Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : June | Volume : 16 | Issue : 6 | Page : CC01 - CC05 Full Version

Fear of COVID-19 among Staff Nurse Working in Tertiary Care Hospital, Erode, Tamil Nadu: A Cross-sectional Study


Published: June 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/51196.16431
Sasikala Gunasekaran, V Praveen, K Maheswari, Panneerselvam Periasamy, Arumugam Chandrabose, A Purnasingh

1. Nursing Research Scholar, Department of Nursing, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of General Medicine, Government Erode Medical College and Hospital Perundurai, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India. 3. Principal and Professor, Department of Nursing, Vinayaka Mission’s Research Foundation, Annapoorana College of Nursing, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. 4. Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Government Erode Medical College, Perundurai, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India. 5. Professor and Head, Department of Physiology, Government Erode Medical College, Perundurai, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India. 6. Professor, Department of Physiology, Saint James of Medical School, Anguilla, British West Indies.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. A Purnasingh,
Professor, Department of Physiology, Saint James of Medical School, Anguilla, British West Indies.
E-mail: chatnychatny@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: The new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put a strain on healthcare workers, and the virus offers major personal and professional threats. Mental health has been affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, causing them to be fear of becoming sick. During the COVID-19 pandemic, health care professionals have been psychologically impacted including fear, anxiety, and depression.

Aim: To determine the level of COVID-19 fear among hospital nurses in tertiary hospital care hospital, Erode dristrict, Tamil Nadu.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey study was conducted among employees of Government Erode Medical College Hospital and nearby Hospitals in Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India, from July 2020 to August 2020, to evaluated the fear of COVID-19 using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). It used a self-administered questionnaire (online Google form survey). It consisted of two parts, first was socio-demographic details and second was fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). The inclusion criteria of participants were all staff nurses working in COVID-19 ward, for minimum of three months in Erode district and willingness to participate. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) F-test and student Independent t-test analysis was performed to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and fear levels.

Results: The study included a total of 277 staff nurses. The participant’s mean age was 32.25±6.45 years, with females accounting for 93.5% of the total. The scale's internal reliability was excellent, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.902. Overall, the mean COVID-19 fear score was (59.3%) 20.8 out of 35. The maximum fear score was for the statement "I am most afraid of Corona" (65%) and the minimum fear score was for "I cannot sleep because I am worried about getting Corona" (51.8%). Fear levels were higher in females (p-value=0.02), overweight people (p-value=0.001), those living in joint families (p-value=0.01), married individuals (p-value=0.03), participants with two children (p-value=0.001), and Primary Healthcare Center (PHC) staff (p-value=0.001).

Conclusion: The survey found a high level of fear in staff nurses who work in COVID-19 wards. Steps must be taken to preserve their health, by providing adequate resources to relieve their worries and anxiety, enabling them to carry out their frontline duties in the face of the COVID-19 epidemic.

Keywords

Anxieties, Coronavirus disease, Fear, Health care workers, Mental health

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the potential of mortality it poses, have caused widespread concern among Healthcare Workers (HCWs) and their families throughout the world. A pandemic alters a community's whole environment, causing psychological concerns such as stigmatisation, fear, and prejudice, which are exacerbated due to a lack of complete and reliable data for the total population (1). Controlling the public reaction, the pandemic-induced panic is one of the most difficulties in dealing with the pandemic due to, as previous SARS and Ebola epidemics have shown, anxiety worsens the disease’s effects (2).

Fear can be described as an adaptive response to the environment is a defence mechanism designed to improve the chance of survival (3). Fear, on the other hand, can be maladaptive if it is not adequately tuned to the real threat. Fear might be triggered by novelty, such as a pandemic, which adds uncertainty to a familiar environment. When a person’s fear is excessive, it can have negative consequences on both an individual and societal level (like, mental health issues like phobia and social anxiety) (like, panic shopping or xenophobia). Insufficient fear, on the other hand, has the potential to harm individuals and society. by ignoring government actions to restrict the coronavirus spread or implementing irresponsible policies which are overlook the hazards (4),(5),(6). As the COVID-19 epidemic grows, so does the level of dread and concern (7).

The whole people are affected by the pandemic’s fear, forced confinement, and stress. But, as previously indicated, health professionals on the front lines of care also have challenges. An increase in the number of confirmed cases, combined with long working hours, isolation of health personnel from their families and loved ones, and the fear of contagion, could translate into a high frequency of depression, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, anxiety, substance abuse, and labour burnout (8),(9),(10),(11).

A study from China found that half of HCWs believed they had little control over being infected whether they followed or maintained infection prevention strategies. During the SARS outbreak, high stress, tremendous workload, and abrupt changes in regular medical procedures made it hard for many HCWs to properly adopt preventative practises, despite understanding their purpose and the potential harm of not doing so (12). Medical researchers throughout the world have established measures to quantify the impact of the present situation and its emotional ramifications using measures that focus on the stress response and dread (13).

