Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 32900

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2022 | Month : June | Volume : 16 | Issue : 6 | Page : DD01 - DD03 Full Version

A Rare Case Report of Pythium Insidiosum Keratitis in an Immunocompetent Patient


Published: June 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/55437.16516
Beena, Rama Soujanya Betu

1. Professor, Department of Microbiology, M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. 2. Postgraduate cum Tutor, Department of Microbiology, M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Rama Soujanya Betu,
Postgraduate cum Tutor, Department of Microbiology, M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: brsoujanya@gmail.com

Abstract

Corneal ulcers are one of the major causes of monocular blindness after cataracts in developing nations and have a varied aetiology. One of the emerging causes of corneal ulcers closely resembling fungi in its morphology is the Pythium insidiosum which is known to infect a variety of animals, but in humans, only a few cases have been reported causing ocular, cutaneous/subcutaneous, vascular, and disseminated infections. This was a case of a 29-year-old male, non agriculturist by occupation who presented to the Ophthalmology Outpatient Department with a history of diminution of vision, redness and watering of the left eye in the last 5 days. On further investigations, he was diagnosed to have a corneal ulcer with P.insidiosum being the aetiological agent. The patient was managed surgically by penetrating keratoplasty and medically by combination therapy consisting of moxifloxacin eyedrops every 4th hour, voriconazole eye drops 2 hourly, natamycin eye drops 2nd hourly, oral fluconazole 150 mg thrice daily for 1 week.

Keywords

Corneal ulcer, Fungus-like organism, Keratitis, Parasitic oomycete

Case Report

A 29-year-old male who was a non agriculturist by occupation presented to the Ophthalmology Outpatient Department with a history of diminution of vision, redness and watering of the left eye in the last 5 days. On ophthalmic examination, his visual acuity in the right eye was 6/18 and his left eye had the Perception of Light (PL) +Projection of Rays (PR) accurate. Examination of left eye anterior segment showed haziness of corneal stroma with central corneal ulcer measuring 6×7 mm. Corneal vascularization present from 4 O' clock to 7 O' clock position with 2 mm hypopyon.

There was no significant past or family history. The patient’s total leucocyte count was 11,800 cells/mm3, and his Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was 34 mm/1st hr.

Corneal scrapings from the ulcer were sent to the microbiology lab for gram stain, aerobic culture and antibiotic susceptibility test, Potassium Hydroxide wet mount (KOH mount), and fungal culture after which the patient was started empirically on moxifloxacin 0.5% eyedrops w/v every 4th hourly, voriconazole 1% w/v eyedrops every 2nd hourly. In direct microscopy with a 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount the sample showed hyaline, aseptate hyphae (Table/Fig 1). Gram stain showed occasional White Blood Cells (WBC) with fungal hyphae (Table/Fig 2). The corneal scrapings were inoculated on a blood agar plate and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA).

Blood agar plate showed two types of colonies:

• Colony 1: A flat grey-white colony identified as Methicillin sensitive Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (MSCoNS) sensitive to vancomycin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, cloxacillin, and doxycycline.
• Colony 2: Light grey feathery, partially submerged colonies that could not be scraped or picked.

On SDA it was flat, colorless to light brown leathery growth which was identified by slide culture as P.insidiosum with lactophenol cotton blue and later confirmed by the molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction) (Table/Fig 3)a, (Table/Fig 3)b.

The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty under local anaesthesia following which the topical medications were continued.The patient was administered a combination therapy consisting of moxifloxacin eyedrops every 4th hour, voriconazole eye drops 2 hourly, natamycin eye drops 2nd hourly, oral fluconazole 150 mg thrice daily for 1 week. The patient advised for a weekly follow-up but patient was lost to follow-up.

