Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 87587

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2021 | Month : August | Volume : 15 | Issue : 8 | Page : SC13 - SC16 Full Version

Correlation of Nutrition with Parental Literacy Status among School Going Adolescent Children in Telangana: A Cross-sectional Study

Published: August 1, 2021 | DOI:
Preethi Subramanian, Sandhya Dasari, Srinath Devulapalli, Sudharshan Raj Chitgupiker

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. 3. Civil Assistant Surgeon, Department of Paediatrics, District Hospital Mahabubabad, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. 4. Professor and Head, Department of Paediatrics, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Sandhya Desari,
Flat No. 203, Sushant Sri Sai Estates B, Bhagyanagar Coop Housing Society, KPHB, Hyderabad-500072, Telangana, India.


Introduction: National Family Health Survey-4 reports that 44.8% of boys and 41.9% of girls aged 15-19 are underweight. Globally, there is a lacuna of data on early adolescent children (10-14 years).

Aim: To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among school going adolescent children in Medchal, Telangana and also to assess the correlation between nutritional status of adolescent children and their parents’ literacy level and socio-economic class.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1000 adolescent children aged between 10-16 years. Pilot study was conducted on 110 students to test the questionnaire comprising basic data and socio-demographic characteristics before starting the study. Weight and height were measured. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated and based on BMI, children were classified into undernutrition, normal, overweight and obese. Parental literacy was ascertained. Parents were divided into five categories of socio-economic class according to BG Prasad Classification. Primary endpoint measured was prevalence of malnutrition among adolescent children and secondary endpoint measured was correlation of mother’s and father’s literacy status with nutritional status which was ascertained using spearman’s rank correlation test. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0.

Results: Prevalence of undernutrition and overnutrition (overweight and obesity) was 48.5% and 4.6% respectively. There was statistically significant (p=0.046) difference between boys and girls with respect to prevalence of undernutrition and overnutrition. Majority of undernourished boys (49.1%) and girls (46.8%) were 13-14 years old. Spearman’s rank coefficient (rho-ρ) showed strong positive correlation between nutrition and socio-economic class (ρ:0.706) with moderate and weak correlation seen for mothers’ education (ρ:0.425) and fathers’ educational status (ρ:0.333), respectively.

Conclusion: Undernutrition remains to be a common problem among early adolescents. Socio-economic class and literacy level of parents play significant role in nutrition of adolescents. At school level, adolescent children and their teachers need to be empowered to understand better about the necessity and impact of maintaining a normal nutritional status on their future health.


Adolescent age group, Body mass index, Malnutrition, Socio-economic status

Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. This period is divided into two phases early (10-14 years) and late (15-19 years) (1). Each phase has its characteristic set of biologic, cognitive and psychosocial milestones that forms the basis for the future (2). There is an increase in the nutrition requirements of an individual on entering this period due to increase in growth spurt and physical activity (3).

The emphasis on the provision of not only appropriate nutrition, but also on other forms of psychosocial support during this important period has been gaining more significance globally to assure a better platform for adult life. The first step towards this would be to gauge health and developmental needs of adolescents which can be better understood by collecting quality data (4).

There is sparse literature in adolescent nutrition in India and abroad. Globally, only 1.2% of the publications were pertaining to adolescents as against more than 95% for the under-five (4). It is more so less in the age group of 10-14 years (5). Even in the National Family health Survey-5 in India, there is not much data collected for the age group of adolescents (10-19 years) (6). Considering the above factors, the present study was planned in the adolescents of age group 10-16 years.

Although, multiple socio-demographic factors play an important role in achieving the required nutrition in an adolescent, family, especially parents have an increased impact and influence on nutrition of their children (7). Parents’ literacy status and socio-economic class have been widely regarded to be important factors affecting nutrition of adolescents. Singh SP did a study in 384 children and found that literacy level of both the parents had a statistically significant association with the nutritional status of the children (8). Choudhary S et al., conducted a study of 270 adolescent girls and found that there was a statistically significant difference in nutrition of adolescent girls with varying levels of father’s education (9). In this study, educational status of the mother had no significant association with the nutritional status of adolescent girls. Bhattacharya H and Barua A, conducted a study among 284 adolescent girls and found that the prevalence of both stunting (41.80%) and thinness (44.26%) was much higher among girls who came from families whose mothers were illiterate. Significant association was found between the prevalence of both stunting (p=0.001) and thinness (p<0.001) with the literacy status of the mother in that study (10). However, few studies have found no association between parental literacy and adolescent nutrition (11),(12).

