraduate Resident, Department of Medicine, ABVIMS, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India. 5. Professor, Department of Biochemistry, ABVIMS, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Ajay Chauhan,
Professor, Department of Medicine, ABVIMS, Dr. RML Hospital,
New Delhi-110001, Delhi, India.
E-mail: dr.ajay@rmlh.nic.in

Abstract

The novel Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can present with a multitude of clinical symptoms. The virus, disease symptomatology, pathogenesis and complications are being studied and new concepts are evolving rapidly. The current worldwide situation caused by the disease makes it exceedingly important to recognise varied presentations of the disease. Three cases are being discussed hereby, wherein the patients presented with altered sensorium secondary to hyponatremia as the initial and only presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the absence of fever or any respiratory involvement. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia is an under-recognised presentation with only a few cases reported till date and needs further awareness and understanding.

Keywords

Altered sensorium, Coronavirus disease-2019, Electrolyte imbalance, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), has taken the form of a global pandemic. It is transmitted via droplet/airborne route and commonly involves respiratory system and presents with fever, cough and breathlessness (1). Various unfamiliar clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are being brought to light every day and the fact still remains that the virus itself and its pathogenesis, systemic involvement and complications are a grey area that need to be further explored.

Pneumonia is one of the many infective causes of hyponatremia secondary to inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Syndrome of Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) associated with COVID-19 is one of the complications of this disease. It has also been reported to be related to severity of the disease (2),(3),(4).

Authors hereby discuss three patients who presented with altered sensorium. The aetiology turned out to be severe hyponatremia secondary to SIADH attributable to COVID-19, in absence of fever or other classical symptoms of the disease.

Case Report

Case 1

A 70-year-old male patient presented to Emergency Department with complaints of altered sensorium for 15 days in the form of decreased responsiveness, drowsiness and inability to recognise relatives. There was no history of seizures, headache, vomiting, facial deviation, limb weakness or loss of consciousness. He did not have any history of trauma, drug intake or similar episode in the past. There was no history of fever, cough, expectoration or breathlessness.

The patient was a chronic smoker. He was a known case of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with history of Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) use for last 10 years. He had a history of cerebrovascular accident (infarct) 15 years back, due to which he suffered from left sided hemiparesis, from which he recovered over time with physiotherapy. The patient had been prescribed low dose aspirin and statin which was taken by him for five years. There was no history of intake of diuretics or any other drugs in the past.

At presentation, he was drowsy with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)-E3V3M5. His Blood Pressure (BP) was 124/70 mmHg, pulse rate 78 beats/minute and SpO2 was 98% on room air. Pupils were bilaterally normally sized and reactive. He was moving all four limbs equally and plantar response was flexor bilaterally. There was no neck rigidity/Kernig’s/Brudzinski’s sign. Chest auscultation revealed bilateral diffuse rhonchi. Rest of the examination was normal.

Non-Contrast Computerised Tomography (NCCT) head was done which was suggestive of old gliotic changes. Random blood glucose was 126 mg/dL. Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) was within normal limits with pH 7.436, pCO2 44, HCO3- 26. Chest roentgenogram was normal. Blood investigations revealed Haemoglobin (Hb) 12.7 g/dL, Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) 11700/mm3 (Neutrophils 83%, Lymphocytes 14%, Monocytes 3%), Platelet count 2 lacs/mm3. Kidney and liver function tests were normal. Hyponatremia was noted with serum sodium 114.5 mmol/L. Serum potassium was normal (3.8 mmol/L).

Further investigations showed low serum osmolality 265 mOsm/kg and urinary osmolality 136 mOsm/kg. Urine routine examination was normal and urinary sodium was elevated 46 mmol/L. Thyroid function tests and serum cortisol were within normal limits. The patient was managed with 3% NaCl infusion with oral free water restriction. Following that a COVID-19 Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was sent which came out positive.

Patient showed considerable improvement in the following days. On the third day of admission, the patient was conscious and oriented. The patient was asymptomatic at discharge with serum sodium 129 mmol/L and advised home isolation.

Case 2

A 60-year-old male patient, chronic smoker and known case of COPD (using MDIs for three years) presented with complaints of altered sensorium for two days in the form of disorientation and decreased responsiveness. He had no history of preceding fever, headache, vomiting, seizures, loss of consciousness, cough, breathlessness, chest pain or focal neurological complaints. He did not have any trauma or similar complaint in the past. There was no history of intake of diuretics or any other drugs.