The emergence of COVID-19 has significantly impacted the psychological and mental well-being of frontline HCWs, including nurses. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection spreading from person to person, as well as the presence of infected asymptomatic persons, are significant sources of concern and fear among HCWs (14). Studies found that mental disturbances were more common in nurses compared to the physicians (15). Nurses in SARS-affected hospitals showed more distress than other hospital workforce (15). Nurses are the largest occupational groups that directly and intensively are in constant contact with their patients. Working in high-risk departments was another main reason of poor mental health in these studies. Being at the high-risk of contagion in such environments will increase the psychological problems, including fear, anxiety, stress (16). The HCWs had three times the rate of psychiatric morbidity as the general public as a result of SARS, at 75.3% and 24%, respectively (17).

This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and predictors of the level of fear of COVID-19 in hospital staff nurse working in tertiary hospital in Erode district, Tamil Nadu due to the outbreak of COVID-19.

Material and Methods

This cross-sectional survey study was conducted among employees of Government Erode Medical College Hospital and nearby Hospitals in Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India, from July 2020 to August 2020, to evaluated the fear of COVID-19 using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Ethical clearance was obtained from the Government Erode Medical College and Hospital, Perundurai, Erode, Institutional Ethics Committee (Ref No-IEC/001/GEMC& H/2020. Dated: 31.07.2020).

Sample size calculation: Using Epi info software version 5.4.1, 50% prevalence, a 4% margin of error, and a 95% confidence level were used to establish the sample size. The study requires a minimum sample size of 220 people (19). The modest predicted effect size was set in order a high sample size was used to find meaningful correlations between variables.

Inclusion criteria: All staff nurses working in COVID-19 ward for minimum of three months in Erode district and willingness to participate were included in the study.

Exclusion criteria: Staff who were non willing to participate in study, incomplete surveys and the other than staff nurse healthcare workers were excluded from the study.

Each of the seven items on the FVC-19S has, options of a five-point Likert scale and highest possible total score is 35, the maximum the Fear of COVID-19 among participants (18).

A total of 277 participants were surveyed during July 2020 to August 2020. Prior to completing the survey form, study research participants gave their written digital permission. Participants gave their consent by ticking the designated box. The study did not gather personal identifiers such as names. The participants were employees of Government Erode Medical College Hospital and nearby Hospitals in Erode district. These hospitals were contacted because they were the largest hospital that had been converted to exclusive COVID-19 dedicated hospital in Erode.

Procedure

Nurses working in COVID-19 wards were identified by reviewing their profiles in the nursing offices of the hospitals. After explaining the study objectives and acquiring permission from hospital in charge, online Google form survey questionnaires were distributed to staff nurses and asked to take part in this study during their off-times.

Online google form survey questionnaires were distributed to staff nurses for an online poll (e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter). About 300 staff nurse were approached, and 277 staff nurse took part in the survey. Only those who consented to the online consent were allowed to participate in the study. All participants were guaranteed anonymity and confidentiality of their data. The scale’s internal reliability was excellent, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.902.

Statistical Analysis

One-away Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) F-test and student Independent t-test were used to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and fear levels. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics and FCV-19S. The data was represented using a box plot chart. Two-tailed tests were employed for significance testing, with a p-value <0.05 being statistically significant. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 and STATA (version 12) software were used for statistical analysis.

Results

A total of 277 staff nurses (259 females, 93.5%; 18 males, 6.5%) with a mean age of 32.3 ± 6.5 years participated in the study (male mean age was 31.4 ± 6.6, female mean age was 32.3± 6.6). Many staff nurses working in COVID-19 wards were contract Medical Services Recruitment Board (MRB)/Adhoc staff nurse (69.3%), most of them having total professional experiences between 1-5 years (40%). Majority of staff nurses were working at Outpatient Department for screening COVID-19 (58.8%) (Table/Fig 1). The study reported, prevalence of fear of COVID-19 was 21.2 % among 277 healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak.

Out of total, 79 (28.5%) of staff nurse agreed that thinking about COVID-19 made them uncomfortable, 57 (20.6%) of staff nurses disagreed that they feared losing their life to COVID-19 and 91 (32.9%) of staff nurses strongly disagreed of being unable to sleep due to fear of COVID-19 (Table/Fig 2).

(Table/Fig 3) shows overall mean COVID-19 fear score was 20.8 (59.3%) out of 35. 65% of staff nurses were afraid of COVID-19 and 51.8% being unable to sleep due to worrying about getting COVID-19.

(Table/Fig 4) reveals the association between fear of COVID-19 score with demographic details. Significant association was found between COVID-19 fear and being a female, overweight, having a joint family, married, having two children and staff nurses working at Primary Healthcare (PHC).

Discussion

The study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of the level of fear of COVID-19 in hospital staff nurse working during the outbreak of COVID-19. Although the impact of the epidemic on hospital staff’s mental health should not be overlooked, few authors have addressed this on public health and the mental health of healthcare workers.

