Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Reviews
Year : 2022 | Month : June | Volume : 16 | Issue : 6 | Page : LE01 - LE06 Full Version

Effect of Mindfulness-based Intervention on the Treatment of Women’s Sexual Dysfunction: A Literature Scoping Review


Published: June 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/54896.16463
Fatemeh Alahverdi, Naghmeh Shahbaztabari, Reza Dehghan Nayeri, Shaghayegh Dehghan Nayeri

1. Masters, Department of Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 2. Masters, Department of Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 3. Masters, Department of General Psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Alborz, Iran. 4. Masters, Department of Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Shaghayegh Dehghan Nayeri,
Masters, Department of Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
E-mail: Shaghayeghdehghannayeri@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: The significance and role of sexual function in quality of life is an undeniable fact that should be taken into account in the care provided for individuals. The use of modern non pharmacological methods in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, especially in women, is required to be investigated.

Aim: To review the effect of mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of women’s sexual dysfunction in the previous studies.

Materials and Methods: This literature scoping review was conducted on all observational and experimental studies published in Persian and English languages, from 2008 to 2021.The databases that were searched for relevant studies were Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus. The keywords used for the search included, mindfulness, mindfulness-based interventions, sexual dysfunction, women. Data related to the study year of publication, place, type of study, sample population, and the effect of mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of women’s sexual dysfunction were recorded.

Results: A total of 742 studies were found, of which 23 studies were extracted. Among the reviewed articles, five articles (21.74%) are published in Persian and 18 articles (78.26%) in English. In total, 22 articles confirmed positive effects and one article found no effects on mindfulness-based interventions in improving sexual function in women suffering sexual dysfunction.

Conclusion: Mindfulness-based interventions, though it is implemented based on different approaches (stress reduction, cognitive-behavioral and sex therapy), are effective in treating all types of sexual dysfunction in women.

Keywords

Female, Quality of life, Sexual function, Sexual problems, Sexual desire, Sexual arousal

Sexual health is recognized as an important component of human rights in the international community and every human being has the right to achieve the highest level of sexual health (1). Most of the diseases and disorders around the world are caused by failing to give due attentionto sexual health (2). Sexual health is sometimes disordered for various reasons such as fertility and childbirth (3), menopause (4), suffering from special diseases (5), sexual function of couples and especially women, which is reported to be 40-45% (6). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), a person’s sexual dysfunction is a feeling of extreme discomfort and individual stress for at least six months (7), which is divided into three categories: sexual activity, sexual boredom, and sexual abnormalities (8). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction among Iranian women varies in different societies and has been reported between 39-66% (9).Given the direct effect of sexual satisfaction on the quality of life of individuals, it is very important to give due attention to this issueas the persistence of sexual dysfunction is followed bynumerous complications (10).

One of the interventions that has been conducted to help reduce sexual dysfunction is mindfulness-based interventions (11). Mindfulness is described as awareness by paying attention to the goal in the present moment without having any judgment and prejudice, which is accompanied by accepting the experiences, admitting them, and living the moments (12). At different mental states, the mindful individual is aware of himself/herself at every moment and focuses his/her attention on various mental states (13). Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a therapeutic approach based on a theory that has been developed by Teasdale, Segal and Williams based on the Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) model developed by Kabat-Zinn by adding the principles of cognitive therapy, with the aim of replacing negative emotions with pleasant ones (14). This treatment includes a combination of mindfulness meditation training and cognitive therapy interventions. During mindfulness exercises, self-regulatory abilities are taught through exercises focusing on internal attention such as breathing awareness, or focusing on external objects such as sounds, both of which focus on present experiences (15). Mindfulness exercises can lead to an immediate shift of attention from unrelated worrying thoughts in the present moment (16). The MBSR intervention has been used to reduce depression, anxiety, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and autoimmune disorders (17).

Ashiri et al. (2015) showed that this treatment significantly increases women’s marital satisfaction (18). Despite the effectiveness and importance of mindfulness in some studies, there are researchers who reported contradictory findings (19),(20). It is argued that there are biological, behavioral, and psychosocial mechanisms for sexual dysfunction, and therefore, there is a need to develop integrated therapies that can effectively treat people with mental and physical illnesses (21).

