Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
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Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Reviews
Year : 2022 | Month : June | Volume : 16 | Issue : 6 | Page : YE01 - YE05 Full Version

A Narrative Review of Anatomy and Clinical Biopsychosocial Assessment of Sacroiliac Joint Pain


Published: June 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/52803.16452
Nidhi Suresh Sharma, Tajuddin Burhanuddin Chitapure, Anuja Atul Bhalerao

1. Postgraduate Resident, Department of Musculoskeletal, MGM School of Physiotherapy, Aurangabad, (A Constituted Unit of MGMIHS, Navi Mumbai), Maharashtra, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Musculoskeletal, MGM School of Physiotherapy, Aurangabad, (A constituted unit of MGMIHS, Navi Mumbai) Maharashtra, India. 3. Undergraduate Intern, Department of Musculoskeletal, MGM School of Physiotherapy, Aurangabad, (A constituted unit of MGMIHS, Navi Mumbai), Maharashtra, India.

Correspondence Address :
Tajuddin Chitapure,
MGM School of Physiotheray, N- 6, CIDCO, Aurangabad-431001, Maharashtra, India.
E-mail: taj.chitapure@mgmsop.edu.in

Abstract

Sacroiliac Joint (SIJ) pain is a severe disorder that affects 15% to 25% of individuals having axially low back pain. The most common causes of depressive symptoms are fear of movement, pain catastrophising, stress, and nervous system sensitisation. Recent research has shown that radiological imaging, are inadequate for diagnosing SIJ pain. For immersive and patient centred experiences, a comprehensive professional Biopsychosocial (BPS) physiotherapy evaluation is suggested. A new biopsychosocial model has been proposed that acknowledges all critical health and disease factors and promotes the interaction of biological, psychological, and social influences, but moves further than a narrow perspective. Psychosocial influences on well-being have generated an interest in physician services, physiotherapy evaluation, and implementation in a more systematic approach to a patient. This method is used to determine the current pain mechanism (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non neuropathic central sensitisation pain) as well as the underlying pain mechanism. Patient’s biopsychosocial variables can establish and maintain SI discomfort. For a better plan of therapy to manage SIJ dysfunction, the biopsychosocial clinical assessment takes precedence over the examination of sacroiliac joint discomfort alone.

Keywords

Assessment, Biopsychosocial, Lower back pain, Nervous system sensitisation, Pain catastrophising

Back pain has been described as a sickness looking for a disease (1). Low back pain [LBP] is one of the most common health problems in the world (2). LBP is a chronic condition that can have a negative impact on a person’s social life and family, and can even result in disability (3). The sacroiliac joint, which is thought to be a common source of LBP, has attracted the attention of doctors, and it is thought to be involved in 15% of all LBP cases (4). In recent times, 70% to 80% of people will experience PGP at some point in their lives. The SIJ has sparked interest because of its direct involvement in Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) and lumbopelvic pain, but it remains under used as a source of mechanical lower back pain (5). Despite the lack of a clear cause, extensive research on the underlying pathology has been carried out since 1990. SIJ dysfunction is now widely acknowledged as being extremely difficult to diagnose, owing to symptoms that is frequently confused with other lumbar spine disorders (6). Until treating a SIJ disorder, it is recommended that a wide variety of clinical and radiological tests be performed to rule out other spine pathologies (7). Ability to understand the anatomy, clinical appearance, physical challenges, and treatment options will help increase the chances of a positive diagnosis and improve the quality of life (8). Although the fact that treatment trials, systematic reviews, and position statements, including those from the World Health Organisation (WHO), strongly advocate using the biopsychosocial BPS model to advise evaluation and management of LBP (9). This review aimed to look, into the anatomy of the sacroiliac joint, as well as clinical biopsychosocial assessment and physiotherapy practice.

ANATOMY OF THE SIJ IN FUNCTION

A deep diarthrodial joint is formed by the sacrum and two innominate of the pelvises (10). Between the articular surfaces is a fibrous capsule that surrounds a joint area filled with synovial fluid. The articular surface is made up of two C-shaped layers that are both powerful (11). The three bones of the pelvis, the ilium, ischium, and pubic bone, fuse to form each innominate (12). The SIJ has a 17.5 cm2 approximate thickness is the largest axial joint in the body (8). The SIJ’s uniqueness arises because it was line by different types of cartilage: hyaline cartilage on the region of the sacrum and fibrocartilage on the iliac surface. The ilium (0.5 mm) has a thinner cartilage layer than the sacrum (3 mm) (13). Only the outer portion of the junction between the sacrum and ilium is a true synovial joint; the remainder is a complex web of ligamentous connections. Since the posterior capsule is the SI ligamentous structure is more widespread dorsally, serving as a connecting band between the sacrum and the ilia when it is absent or underdeveloped. The basic function of the ligamentous system is to limit the motion throughout all planes of motion. Women’s ligaments are weaker, allowing for the movement required during pregnancy (10).

Vleeming A et al., provide a general description of the SIJ anatomy and function in 2012 (14). It is responsible for transferring load and motion from the spine to the lower limbs, as well as absorbing mechanical and torsional stresses in the pelvic region (7). About 35 muscles bind to the sacrum or innominate, and their primary function is to provide joint support rather than to produce movements (15). A matrix of muscles supports the SIJ helps distribute localised muscular impulses to the pelvis. The muscles additionally aid in the stability of the junctional structures. Ever since latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, and piriformis, as well as the biceps femoris, are functionally bound to the SIJ ligament via the thoracolumbar fascia, such movements unnecessarily impact on physical function.