Given these conflicting results on effect of parents’ education status on nutritional status of adolescent children, the present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in school going adolescents in Telangana, India and to assess the correlation between nutritional status of adolescent children and their parents’ literacy status and socio-economic class.

Material and Methods

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Medchal Mandal, Rangareddy District, Telangana, India. The study was done in school going adolescent children aged between 10-16 years during the period of June 2019- December 2019 after taking ethical committee clearance of Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences (Mediciti Ethics Committee: 18/11/15; 15).

Sample size: Using a reported prevalence of 2.2% for obesity among rural adolescents (13), and an allowable error of 10%, we got a sample size of 826. Total 1000 adolescents were included in the study. This was expected to have sufficient power to detect underweight, overweight and obesity.

Inclusion criteria: All school going adolescents between 10-16 years in the selected schools present at the time of data collection who are willing to participate in the study.

Exclusion criteria: Students who had any chronic illness like congestive heart failure, childhood malignancies, tuberculosis, chronic renal failure, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, Cushing syndrome, on medications like antidepressants and contraceptives were excluded from the study. Students of parents who failed to give consent or who failed to fill the proforma given to them as required were excluded.

Study Procedure

All the schools in Medchal Mandal were selected. Permission was obtained from Mandal Education Officer (MEO). Total strength of children from class V to X was taken from school authorities of all the schools. A systematic sampling technique was employed to achieve the sample size. The first student was selected by lottery method. After that, every third student was selected from the attendance register from V to X class, till the sample size was achieved.

A written informed consent and assent was obtained from all the principals and students who were willing to be part of the study respectively. Both the parents’ consent was obtained with the help of a consent form and a proforma containing questions related to socio-economic status and their literacy level in local language, which were given to parents of the selected students via the school teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on World Health Organisation (WHO) STEPS questionnaire and the Global School Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire for the students (14),(15). Prior to initiation of the study, 10% of sample size (110 students) was selected from a school in Medchal and questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire was explained to the school authorities and teachers. After the pretest, required corrections were made to the questionnaire and the study was commenced. At the start of the study, it was ensured that the parental consent was obtained and proforma given to parents were completed by them.

Detailed information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and contributory factors responsible for nutritional status which was supplemented by physical examination which included weight, height and BMI. Weight was measured with weighing scale with an error of ±100 gm. Height was measured with non stretchable tape with an error to the closest 0.1 cm. Adolescents were classified as having undernutrition, if BMI for age and sex was <3rd centile, normal nutrition when it was between 3rd-85th centile; overweight if BMI was ≥85th centile and <95th centile and obese if BMI is ≥95th centile according to WHO classification (16). Parents’ socio-economic status was classified into five strata according to BG Prasad Classification (17).

Statistical Analysis

Data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables which were expressed in percentages and frequencies. Chi-square test was used to analyse statistical significance for continuous variables. Student t-test was used to compare the mean values. The p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Spearman Rank coefficient was used for correlation between ordinal variables.


A total of 1000 adolescent students were included in the study, out of which 582 (58.2%) were boys and 418 (41.8%) were girls. The mean age of boys was 14.58±2.1 years and the mean age of girls was 13.54±1.1 years. The mean height and weight of boys was 150±2 cm and 49±4.1 kg, respectively. The mean height and weight for girls was 145±1.8 cm and 47±4.4 kg, respectively. The mean height difference among boys and girls was ascertained by student t-test and was found to be statistically significant (p=0.04).

The overall prevalence of undernutrition and overnutrition (overweight and obesity) was 485 (48.5%) and 46 (4.6%), respectively. The prevalence of undernutrition among girls and boys was 173 (41.3%) and 312 (53.6%), respectively. The prevalence of overnutrition (overweight and obesity) among girls and boys was 33 (7.8%) and 13 (2.2%), respectively. The gender based difference between prevalence rates of undernutrition and overweight/obesity were ascertained by chi-square test and was found to be statistically significant (p=0.046) (Table/Fig 1).