Study by Cornelio S et al., showed that nurses, who are a vital component of the COVID-19 epidemic, experience varying degrees of stress and anxiety due to a variety of factors (20). Another research on anxiety and depression among Nepalese healthcare professionals found that 38% of healthcare workers in the COVID-19 environment were anxious or depressed (21). According to a research done in India during the swine flu outbreak, 98.5% of health workers had mild anxiety (Beck's Anxiety Inventory) (22). COVID-19 has caused substantial mental health difficulties among Indian doctors, according to recent studies (23),(24),(25). Another study found 52.8% of the healthcare workers in India had COVID-19 pandemic-related burnout (26). According to another research, the epidemic has caused stress and sleeplessness in 73.9% and 30% of dermatologists in India, respectively (27). Online survey in May 2020 by Soraci P et al., in Italy, one of the most affected countries, administered the Italian versions of the FCV-19S, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Severity Measure for Specific Phobia-Adult (SMSP-A) to 249 participants (28).

Reznik A et al., applied the FCV-19S to a sample of 850 participants from Russia and Belarus. The reported mean fear score was lower than in the present study sample (17.2 vs. 20.8). These findings are preliminary, based on data collected at one moment in time in two nations at separate times when government actions to COVID-19 varies, as does the nature of public communication about the condition. Therefore, caution should be exercised regarding comparisons and conclusions about COVID-19 fear and its impact. But both studies reported higher levels of fear in female than in male participants (29).

As far author’s knowledge and literature survey, the FCV-19 scale was not used in any of research studies in Tamil Nadu. This study also analysed the association between level of fear of COVID-19 and predictors like, marital status, number of children, current residency, family type, and terror levels.

Due to the general lack of planning, infrastructure, and personal protective equipment, Healthcare Workers (HCW) are projected to experience a significant level of stress during the COVID-19 crisis (10),(30),(31). In China and Taiwan, the stress of the epidemic resulted in work desertion and a staff shortage in several hospitals in 2003. Many HCWs chose to stay away from their homes in order to avoid infecting their relatives, their spouse and children, family members and some HCWs are forced to stay away from family members (32),(33).

Nursing workers had the highest COVID-19 fear levels, as predicted, given their job as principal front-line employees, which entails direct involvement with patients in a variety of activities and settings. However, in some studies, the fear severity was lower in the general population than in the present study sample. This might be due to the fact that healthcare workers are exposed to COVID-19 patients on a regular basis, but the general public have limited exposure to infection. Despite this, the medical and nursing personnel sample scored well on the FCV-19S. This might be attributable to a high COVID-19 prevalence in the Erode district of Tamil Nadu during the study period (35).

Many external factors have exacerbated an already stressful mental health condition for hospital employees; staff nurses have had to deal with not just the dread of contracting a disease or infecting their family and loved ones, but also with conflicts with the general public. Physical and verbal attacks on health care workers have also been recorded, including the confiscation of disinfectants and the denial of a rental home.

Techniques for overcoming anxiety in such situations include appealing to altruism, emphasising a feeling of civic responsibility, encouraging co-workers to support one another, and advising those with a low fear threshold to seek accessible mental health treatment.

There were no additional scales employed alongside the FCV-19S to build the validity of the scale in the sample, and the sample size was limited, necessitating the employment of a large group of participants. The study was carried out at a few hospitals in and around the Erode district and other parts of Tamil Nadu. Because the study was conducted on hospital employees, the findings cannot be extended to the broader community because each group’s core features are essentially different. There is no other research that used this scale to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 fear among healthcare practitioners. This is a strength of the study, as it might pave way for future research on how hospital staff fear changes in reaction to pandemic changes, as well as the creation of coping and preventative methods to keep healthcare workers physically and emotionally fit. More research with the FCV-19S and other scales might improve the scale’s validity.

With the COVID-19 epidemic, fear is all too frequent. HCWs are not immune to anxiety and panic, and in fact, they may experience higher levels of dread than the general population (35). To further reduce the transmission of infection, we must address the psychological effects of COVID-19. We must remember that fear is a reaction, and that we must have the guts to trust verified infection prevention measures to deliver the best level of care in the safest environment possible for as long as possible.

Limitation(s)

This study has a small sample size. The majority of the participants were female nurses. The experiences of other healthcare workers, besides nurses, need to be further explored. The study was conducted in only one district. Furthermore, this was a brief research. Long-term experience with study participants might be an interesting path to pursue in the future.

Conclusion

Despite the fact that the study participant’s fear levels were higher, there is a need for strategies to reduce or alleviate fear of COVID-19 among staff nurse. The findings of the study suggest that nurses had considerably greater levels of dread, which might be explained by the fact that they are in closer contact with sick patients.

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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/51196.16431

Date of Submission: Jul 03, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Aug 03, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Apr 18, 2022
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2022

Author declaration:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Jul 05, 2021
• Manual Googling: Mar 25, 2022
• iThenticate Software: May 20, 2022 (19%)

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