Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018




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Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
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Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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C.S. Ramesh Babu,
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Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
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Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

View Point
Year : 2021 | Month : August | Volume : 15 | Issue : 8 | Page : VI01 - VI03 Full Version

The Relevance of Freud in the Modern World


Published: August 1, 2021 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2021/50338.15275
Utpreksha Gaude

1. Research Fellow, Department of Clinical Psychology, Jain (Deemed to be) University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Utpreksha Gaude,
3rd Main, 3rd Cross, Sadashivn Agar, Belgaum-590001, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: utprekshagaude@gmail.com

Abstract

Sigmund Freud has affected generations not only in the field of psychology but also in social scenarios, home life and popular culture. His views and theories have shaped our current concepts ranging from development to therapy. His beliefs, in his time, not only inspired his contemporaries with theirs’ but they also sparked controversies with other intellectuals. Despite being subject to criticism, his ideas have been and are still relevant. The terms introduced by him like the ‘Freudian slip’ and ‘denial’, have been incorporated into the present dictionaries and everyday life. Massively influential, his ideas, theories and his school of thought, psychoanalysis, continue to have a strong impact on psychology as well as psychotherapy even today.

Keywords

Freud’s theory, Pleasure principle, Psychology

A person’s ‘fate’ is a consequence that has been arranged by the same person (1). A fascinating thought that emerged from the brilliant mind of Freud. A mind that caused others’ to warp themselves with unending queries of what is, was and could be. Sigmund Freud is almost synonymous with the term psychology itself in today’s world. Wildly popular was he for his thought-provoking and rather antithetical views that wouldn’t collectively apply to the generation of today. It is under debate if those views even applied in the yesteryears since they were actively opposed by his successor’s themselves (1). But despite all of that, sticking to his guns, Freud trusted himself to be right. He had a staunch personality and was incredibly enigmatic. His grand daughter, Sophie, said that he knew that he was bright and was going to change the world. He was right. He did change the world (2).

Born to a merchant family, Freud was a rather shy youngster. Beginning his career formerly as a neurologist, he was influenced by Jean-Martin Charcot into exploring the ‘mind’ for solutions to psychological disorders rather than the ‘brain’ (3). This led to the birth of his school of thought-Psychoanalysis, where, he emphasised the importance of the unconscious. Psychoanalysis was his brain child. The psychoanalytic approach has held clout over the years but the approach was not without criticism and has been called unscientific, implausible, inconclusive and absurd among other things. His theories were also accused of being unoriginal. According to Menand L., other historians claimed that Freud’s theory of the unconscious was derived from Lamarckism (4). But these claims were unfounded quite like some of Freud’s theories.

SOME OF FREUD’S THEORIES

Among some of his ‘absurd’ albeit whacky theories were the famous Oedipus and Electra Complexes. These were part of his Psychosexual Stages of Development. The Oedipal or Oedipus complex was inspired by the Greek story of Oedipus who was cursed to murder his father and sleep with his mother. Dolloff L explained this as the attachment of a child to the parent of the opposite sex along with feelings of envy and aggression towards the parent of the same sex (5). The Oedipus complex, also explained by Bloom P in simpler terms is when a boy, roughly 3-4 years of age (in the phallic stage of the psychosexual development) realises they are interested in their penis and also that he loves his mother but with the father in the way of the kid’s approach, he would try to eliminate the threat (the father) (6). But the father has a distinct advantage of a penis and threatens back with castration, which is why the kid backs off and moves on into the next stage-the latency stage. When asked about the state for girls in the same age, Freud came up with the Electra complex. It is the female analog of the Oedipus complex (5). It is essentially the same but the reason for the hate for their mother would be ‘penis envy’. He believed girls were envious of the penis of the father and resented that they were more like the mother-sans penis and hated them for the same reason. These ideas seemed far-fetched and couldn’t be verified. Nevertheless, Freud remained their firm advocate of his theories.

While his earlier work and theories were presented as facts that moulded most of the treatment in the early 20th century, his later theories were more of speculations than facts by his own admission. This wasn’t the case with most of his earlier pieces of work like the interpretation of dreams. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle published in 1920, nearly 20 years later, it can be observed that his thoughts had taken a rather different approach than before (7). In the essay-Beyond the Pleasure Principle, he mentions the pleasure principle. The core that drives a human being is pleasures that are often hidden in the unconscious. Instinctual wishes promoted by the ‘Id’ of the psyche, are strong and look for a pleasurable discharge and simultaneously strive to decrease the unpleasurable tension (8). This basically means everything we do is to increase pleasure.