At presentation, the patient had pulse rate 84 beats/minute, BP-110/76 mmHg, SpO2-97% on room air and GCS was E3V2M5. There were no signs of fluid overload or dehydration. Pupils were bilaterally normal sized and reactive. There was no focal neurological deficit or neck rigidity/Kernig’s/Brudzinski’s sign and bilateral plantar were flexor. Other systemic examination was normal.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) and chest x-ray were done which were normal. Blood investigations revealed Heamoglobin 9.9 g/dL, Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) 8000/mm3, Differential Leukocyte Count (DLC) was 72% polymorphs, 22% lymphocytes, 2% eosinophils, 4% monocytes and platelet count 5.3 lacs/mm3. Kidney Function Test (KFT) was normal with urea 20 mg/dL and serum creatinine 1.0 mg/dL. Liver function tests were normal. Serum sodium was 125 mmol/L and potassium 4.83 mmol/L. Serum and urinary osmolality was 268 mOsm/kg and 124 mOsm/kg, respectively and urinary sodium 50 mmol/L. Urine routine and microscopic examination was normal. The NCCT head was suggestive of age-related atrophic changes. The RT-PCR for COVID-19 of patient was positive.

He was started on 3% NaCl infusion in view of symptomatic hyponatremia. His sensorium improved during the course of stay following electrolyte correction. The patient was discharged for home isolation. He was conscious and oriented with serum sodium 134 mmol/L at the time of discharge.

Case 3

A 77-year-old gentleman presented to the Emergency Department with the chief complaints of altered sensorium for one day. He was apparently well one day before the presentation when he started showing signs of easy irritability and aggressive behaviour. There was no history of any weakness or loss of consciousness or projectile vomiting or seizures. There was no history of fever, cough, breathlessness or chest pain. On examination his blood pressure was 110/70 mmHg, pulse rate was 89 beats/minute and saturation was 98% on room air. His Central Nervous System (CNS) examination and other systemic examinations were within normal limits.

The patient was a known hypertensive and diabetic and had been taking Metformin and ACE inhibitor (Enalapril) for last 15 years. No history of diuretic, SGLT2 inhibitor or other drug use was there.

The ECG and chest x-ray were normal. The NCCT head was normal study. Routine investigations showed significantly decreased serum sodium of 115 mEq/L. A diagnosis of acute severe symptomatic hyponatremia was made and cause of hyponatremia was further evaluated. Hb- 11.5 g/dL, TLC- 9600/mm3, DLC- 74% neutrophils, 26% lymphocytes, Platelets- 1.6lac/mm3. His kidney function tests (Uric acid was 3.1) and liver function tests were within normal limits. He was clinically euvolemic. His serum osmolality calculated at that time was 267mOsm/Kg and urine osmolality was 212 mOsm/Kg with a urinary sodium of 62mmol/L. This has confirmed a diagnosis of SIADH. Patient improved with 3% NaCl infusion followed by fluid restriction. His serum cortisol and thyroid function tests were sent which were normal. No underlying medical conditions causing SIADH could be identified in the patient. In light of the ongoing pandemic, nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 RT-PCR was sent which came out to be positive. The patient was discharged for home isolation when he was asymptomatic, conscious and oriented with serum sodium level 134 mEq/L.

Discussion

Hyponatremia is a commonly encountered electrolyte disbalance in the clinical practice. The SIADH is the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia. The established criteria for diagnosis of SIADH requires the presence of euvolemic state, low serum osmolality with concurrent elevated urinary osmolality and sodium levels. In addition, thyroid and adrenal diseases, renal insufficiency and diuretic use need to be ruled out (2).

Community acquired pneumonia is a recognised cause of SIADH, however, the underlying mechanisms are disputed. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with subsequent reduced left atrial filling is important mechanism contributing to inappropriate ADH secretion (3). Emotional, physical, or psychological stresses and pain associated with infections may stimulate the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis, leading to ADH release.

Berni A et al., conducted a study where he correlated hyponatremia with Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and pO2/FiO2 ratio (an important indicator of respiratory performance) and found that serum sodium levels inversely correlated with IL-6 levels, while directly correlated with pO2/FiO2 ratio (4).