To this end, finding a simple, effective, cheap, and uncomplicated non pharmacological midwifery intervention that can have biological, behavioral, and psychosocial effects is of great importance. Since sexual function has a significant impact on married life and the quality of life and given the lack of evidence about the positive effects of mindfulness on sexual dysfunction, this study aimed to review published articles on mindfulness-based interventions and their impact on sexual dysfunction in women.

Material and Methods

This literature scoping review was conducted in Iran University of Medical Sciences from August 2021 to October 2021.

Inclusion criteria: All observational and experimental studies, published in Persian and English languages, published between 2008 to 2021.

Exclusion criteria: All qualitative studies, systematic review, meta-analysis, full text not available were excluded from the study. Also the articles published before 2008, as interested year of study in the EndNote software were excluded.

Keywords related to mindfulness and sexual function were combined based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) using Boolean operators (Table/Fig 1). This search strategy for Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) databases was translated to fit the characteristics of each database. To triangulate the data, Google Scholar was also searched using single words or a few multiple words.

Procedure

As many as 742 articles were found in the initial search. After removing duplicates and considering the inclusion criteria for the titles, only 97 studies remained and their abstracts were reviewed. Later 61 articles were excluded. In the next stage, the full text of 36 articles were reviewed and 5 articles were deleted due to lack of access to the full text of the article and 8 articles were deleted as they were irrelevant to the title and purpose; a total of 23 articles remained (Table/Fig 2).

Results

Among the reviewed articles, five articles (21.74%) are published in Persian (11),(13),(22),(23),(24) and 18 (78.26%) in English (20),(25),(26),(27),(28),(29),(30),(31),(32),(33),(34),(35),(36),(37),(38),(39),(40),(41). Regarding the places of the studies, as for the Iranian studies, five had been conducted in Tehran, two in Isfahan and one study each in Bushehr, Yasuj, Karaj, Qazvin, Ahvaz and Yazd. As for the remaining studies, three studies were conducted in the United States, three in Colombia, three in Canada and one in Portugal. Twenty-one articles were original interventional studies, while two were descriptive (13),(36). A review of intervention studies extracted indicated that a total of 12 articles were randomized clinical trials and nine articles were quasi-experimental studies.The sample size in the intervention studies varied from 20 patients (37) to 660 individuals (30). The number of groups was two in 13 studies (11),(22),(23),(24),(25),(27),(28),(29),(30),(32),(33),(34),(35),(37),(38),(40), three in five studies (20),(26),(28),(30),(39), and one in three studies (34),(35),(41). The number of sessions for mindfulness-based programs in most studies (12 studies) were eight. The lowest number of sessions was three (33),(38),(41).The highest number of sessions was 12 (39).

The duration of each session varied from one hour (41) to two hours (26). However, in most studies (14 studies), the session lasted for 90 minutes (20),(22),(23),(24),(28),(30),(31),(32),(33),(34),(35),(37),(38),(40). The target group was women with cancer in four studies (27),(31),(38),(41), women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in two studies (20),(25), women with vaginal disorders (26), women with drug abuse in one study (22), women with epilepsy in one study (30), women with recurrent miscarriage (22). As many as eight studies considered the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on the total sexual dysfunction (11),(13),(22),(23),(24),(28),(29),(41). Other types of variables that were investigated included sexual satisfaction, sexual self-efficacy, sexual desire, sexual response, and sexual support and arousal. The role of mindfulness-based interventions was investigated in 18 studies (11),(13),(22),(25),(26),(27),(28),(30),(31),(32),(33),(34),(35),(36),(37),(38),(40),(41). Different types of mindfulness-based interventions included sex therapy, stress management techniques, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. As many as 22 studies (11),(13),(22),(23),(24),(25),(26),(27),(28),(29),(30),(31),(32),(33),(34),(35),(36),(37),(38),(39),(40),(41) confirmed the effectiveness of this method and only in one study the results showed that mindfulness-based interventions do not affect sexual function in women with multiple sclerosis (Table/Fig 3) (20).