Discussion

The aetiology of corneal ulcers differs in different geographical areas with bacterial etiology most commonly reported from North America, Australia, Netherlands, and Singapore and that of fungal corneal ulcers (Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scedosporium apiospermum, phaeohyphpmycetes, Candida albicans, and other Candida species) from India and Nepal because of warmer, humid parts of the country. Fungal aetiologies account for only 5% to 10% of all corneal infections most often precipitated by trauma to the cornea with subsequent exposure to plant or vegetable material (1),(2).

Keratitis caused by a parasitic aquatic oomycete Pythium resembling fungal keratitis is also known as “parafungus” or “fungus-like organism” occurs in two forms which are an infective form of biflagellate zoospore in aquatic agricultural surroundings and a hyphal form in the ulcer belongs to phylum Straminipila. However, the literature on incidence and prevalence of Pythium keratitis are very few due to the organism either being very rarely isolated or misdiagnosed as fungus and difficult to treat due to its poor response to conventional antifungal medication and surgical procedures such as penetrating keratoplasty. In 1884, the first case of systemic Pythiosis was reported by British veterinarians (3).

Its prevalence is high in tropical, subtropical, and temperate conditions due to its aquatic habitat and is more commonly seen in males, particularly field workers, and in this present case, the patient was not a field worker (4). Thailand has recorded the most ocular pythiosis cases, however recently in 2015, India has been highlighted due to the nine reported cases (5).

However, in the recent past, we have noted an increase in the number of keratitis cases as observed by studies done by Sharma S et al., reported a total of 11 cases , Hasika R et al., in South India who reported 71 patients with microbiologically proven Pythium keratitis in 22 months durations and Agrawal S et al., who reported 10 patients over 18 month’s period (4),(6),(7). A recent study done by Vishwakarma P et al., in Eastern India with a study period of 36 months had reported 18 patients (1.4%) to be culture positive for Pythium among 1251 patients who were diagnosed to have keratitis (8).

It has been reported that Pythium keratitis is caused by exposure to aquatic agricultural surroundings where it is in the infective form of the biflagellate zoospore (6). However, non agricultural exposure like a contact lens or exposure to dust particles is also documented to be the risk factor for Pythium keratitis (9).

In the present study, the patient was a non agriculturist and similar case presentations of non agricultural workers were seen in other studies like Gurnani B et al., 16 (53.3%), Agarwal S et al., where 40 patients and Bagga B et al., reported 36% of cases had no history of injury (3),(10),(11).

The laboratory evaluation of this infection depends on examination of corneal scrapings in 10% KOH mount (appear as septate or aseptate hyphae with perpendicular or obtuse lateral branching). Apart from knowledge of the typical growth patterns on media like blood agar, chocolate agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar prompt diagnosis by zoospore formation by leaf incarnation method can also be done (9). Molecular methods of diagnosing include Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), based on the amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, ribosomal Intergenic Spacer region (IGS), and gene Cytochrome Oxidase (COX2) (12).

In the present study, a molecular method like PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis. A study done by Sharma S et al., identified thirteen Pythium keratitis using molecular methods (4). Salipante SJ et al., had reported a case of subcutaneous Pythium insidiosum infection using molecular methods (PCR screening and Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing) (13).

Earlier, 1st line of treatment was antifungals in the form of 5% natamycin suspension hourly, 1% voriconazole, or 1% itraconazole hourly were considered as Pythium was considered as fungal etiology. But now, topical antibacterials most commonly 0.2% linezolid and 1% azithromycin hourly along with early therapeutic keratoplasty with a good 1 mm margin clearance shows a good response (9). In this case, the patient was administered a combination therapy consisting of moxifloxacin eye drops every 4th hour, voriconazole eye drops 2 hourly, natamycin eye drops 2 hourly, oral fluconazole 150 mg thrice daily. However, lost the patient to follow-up.

Conclusion

The infection may not be as rare as previously thought as it is usually misdiagnosed as fungal keratitis or unrecognized due to a lack of knowledge of the organism. Knowledge and awareness are required about P. insidiosum as it could be confused as one of the zygomycetes due to its aseptate hyphal elements. A detailed clinical history regarding risk factors and exposure, along with a thorough slit lamp examination with fluorescein dye will also aid in the proper diagnosis of the organism.

