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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

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Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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Professor and Head
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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
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Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Best regards,
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On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2022 | Month : June | Volume : 16 | Issue : 6 | Page : OD04 - OD06 Full Version

Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia Masquerading as Interstitial Lung Disease: An Interesting Case Report with Review of Literature


Published: June 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/56015.16443
Pradip Kumar Behera, Krishna Padarabinda Tripathy, Ankit Vats, Piyali Sengupta, Yelisetti Chaitanya

1. Professor, Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. 2. Professor, Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. 3. Postgraduate Resident, Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. 4. Postgraduate Resident, Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. 5. Postgraduate Resident, Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Pradip Kumar Behera,
Flat No. B202, Elegance Apartment, Kalarahanga, PO KIIT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
E-mail: drpradip76@gmail.com

Abstract

Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) is a form of occult filariasis characterised clinically by paroxysms of nocturnal cough, wheezing and dyspnoea. It is due to hyper-responsive pulmonary reaction to trapped microfilaria inside the lung tissue. Though it is common in endemic areas, it is frequently misdiagnosed mostly as bronchial asthma or tuberculosis and the patient continues to suffer without being treated appropriately. A 36-year-old male, who presented with fever, cough and shortness of breath for a period of 6 months was misdiagnosed as Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and was put on antifibrotic agents without any relief of symptoms. He was thoroughly investigated with routine haematological tests, Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC), X-ray of chest, High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) thorax including bronchoalveolar lavage and was diagnosed as Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE). Diethyl Carbamazine citrate (DEC) was initiated and patient had satisfactory recovery. So in endemic areas the possibility of TPE should always be kept in mind while evaluating cases presenting with chronic cough, dyspnea and wheezing even if the radiological imaging may mimic ILD.

Keywords

Eosinophilic pneumonia, Lymphatic filariasis, Pulmonary Infiltrates with eosinophilia

Case Report

A 36-years-old male presented to the Department of Medicine, with history of fever, cough and breathlessness for a period of 6 months. Fever was low grade, intermittent without chills and rigor or night sweats. Cough was non productive, most often during night time and there was no history of hemoptysis or significant chest pain. He experienced progressively increasing breathlessness without orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, palpitation or lower limb swelling during this period of 6 months. There was no history of weight loss, joint pain or skin rash. He was non diabetic and non hypertensive and there was no history of bronchial asthma, thyroid disease or tuberculosis. Patient was non smoker, non alcoholic and there was no significant family history. He was working in a grocery shop and there was no significant industrial, agricultural or chemical exposure.

Past medical history showed that he was diagnosed as a case of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and was on nindatinib 500 mg twice daily for last 2 months along with inhalational bronchodialtors and steroid without any significant improvement in symptoms. General examination revealed Body Mass Index (BMI) of 21.5 kg/m2, oral temp of 100.4 degree Farhenite, pulse rate of 120 beats per minute, respiratory rate of 25 cycles /minute with SpO2 96% at room air. There was grade III clubbing of fingers without any other significant general examination finding (1) (Table/Fig 1). On respiratory system examination trachea was observed to be central with bilateral reduced chest expansion. There was hyperresonant percussion note bilaterally and auscultation revealed coarse crepitations diffusely over bilateral lung fields along with scattered ronchi. There was no clinical evidence of fibrosis, consolidation, collapse or cavity. Examination of other systems revealed no abnormality.

Routine investigation showed eosinophilic leukocytosis (total leococyte count was 26,000/cmm, eosinophils was 26%), absolute eoinophilic count 6700/mm3 (normal range was 20 to 500/mm3), erythrocyte sedimental range was 60 mm 1st hour, C-reactive protein was 52.4 mg/dL and Peripheral smear showed eiosinophilia without any premature cells (Table/Fig 2). Bilateral uniformly distributed reticular shadows in both lung fields predominately over mid and lower zones was observed in X-ray of the chest (Table/Fig 3). High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of thorax revealed bilateral numerous tiny centrilobular nodules with interlobar septal thickening and traction bronchiectasis with few ground glass opacities (Table/Fig 4), (Table/Fig 5). Restrictive pattern without reversibility was noted in Pulmonary function test.