Hyponatremia has been found in COVID-19 patients in a number of studies and case reports, as discussed further. One of them is a large retrospective study by Frontera JA et al., which reported 30% prevalence of hyponatremia in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients along with an association of hyponatremia with increased risk of encephalopathy and mechanical ventilation. However, in the index cases, all three patients made a full recovery. Frontera JA et al., also found a significant correlation between IL6 levels and hyponatremia, and implicated IL6 related non osmotic release of ADH as the cause of hyponatremia (5).

Yousaf Z et al., described a case series of patients with SIADH and hyponatremia in patients presenting with pneumonia related to COVID-19 (6). Another retrospective study by Ruiz-Sanchez JG et al., reported a prevalence of 20% in patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia. They also found that hyponatremia was independently associated with increased risk of sepsis and mortality (7).

In our cases, the patients presented with altered sensorium as a manifestation of hyponatremia, in the absence of fever or any respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 disease. None of the patients ever had any history of episode of unconsciousness or hyponatremia earlier in their lifetime. Hence, after excluding other causes, hyponatremia was attributed to SIADH secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Only a handful of similar cases of altered sensorium secondary to hyponatremia as the sole presentation of COVID-19 have been reported. One of the reports by Habib MB et al., discussed the case of a middle-aged male patient presenting with altered sensorium which was investigated and ascribed to acute severe hyponatremia (Serum sodium levels 112 mEq/L) due to SIADH secondary to COVID-19 infection (8).

A case of severe hyponatremia with serum sodium levels 116 mEq/L manifesting as mental confusion in the absence of lung and CNS involvement has been reported by Sherazi A et al., in a 55-year-old female patient with COVID-19 (9).

Conclusion

Syndrome of Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) is an important complication of the COVID-19 disease. It can be the sole manifestation and thus serve as a clue for diagnosing COVID-19. In light of the current situation of COVID-19 pandemic and magnitude of burden of the disease, with rapidly evolving concepts and information, such uncommon presentations warrant recognition and sensitisation of physicians.

References

1.
Greenhalgh T, Jimenez JL, Prather KA, Tufekci Z, Fisman D, Schooley R. Ten scientific reasons in support of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Lancet. 2021;S0140-6736(21):00869-2. [crossref]
2.
Verbalis JG, Goldsmith SR, Greenberg A, Korzelius C, Schrier RW, Sterns RH, et al. Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hyponatremia: Expert panel recommendations. Am J Med. 2013;126(10):S01-42. [crossref] [PubMed]
3.
Koizumi K, Yamashita H. Influence of atrial stretch receptors on hypothalamic neurosecretory neurones. J Physiol. 1978;285(1):341-58. [crossref] [PubMed]
4.
Berni A, Malandrino D, Parenti G, Maggi M, Poggesi L, Peri A. Hyponatremia, IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) infection: May all fit together? J Endocrinol Invest. 2020;43:1137-39. [crossref] [PubMed]
5.
Frontera JA, Valdes E, Huang J, Lewis A, Lord AS, Zhou T, et al. Prevalence and impact of hyponatremia in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City. Crit Care Med. 2020;48(12):e1211-17. [crossref] [PubMed]
6.
Yousaf Z, Al-Shokri SD, Al-Soub H, Mohamed MF. COVID-19-associated SIADH: A clue in the times of pandemic! Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020;318(6):E882-85. [crossref] [PubMed]
7.
Ruiz-Sánchez JG, Núñez-Gil IJ, Cuesta M, Rubio MA, Maroun-Eid C, Arroyo-Espliguero R, et al. Prognostic impact of hyponatremia and hypernatremia in COVID-19 pneumonia. A HOPE-COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID-19) registry analysis. Front Endocrinol. 2020;11. [crossref] [PubMed]
8.
Habib MB, Sardar S, Sajid J. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia in setting of SIADH as an isolated presentation of COVID-19. ID Cases. 2020;21:e00859. [crossref] [PubMed]
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Sherazi A, Bedi P, Udevbulu E, Rubin V, Alasadi L, Spitalewitz S. Hyponatremia and Encephalopathy in a 55-Year-old Woman with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion as an Isolated Presentation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Am J Case Rep. 2021;22:e930135-1. [crossref] [PubMed]

DOI and Others

10.7860/JCDR/2021/50139.15214

Date of Submission: Apr 20, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Jun 18, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Jul 02, 2021
Date of Publishing: Aug 01, 2021

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Jun 18, 2021
• Manual Googling: Jul 01, 2021
• iThenticate Software: Jul 30, 2021 (9%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
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