With the inclusion of reality, DeRose T and Ruers J (Episode 1) described the pleasure principle as follows- we don’t necessarily look to satisfy the needs of our senses (9). Rather, our psychical apparatus (the mind) regulates to get rid of the unpleasurable tension by introducing the reality principle. The reality principle works with the ‘Ego’ of the psyche that weighs in on the cravings of the ‘Id’ and either delays or changes the terms of gratification. Now, these were the claims of instincts made by Freud in the start of the essay. Towards the end though, there was an added part that Freud inserted after the publication of the essay. It was reckoning that contradicted the afore mentioned pleasure principle. In that added part, he defined two more instincts that boggle the mind and showcase how unique and out of the world his approaches were. In the part, he stated that we possess a ‘death instinct’ that is inherent and is present in all organic life. It is what propels the organism to go back to an earlier state of things. He surmised that if inanimate objects lived before the living ones, then the aim of all life is death i.e., to go back to the way the things were (inanimate). For this reason he said that living organisms engage willfully in suffering or activities as such because they lead to death, the ultimate goal. “Instinctual life, as a whole, serves to bring about death” (10). Like the death instinct-Thanatos, Freud also coined the paradoxical, ‘Eros’-the life instinct. “The efforts of eros provide a substitute for this instinct towards perfection, whose existence we cannot admit.” This self preservation instinct contrasts the death instinct but exists to make certain that the organism dies of its own choosing. This essentially means that we live to die in the way we want to. It is an extremely convoluted notion and at the same time provides fodder for thought (11).

Similar to that revision, was the revision to his essay-The Theory of Dreams. While formerly he claimed that dreams were but an expression of fulfillment of desire, Freud tried to figure out why traumatic dreams tended to reoccur as they weren’t fulfilling any desires. He then concluded that there is a more archaic function of the dreams than only catering to the pleasure principle. “An exception to the proposition that dreams are the fulfillment of wishes. Anxiety dreams… offer no such exception. Nor do punishment dreams… they arise, rather in obedience to the compulsion to repeat” (10). This could be interpreted as follows-traumatic dreams recur because the anxiety they cause has not been appeased. Thus, according to Freud, the original purpose of dreams is to ‘bind excitations’ or to deal with the anxiety. Only after these excitations are bound, can the dreams move on to fulfill desires. Again, this notion was but a conjecture. “What follows is speculation which the reader will consider or dismiss according to his individual predilection. It is further, an attempt to follow an idea consistently, out of curiosity to see where it will lead” (10). DeRose T and Ruers J poetically likened the idea of speculation that brewed in Freud’s mind to a siren song that seduced him to abandon scientific evidence and leap into the unknown (11). Hence, over the course of his writing, it was noticed that his hypothesis were ideas that needed exploration and that did not seem to please a man even as willful as Freud. He was almost regretful when he penned his letter to Lou Andreas-Solome, where he described himself as a mole tunneling the dark recesses of science to find the bright light of speculation at the end (11). This disharmony with speculation-the tension can be observed across his writing of the ‘Beyond the Pleasure Principle’ says DeRose T and Ruers J (9). So he wasn’t always right, he didn’t like that he could be wrong and his theories were suspicious suppositions that lack scientific backing. Why then do we still credit and give merit to his teachings? Why do people still accept his theories? Freudians stoutly believe that the Freudian theory proves itself by the course of psychoanalysis. As in, they believe that every single claim of the patient can be attributed to an unconscious motive be it hate for the mother or anger at the same hatred. They would also cite clinical experience as a base for their assumptions (11). There is absolutely no scientific attestation. Psychoanalysis has also been said to cure mental illnesses but this also lacks validation since other treatment methods have proven far more useful for treating mental illnesses like anxiety or depression.

According to Bloom P, these theories lack scientific evidence, that they cannot truly be proven right; the reason they stay is because they cannot truly be proven wrong i.e., theories are simply unfalsifiable (6). He quotes the philosopher Karl Popper on falsification. Popper said that scientific data could be proven wrong and if it couldn’t be proven wrong, they aren’t interesting enough to be science. Empirical evidence, thus, serves only to ‘test’ a scientific hypothesis not ‘confirm’ it (7). Despite all of that, the main proposition of Freud that does have certain certifiable merit is the very power of the unconscious mind. Unconscious motivations, according to Freudians, have the monopoly and power to reject the idea that a person knows anything. It is rather similar to being compared to Jon Snow of the Game of Thrones where everyone keeps telling him ‘You know nothing’. Thus, the idea is to reduce oneself to Lord Snow and believe that every single action is caused by something nobody knows, not even Jon. It is caused by something no one is aware of or conscious about because these are desires that are so deep rooted in the unconscious mind that the person is simply unaware. It is dependent on the Id, the Ego and the Superego-the heroes of Freud’s theory of the unconscious mind. The Id is almost animalistic and as afore-mentioned functions on the pleasure principle. Freud termed Id to have ‘polymorphous perversity’. The Ego functions on the reality principle and for Freud, this recognises the origin of consciousness. And lastly, the Superego plays by the morality principle that is basically governed by the internalised rules that are in sense formed by parents and the society. And like the Id, the Superego is also in the unconscious (6).