Bronchoscopy showed erythmatous mucosa bilaterally in main and segmental bronchi. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) fluid cytological examination showed inflammatory cells with 80% eosinophils. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed interstitial inflammation with eosinophilic predominance. The IgE was elevated (3100 UI/mL). Filarial antibody was positive. Autoimmune markers like Serum Antinuclear Antibody (ANA ) by Indirect immunofluloroscence was negative. Antinuclear Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) like P-ANCA and C-ANCA were also negative. Serum Compliment level (C3 and C4) were normal. Other relevant investigations for evaluation of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) like 2D Echocardiogram was also normal. In view of high peripheral blood eosinophilia, elevated IgE level, positive antifilarial Ab and the patient being from filarial endemic area, diagnosis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia was considered. Diethyl Carbamazine citrate (DEC) was started at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight in three divided doses for 21 days. Patient had significant improvement of symptoms. Follow-up investigations after one month showed decreased but still high level of peripheral eosinophilia. So a second course of DEC was given and patient had a complete clinical improvement with peripheral eosinophilia reducing to normal after two and half month since the patient presented to the department (Table/Fig 6).

Discussion

Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is a hyperresponsive pulmonary syndrome resulting from host immune response to microfilarial antigen of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi (2). Frimodt-Moller in 1940 first described it as a syndrome of wheezing, fever ,eosinophilia and radiologically bilateral mottling of lungs and the condition was labeled as Pseudotuberculosis with eosinophilia. Later in 1943 Weingarten RJ, first described the term “Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia” for this clinical entity (3).

In the year 2000, around 120 million people world wide were infected with lymphatic filariasis out of which more than 90% were due to W. bancrofti and the remainder largely due to B. malayi (4). Due to enormous burden of Lymphatic filariasis World Health Organisation (WHO) launched the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) with the goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020 by administering preventive chemotherapy with Diethyl Carbamazine citrate (DEC) and ivermectin. This has led to decline in cases of filariasis in India but still prevalent in enedemic areas. India has about 40% of the global filariasis burden and 50% of the global population at risk of infection (5). In Indian sub continent filariasis is a major health problem in states like Bihar, Andhra pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Gujurat and Kerala (6).

Tropical pulmonary eosinophiia is estimated to be <0.5% of filarial infections. The degenerating microfilaria entrapped in the lungs microcirculation triggers a wide range of cellular and humoral immune response which includes Type I ,II and IV immune reactions resulting in clinical sympotamatology of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE). Eosinophils are the host immune component predominantly responsible for nematode clearance. Various eosinophilic granule proteins such as Eosinophilic Cataionic Protein (ECP), Eosinophil Derived Neurotoxin (EDN), Major Basic Protein (MBP) etc have shown helminthotoxin activity. This in association with eosinophil induced cytokine response results in parasite clearance. Besides pulmonary T helper 1 (Th1) cell response leads to elevated levels of IL4, IL5, high level of filarial specific IgE and IgG and massive pulmonary eosinophilia (7).

The TPE is commonly observed in the age group of 15 to 40 years and mostly males are affected with a male to female ratio of 4:1 (8). A recent study by Shankar M et al., in post erradiction era also showed a similar demographic profile with male preponderance (Male:Female being 2.35:1) and most patients were of less than 30 years (9). Patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia usually presents with non specific clinical symptoms like fever and malaise, anorexia or weight loss and respiratory symptoms like non productive cough, wheeze and shortness of breath and chest pain which are predominantly nocturnal. Because of the similarity in symptoms they are often misdiagnosed as bronchial asthma or sometimes tuberculosis (10),(11),(12). Few cases may present with extrapulmonary menifetations like lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegally, pericarditis or pericardial effusion or pulmonary arterial hypertension (13),(14),(15). Eosinophilic leucocytosis in peripheral blood is common which may be as high as 50000 to 80000/mm3. The ESR is usually high and serum IgE and IgG levels are elevated. Peripheral blood usually does not show any microfilaria. Pulmonary function test in advanced cases usually show restrictive pattern but during acute TPE may show mild obstructive pattern. Billateral fine diffuse reticulonodular opacities in the middle and lower lung zones are the most common radiological findings in TPE. Sometimes fine mottling in chest X-ray is observed creating a confusion of milliary TB whereas 20% cases may have normal X-ray. The predominant computed tomography scan finding in HRCT Thorax is the presence of widespread ill-defined bronchocentric nodules which need to be differentiated from conditions like hypersensitive pneumonitis, infections like tuberculosis, vasculitis, pneumoconiosis, bronchiolitis or metastasis (16).

But significant eosinophilia with radiologically pulmonary infiltarates in TPE put this clinical entity into a group of disorders termed as “Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia” caused by a variety of infectious, inflammatory and allergic conditions. The differential diagnosis includes primary pulmonary eosinophilic disorders like acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, Churg-struss syndrome, allergic brnchopulmonary aspergilosis, Loeffler syndrome secondary to helminth infection or drug reaction, Hypersensitive pneumonitis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (17).