Among undernourished boys (312), 153 (49.1%) were of age 13 and 14 years; and among undernourished girls (173), 81(46.8%)were of age 13 and 14 years (Table/Fig 2).

Among the fathers, maximum belonged to high school rank (23.8%), while among mothers, most were educated up to intermediate (21.6%). Among the adolescents with undernutrition 165 (34%) mothers were illiterate and 105 (21.6%) fathers were illiterate while among the overweight/obese adolescents, 15 (32.6%) fathers were graduate and above while 16 (34.8%) mothers completed intermediate. A statistically significant difference was found between nutritional status of adolescent and education status of the parents (p<0.001) (Table/Fig 3), (Table/Fig 4).

A weak positive correlation (Spearman’s rho (ρ): 0.33) between father’s education and adolescent’s nutritional status was observed. This suggests that lower the educational status of the father, the adolescent children would be more undernourished compared to those of fathers with higher educational status. Mothers’ education was more positively correlated (Spearman’s ρ: 0.425) with adolescent’s nutritional status (Table/Fig 5).

BG Prasad Classification was used to classify the parents’ socio-economic status into 5 ranks as shown in (Table/Fig 6) (17). Socio-economic status of parents and their adolescent’s nutritional status were also found to have statistically significant correlation. Socio-economic status was more positively correlated (Spearman’s ρ:0.706) (Table/Fig 7).


In the present study, the overall prevalence of undernourished according to BMI for age was found to be 485 (48.5%). In undernutrition group, 312 (64.3%) boys had BMI <3rd centile compared to 173 (35.6%) girls which was statistically significant. Similar results were reported by Bhattacharya A et al., among 424 adolescents in the age group of 10-19 years with a prevalence of 53.31% of underweight adolescents and more boys (61.45%) were undernourished than girls (40.13%) in their study which was statistically significant similar to the present study (18).

The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in this study was 4.6%. Girls were significantly more in number compared to boys in this group which was statistically significant. This was similar to the prevalence seen in studies by Bharati DR et al., (4.3%) and Vohra R et al., (4.91%) (19),(20).

In this study, the highest prevalence of undernutrition was seen in age groups of 13 and 14 years in both boys and girls compared to other age groups. The reason behind increased prevalence of undernutrition in early adolescent period could be due to pubertal spurt with increased demands and inadequate nutritional supply and due to influence from peers. Similarly, decreasing prevalence of undernutrition with rising age in adolescents was noted in a study done by Bhattacharya A et al., (18).

The relation between father’s literacy status and adolescent nutrition was statistically significant with a positive correlation. Similar observation was made by Singh SP in his study of adolescents in rural Andhra Pradesh (8). Choudhary S et al., and Singh SK et al., also found a similar correlation between father’s education and nutrition of adolescent girls (9),(21). However, a study done by Bhattacharya H and Barua A, did not find father’s literacy status and adolescent nutrition to have significant relation (10).

Mothers’ education and nutrition of adolescents had positive correlation and was statistically significant. This finding was similar to studies done by Bhattacharya H and Barua A, and Singh SK et al., (10),(21). Unlike present study, Ganga Nagamani N and Krishna veni A, reported no significant effect of mother’s education on adolescents’ nutritional status (11).

Literacy and socio-economic status have a close relation and are interdependent variables in a person’s life. Research has also shown that illiteracy limits knowledge and practices, necessarily not only for self-care, but it also has a negative impact on household health, hygiene and nutrition (22).

So, correlation of socio-economic status of parents with adolescent nutrition was done which was statistically significant and had a strong positive correlation with nutritional status of adolescents. As the socio-economic status of the parents rise, there is less prevalence of undernutrition in the upper class. Similar influence of socio-economic status on nutrition of adolescents has been observed in other studies (9),(23). We would like to suggest that more community level programs may be required in the future to address the nutritional needs of 10-16 years adolescent children (both boys and girls).


A detailed dietary intake of the adolescent children was not included in the study.


Undernutrition remains to be a common problem among early adolescents. Socio-economic class and literacy level of parents play significant role in nutrition of adolescents. Since, much time is spent at school, teachers and other faculty should also be involved to enlighten the children regarding their nutritional status and its importance on health.