Acknowledgement

Authors would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Anupma Jyoti Kindo, Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Porur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, for helping us in confirming the organism Pythium insidiosum by molecular method.

References

1.
Suwal S, Bhandari D, Thapa P, Shrestha MK, Amatya J. Microbiological profile of corneal ulcer cases diagnosed in a tertiary care ophthalmological institute in Nepal. BMC ophthalmology. 2016;16(1):01-06. [crossref] [PubMed]
2.
Virgile R, Perry HD, Pardanani B, Szabo K, Rahn EK, Stone J, et al. Human infectious corneal ulcer caused by Pythium insidiosum. Cornea. 1993;12(1):81-83. [crossref] [PubMed]
3.
Gurnani B, Christy J, Narayana S, Rajkumar P, Kaur K, Gubert J. Retrospective multifactorial analysis of Pythium keratitis and review of literature. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2021;69(5):1095. [crossref] [PubMed]
4.
Sharma S, Balne PK, Motukupally SR, Das S, Garg P, Sahu SK, et al. Pythium insidiosum keratitis: Clinical profile and role of DNA sequencing and zoospore formation in diagnosis. Cornea. 2015;34(4):438-42. Doi: 10.1097/ ICO.0000000000000349. PMID: 25738236. [crossref] [PubMed]
5.
He H, Liu H, Chen X, Wu J, He M, Zhong X. Diagnosis and treatment of Pythium insidiosum corneal ulcer in a Chinese child: A case report and literature review. Am J Case Rep. 2016;17:982. [crossref] [PubMed]
6.
Hasika R, Lalitha P, Radhakrishnan N, Rameshkumar G, Prajna NV, Srinivasan M. Pythium keratitis in South India: Incidence, clinical profile, management, and treatment recommendation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019;67(1):42. Doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO_445_18. PMID: 30574890. PMCID: PMC6324135. [crossref] [PubMed]
7.
Agarwal S, Iyer G, Srinivasan B, Agarwal M, Kumar SP, Therese LK. Clinical profile of pythium keratitis: Perioperative measures to reduce risk of recurrence. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018;102(2):153-57. [crossref] [PubMed]
8.
Vishwakarma P, Mohanty A, Kaur A, Das S, Priyadarshini SR, Mitra S, et al. Pythium keratitis: Clinical profile, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and histopathology features post-treatment at a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India. Indian journal of ophthalmology. 2021;69(6):1544. [crossref] [PubMed]
9.
Gurnani B, Kaur K. Pythium Keratitis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK573072/. [Updated 2021 Dec 20].
10.
Agarwal S, Iyer G, Srinivasan B, Benurwar S, Agarwal M, Narayanan N, et al. Clinical profile, risk factors and outcome of medical, surgical and adjunct interventions in patients with Pythium insidiosum keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2019;103(3):296-300. [crossref] [PubMed]
11.
Bagga B, Sharma S, Guda SJ, Nagpal R, Joseph J, Manjulatha K, et al. Leap forward in the treatment of Pythium insidiosum keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2018;102(12):1629-33. [crossref] [PubMed]
12.
Kulandai LT, Lakshmipathy D, Sargunam J. Novel duplex polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of Pythium insidiosum directly from corneal specimens of patients with ocular pythiosis. Cornea. 2020;39(6):775-78. [crossref] [PubMed]
13.
Salipante SJ, Hoogestraat DR, SenGupta DJ, Murphey D, Panayides K, Hamilton E, et al. Molecular diagnosis of subcutaneous Pythium insidiosum infection by use of PCR screening and DNA sequencing. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2012;50(4):1480-83. [crossref] [PubMed]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/55437.16516

Date of Submission: Feb 03, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Mar 05, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Apr 25, 2022
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Feb 08, 2022
• Manual Googling: Mar 04, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Apr 23, 2022 (15%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com