Discussion

Many people suffer from sexual dysfunction and they do not to seek to solve their problem for many reasons. Sexual disorders amongthe important health problems that are in need of effective and new methods of treatment (42). Many interventions have been used to solve sexual problems including training on sexual skills, couple therapy, desensitization, and motivational therapies (43). One of these methods is using mindfulness-based interventions and the purpose of this study was to review and summarize the studies conducted on the effect of mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment female sexual dysfunction. In this regard, the results have indicated that mindfulness-based interventions, even when they are conducted based on different approaches (stress reduction, cognitive-behavioral and sex therapy), are effective in treating women’s sexual dysfunction.

The high number of studies conducted in Iran and outside Iran have shown the significance of the issue, and the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women calls for more attention, care and effective interventions. In a study conducted by Mohammadian et al in 2019, the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in Tehran (77.6%) was higher than that of the global rate (40%) (44). However, this study considered the general population.

This study focused on the general population, chronic diseases, while chronic diseases such as breast cancer affect sexual satisfaction and function. Therefore, in addition to conducting detailed and numerous studies on patients, some measures should be taken to reduce sexual dysfunction and improve sexual satisfaction. Accordingly, cognitive programs and mindfulness-based interventions are effective therapies to reduce sexual problems.

The sample size in the intervention studies varied from 20 patients (37) to 660 individuals (30). In some studies, the group training method had been used (32),(40). This case is worth considering in Islamic countries, especially Iran, with their special conditions. On the one hand, group therapy has numerous benefits, such as expressing people’s feelings; they find out they are not alone and that there are many people with their problems. On the other hand, it is not easy to raise sexual issues and problems, and people are so ashamed and embarrassed in this regard that they sometimes hide their problems from their confidants and even doctors, and it is even more serious in women (45).

The number of sessions for mindfulness-based programs was three to 12 session, yet in most studies,the number of sessions was eight. The duration of each session varied from one to two hours, but the sessions were mostly 90 minutes.A review of the number and duration of intervention sessions conducted in previous studies indicated that even studies conducted with a smaller number of sessions and shorter interventions have been effective in reducing sexual problems (25),(28),(33),(35),(37),(38),(40),(41). Thus, given that clients are normally too busy to attend intention sessions, therapists can conduct fewer sessions in a shorter time. However, it should be possible to cover all the content and ensure the proper delivery of content and the proper implementation of the programs within the prefixed number of sessions. In addition, training and implementation of programs during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic should be towards virtualization and using online technology; the advantages of this method are lower cost, flexibility, ease of access, inclusiveness and the possibility of self-direction in learning and adaptation to individual learning goals (46).

In line with the objectives of the present study, most studies have examined the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on the whole sexual dysfunction. However, since sexual dysfunction as a whole is divided into different categories, researchers are recommended to examine these disorders separately. This enables them to design more specific interventions. Sexual satisfaction and sexual arousal in women have also been considered by researchers, indicating the importance of these domains. Other variables considered were sexual satisfaction, sexual self-efficacy, sexual desire, sexual response, sexual support, and arousal. Thus, it seems that the promotion of each of these factors can promote the overall sexual function.

A variety of mindfulness-based interventions including sex therapy, stress management techniques, and cognitive-behavioral therapy have been conducted for the patients. The role of stress and anxiety in predicting and reducing the quality of women’s marital relationship is obvious (47). Thus, using stress management and control methods can be implemented in the form of mindfulness-based programs.

Limitation(s)

As one of the limitations of this study, only articles addressing sexual dysfunction in women were reviewed. Thus, its findings cannot be generalized to men. Furthermore, this study focused on articles that were published in English and Persian. Accordingly, the present review findings have less generalizability. Hence, a more comprehensive review of all articles published in this field is essential.

Conclusion

Since sexual health and good marital relationship have known effects on physical, mental and social health, and sexual health and good marital relationship provide the basis for strengthened emotions between couples by creating a sense of satisfaction, peace and increased self-confidence, and as sexual health prevents the onset of mental disorders and family disintegration and social problems, it is required to be taken into serious account by caregivers and physicians, nurses and psychologists and midwives. Moreover, since the studies support the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions, it can be stated that this method is effective in improving women’s sexual function and it is recommended to be used.

References

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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/54896.16463

Date of Submission: Jan 11, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Feb 08, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Apr 18, 2022
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? NA
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? NA
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Jan 14, 2022
• Manual Googling: Apr 11, 2022
• iThenticate Software: May 20, 2022 (13%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
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