These unconscious needs and drives are what make our everyday decisions. These are the reasons that Jon could love or hate someone, kill someone he loves or save his enemy, forget certain things and remember other things when he isn’t supposed to and ultimately simply not know why he feels that way. When asked why, he would be stumped. Why Jon, it happens to everyone. And this happens because the motives or drives are so deeply embedded in the unconscious mind that only deep digging and will get us to the bottom. And that precisely is what forms the basis of psychoanalysis. Freud’s insight about the unconscious mind and its dynamic power over our likes and dislikes has empirical support from social psychology (12). Gerson MJ says, psychoanalysis aids in discovering the phenomenology of the person and offer a comprehensive understanding of the mind (13).

Conclusion

In view of the above discussed literature, psychoanalysis, Psychoanalysis, thus, does deserve value. Despite the fact that a Nobel Prize winning biologist called the psychoanalytical theory, “the most stupendous intellectual confidential trick”-A mere trick, well, it is the trick that seemed to and still seems to work for some. Most psychologists today would use Freud and his theories more as a reference rather than a therapy modality but they wouldn’t deny the importance of exploration of the psyche of the patient or client. Ergo, Freud’s uncanny presence is not that easy to get rid of. He is here to stay.

References

1.
Freud S. Sigmund Freud Quotes about Fate: A-Z Quotes. Sigmund Freud Quotes about Fate. Available from: https://www.azquotes.com/author/5164-Sigmund_Freud/tag/fate (Accessed on April 26, 2021).
2.
Gruben D. Young Dr. Freud. [Film] PBS. Available from: https://www.pbs.org/ youngdrfreud/pages/perspectives_religion.htm 2020 (Accessed on April 26, 2021).
3.
Jay ME. Sigmund Freud. Encyclopædia Britannica. Available from: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sigmund-Freud 2020 (Accessed on April 31, 2021).
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Menand L.Why Freud Survives. The New Yorker. Available from: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/08/28/why-freud-survives (Accessed on April 26, 2021).
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Dolloff L.Oedipus Complex. Available from: http://www.uvm.edu/~jbailly/ courses/tragedy/student%20second%20documents/Oedipus%20Complex.html 2017 (Accessed on April 26, 2021).
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Bloom P. Psychology - Video: 03 - Foundations: Freud on Apple Podcasts. Apple Podcasts. Available from: https://podcasts.apple.com/in/podcast/psychology-video/ id341652575?i=1000063753195;2009 (Accessed on April 26, 2021).
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Benham B, Shimp C. Falsification in social science method and theory. Encyclopedia of Social Measurement. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123693985000189;2005 (Accessed on April 26, 2021). [crossref]
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Sugarman A, DePottel C. Unconscious, The Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123430100002324;2003 (Accessed on April 30, 2021).
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DeRose T, Ruers J. Freud Museum London: Psychoanalysis Podcasts: Freud in Focus: Episode 1 on Apple Podcasts. Apple Podcasts. Available from: https://podcasts.apple.com/in/podcast/freud-museum-london-psychoanalysis-podcasts/id1469032802?i=1000509506547;2021 (Accessed on April 30, 2021).
10.
Freud S. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. In J. Stratchey (Ed.), Beyond The Pleasure Principle (5th ed., pp. 18-35). Essay, W. W. Norton & Company. Available from: http://xenopraxis.net/readings/freud_beyondthepleasureprinciple.pdf;1961 (Accessed on April 26, 2021).
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DeRose T, Ruers J. Freud Museum London: Psychoanalysis Podcasts: Freud in Focus: Episode 2 on Apple Podcasts. Apple Podcasts. Available from: https://podcasts.apple.com/in/podcast/freud-museum-london-psychoanalysis-podcasts/id1469032802?i=1000511415404;2021(Accessed on April 26, 2021).
12.
Branchereau G. Freud and the Nobel trauma. The Jakarta Post. Available from: https://www.thejakartapost.com/life/2017/09/30/freud-and-the-nobel-trauma.html;2017 (Accessed on April 26, 2021).
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DOI and Others

10.7860/JCDR/2021/50338.15275

Date of Submission: May 13, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Jun 16, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Jul 02, 2021
Date of Publishing: Aug 01, 2021

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? No
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? NA
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: May 14, 2021
• Manual Googling: Jun 28, 2021
• iThenticate Software: Jul 30, 2021 (4%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com