WHO. The global strategy for women’s, children’s, and adolescents’ health (2016-30). 2015. Available from: [Accessed on 7 May 2021].
Cynthia M. Holland-Hall. Adolescent Physical and Social Development. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 21st ed, Kliegman et al (eds). Philadelphia Elsevier 2020; pp 1014-1020.
Jain K, Garg SK, Singh JV, Bhatnagar M, Chopra H, Bajpai SK. Reproductive health of adolescent girls in an urban population of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Public Health. 2004;48(4):155-56.
Bundy DAP, de Silva N, Horton S, Patton GC, Schultz L, Jamison DT; Disease Control Priorities-3 Child and Adolescent Health and Development Authors Group. Investment in child and adolescent health and development: Key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd Edition. Lancet. 2018;391(10121):687-99. PMID:29153316.
Mokdad AH, Forouzanfar MH, Daoud F, Mokdad AA, El Bcheraoui C, Moradi-Lakeh M, et al. Global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors for young people’s health during 1990-2013: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2016;387:2383-401. [crossref]
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and ICF. 2021. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5), India, 2019-20: Telangana. Mumbai: IIPS. Accessed from National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5) (
Jenkins S, Horner SD. Barriers that influence eating behaviors in adolescents. J Pediatr Nurs. 2005;20(4):258-67. Doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2005.02.014. PMID: 16030505. [crossref] [PubMed]
Singh SP. Malnutrition among primary school children in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications. 2014;2:36-39.
Choudhary S, Mishra C, Shukla K. Correlates of nutritional status of adolescent girls in the rural area of Varanasi. Internet J Nutr Wellness. 2008;7(2):01-10. [crossref]
Bhattacharyya H, Barua A. Nutritional status and factors affecting nutrition among adolescent girls in urban slums of Dibrugarh, Assam. Natl J Community Med. 2013;4(1):35-39.
Ganga Nagamani N, Krishna veni A. A study on nutritional status among adolescent girls in urban slums of Visakhapatnam City, Andhra Pradesh State. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2015;14(6):24-26.
Mokhtari F, Kazemi A, Ehsanpour S. Effect of educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan in 2016. J Edu Health Promot. 2017;6:103. [crossref] [PubMed]
Deshmukh PR, Gupta SS, Bharambe MS, Dongre AR, Maliye C, Kaur S, et al. Nutritional status of adolescents in rural Wardha. Ind J Pediatr. 2006;73:139-41. [crossref] [PubMed]
The WHO STEP wise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS) World Health Organization, Geneva. For further information: [Accessed 7 May 2021].
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention -Global School-based Student Health Survey. Available from: [Accessed 7 May 2021].
World Health Organization. BMI- for- age (5-19 years). Available from: [Accessed 7 May 2021].
Pandey VK, Aggarwal P, Kakkar R. Modified BG Prasad Socio-economic Classification, Update- 2019. Indian J Comm Health. 2019;31(1):123-25.
Bhattacharya A, Basu M, Chatterjee S, Misra RN, Chowdhury G. Nutritional status and morbidity profile of school-going adolescents in a district of West Bengal. Muller J Med Sci Res. 2015;6:10-15. [crossref]
Bharati DR, Deshmukh PR, Garg BS. Correlates of overweight & obesity among school going children of Wardha city, Central India. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127(6):539-43. PMID: 18765871.
Vohra R, Bhardwaj P, Srivastava JP, Srivastava S, Vohra A. Overweight and obesity among school-going children of Lucknow. J Fam Community Med. 2011;18(2):59-62. [crossref] [PubMed]
Singh SK, Garg G, Davey S, Raghav SK, Muzammil K, Singh JV. Impact of educational status of parents on nutritional status of adolescent girls: A cross-sectional study. Natl J Community Med. 2014:5(3):266-69.
Thengal N. Social and economic consequences of illiteracy. International Journal of Behavioral Social and Movement Sciences. 2013;2(2):124-32.
Deka MK, Malhotra AK, Yadav R, Gupta S. Dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies among urban adolescents. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4:364-68. [crossref] [PubMed]

DOI and Others


Date of Submission: May 20, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Jun 12, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Jul 03, 2021
Date of Publishing: Aug 01, 2021

Author declaration:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Jun 03, 2021
• Manual Googling: Jul 01, 2021
• iThenticate Software: Jul 07, 2021 (13%)

Etymology: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)