The diagnostic criteria for TPE includes (18):

(a) History of residence or travel to a filarial endemic region
(b) Paroxysmal and nocturnal cough with dyspnea
(c) Leukocytosis with peripheral blood eosinophilia>3000/mm3
(d) Elevated serum IgE and filarial antibody titers
(e) Pulmonary infiltrations in Chest X-ray and
(f) Clinical improvement with DEC.

Recommended therapy for TPE is oral DEC at a dose of 6 mg/ Kg in three divided doses per day for 21 days (19). Rapid response to DEC is very characteristic of TPE (20). A failure rate of 20-40% after DEC therapy has been reported mostly in advanced cases. In such cases treatment with corticosteroids have shown promising results but before steroid therapy pulmonary strongiloidosis should be ruled out (21).

Though unusual presentations of TPE has been reported by various authors like consolidation, pericardial effusion, lung cavitary lesions and also misdiagnosed as other clinical conditions like milliary tuberculosis or bronchial asthma, present case masqueraded as interstitial lung disease but latter on was diagnosed as TPE which is never reported in literature before (10),(11),(12),(13),(14) (Table/Fig 7).

Conclusion

Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) may present with atypical clinical and radiological presentations like interstitial lung disease in addition to other unusual presentations like Bronchial asthma, miliarry tuberculosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension. These atypical clinical cases lead to confusion in clinical decision making like wrong diagnosis and improper treatment. So though eradication program of lymphatic filariasis has reduced the incidence of the disease in endemic areas and has resulted in elimination of the disease in some countries, high level of suspicion of TPE in part of treating physicians is required while evaluating cases who present with such unusual presentations. This may prevent misdiagnosis of a fairly treatable clinical entity like TPE.

References

1.
Agarwal R, Baid R, Sinha DP. Clubbing: The oldest clinical sign in medicine. CHRISMED J Health Res 2019;6:72-5. [crossref]
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Santeliz JV. Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia: An epidemiological and clinical Review. Int J Respir Pulm Med. 2019;6:102. [crossref]
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Weingarten RJ. Tropical eosinophilia. Lancet. 1943;1:103-05. [crossref]
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World Health Organization. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: Progress report on mass drug administration, 2014. Weekly epidemiol Rec. 2015;90:489-504.
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World Health Organization. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report, 2019. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2020;95(43):509-24.
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Swaminathan S, Perumal V, Adinarayanan S, Kaliannagounder K, Rengachari R, Purushothaman J. Epidemiological assessment of eight rounds of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in India: implications for monitoring and evaluation. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(11):e1926. [crossref] [PubMed]
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O'Bryan L, Pinkston P, Kumaraswami V, Vijayan V, Yenokida G.Localized eosinophil degranulation mediates disease in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1337-42. [crossref] [PubMed]
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Mullerpattan J, Udwadia Z, Udwadia F.Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia-A review. Indian J Med Res. 2013;138:295-302.
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Shankar M, Ejaji MA, Choubey S, Kumar D. Clinicodemographic Profile of Tropical Pulmonary eosinophilia in a Tertiary Care Institute of Bihar.Indian J Respir Care. 2022;11(2):112-16.
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Tsanglao W R, Nandan D, Chandelia S, Arya N K, Sharma A. Filarial tropical eosinophilia: a condition masquerading asthma, a series of 12 cases. Journal of Asthma. 2019;56(7):791-98. [crossref] [PubMed]
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Randev S, Kumar P, Dhilon P, Jindal G, Guglani V. Tropical pulmonary esinophilia masquerading as astma in a five year old girl.Paediatrics and international child health. 2018;38(3):231-34.
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Ray S, Kundu S, Goswami M, Mitra S.Tropical pulmonary esinophilia misdiagnosed as military tuberculosis. A case report and literature review. Parasitology International. 2011;69(2)381-84. [crossref] [PubMed]
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Kumar S, Gautam P. Case report: Atypical presentation of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia as a lung mass. Biomed Res. 2013;25:135-37.
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Kumar S, Singh R. A rare presentation of hydropneumothorax in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: Cavitation and pneumonic consolidation in a child. Trop Doct. 2016;46: 105-08. [crossref] [PubMed]
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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/56015.16443

Date of Submission: Mar 3, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Mar 22, 2022
Date of Acceptance: May 10, 2022
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Mar 08, 2022
• Manual Googling: Mar 16, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Apr 14, 2022 (16%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

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