Changes in SIJ Function with Aging

Age related alterations in the SIJ started in adolescence and continued throughout life. During adolescence, the iliac surface gets harder and shiner, and fibrous plaques develop in some areas (10). Surface defects, curving shape, fibrillation, and chondrocyte clumping are all signs of these shifts, which intensify in the third and fourth weeks with existence. The sacrum portion of the spine takes 10 to 20 years long to degenerate than the iliac surface. Joint motion can be severely reduced as the capsule becomes progressively collagenous in the sixth decade. By the eighth decade of life, erosive and plaque development is inescapable and common (16).

Function and Biomechanics

The SIJ’s relatively flat form, combined with its ligament, transfers significant bending moments and compression loads; however, the joint lacks shear load stability (17). The SIJ can define motion in many body planes with rotational, longitudinal, and symmetrical movement (6). Surface friction coefficient, hip joint force, and muscle or ligament force, however, depending on the complex structure of ligaments and muscles around the pelvic area. According to Hammer N et al, pelvic stability is depending on the SIJ cartilage and ligament. Increased stiffness values in the SIJ cartilage and interosseous ligament, as well as the iliolumbar ligament, anterior sacroiliac ligament, and posterior sacroiliac ligament, reduced motion, with the interosseous ligament undergoing the most pain. At the acetabulum and ilium, these ligaments helped pass loads horizontally. Increased sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligament stiffness, on the other hand, had the opposite effect, rising pelvic motion. They also made it easier to pass vertical loads and then translate the sacrum. Furthermore, ligament strains were stronger in the standing position than in the sitting position (18). Without grooves and ridges, the SIJ surfaces have a friction coefficient of around 0.4. The transversus abdominis and pelvic floor muscles (levator ani and coccygeus muscles) play a significant role in SIJ stability by increasing the compression load across the SIJ and thus resisting shear loads (19). Nutation and counternutation, which correspond to the anterior sacral tilt and posterior sacral tilt, respectively, are the motions of the ilium with a connection to the sacrum. Counternutation of the joint prevented by the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments (7). Because of its superficial position, which places asymmetric stress on the SIJ men unnecessarily, feel pain in this area. The flattening the lumbar lordosis reduces SIJ nutation, which is undesirable (14).

THE SOURCE OF SIJ PAIN

SIJ pain can be caused by pathological changes and accidents unique to various SIJ structures. Capsular and ligamentous stress, hypomobility or musculature, external compression or shearing pressures or macrofractures, injury, and irritation are all factors to consider (10). By a process of axial loading and sudden rotation caused by SIJ (20).

The SIJ pain also be due to injuries to the pelvis caused by falling directly on them, as well as collisions in activities or when driving (21). Another possible cause of SIJ pain is Limb Length Difference (LLD). The mechanical alignment of the SIJs becomes progressively imbalanced as a result of the length difference, resulting in unequal load distribution over both SIJ (17). Several hormonal and biomechanical changes are caused by ligament laxity that arise during pregnancy. Increased uterine and breast mass, which causes anterior with centre of gravity displacement, is one of the most common musculoskeletal changes (22).

DIAGNOSIS OF SIJ PAIN

Le Huec JC et al., in 2020 stated that most of patients with SIJ dysfunction feels a sense in the L5-S1 nerve distribution, which is similar to the pain from various sources such as lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration, lumbar posterior facet joint discomfort, hip discomfort, muscular pain (piriformis syndrome), and osteoporotic sacral fracture (7). The Gillet Test, the standing forward flexion test, and the seated forward flexion test was all included in the investigation of SIJ mobility. All test was evaluated and they are commonly used to assess SIJ (7),(23). When clinical testing come a good chance the discomfort is coming from the SIJ. However, because of the wide range of incorrect outcomes, the use of provocative techniques alone is difficult. (2)

According to Le Huec JC et al., in 2020 clinical investigations should next be confirmed with an infiltrative test. Infiltration or fluoroscopy guided intra-articular injections guided by the C-arm or Computed Tomography (CT) scan in the lower part of SIJ. SIJ dysfunction can be diagnosed and treated by injecting local antiesthetic and corticosteroids into the lower section of the SIJ. The implementation of a full clinical examination based according to the International Association for the Study of Pain, the essential diagnostic for the identification of SIJ dysfunction involves combining provocative procedures and infiltration (7). Falowski S et al., in 2020 the poor sensitivity of imaging, where X-rays, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance provide some information about abnormalities but are not always specific, tends to the difficulties of diagnosis. Because the diagnosis of this joint is difficult to profile adequately on radiographic images, sacroiliitis radiographic findings are frequently ambiguous. The most sensitive imaging technology is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (24).

CLINICAL ASSESSMENT

Biopsychosocial Model

Gwendolen state that Engel, who argued against the reductionist biological concept of disease and for concurrent inclusion of behavioral, psychological, and social elements in comprehending people’s medical illnesses, proposed the biopsychosocial model in 1977. This conceptual approach was first proposed in the field of psychiatry, but it swiftly spread to other medical professions. With considerable effectiveness, the approach has fueled the expansion of multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, particularly but not solely for chronic low backpain. (25)

As specified by Sanders T et al., in 2017 the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has advocated more use of the biopsychosocial model for treating of patients with low back pain, in addition to early detection and treatment of symptoms. In essence, a patient centred healer, the biopsychosocial approach considers the patients as a whole, their social, cultural, and environmental context that determines an individual’s response to sickness (26).

How to Treat the BPS Model in Clinical Assessment

To make this possible the biopsychosocial intake of patients with chronic pain, PSCEBSM model is suggested that is the following: (Pain- Somatic and Medical factors-Cognitive factors-Emotional factors- Behavioral factors- Social factors and Motivation) (Table/Fig 1).

P-Type of Pain

Assessment done on the basis of the type of pain classified as the following:

Nociceptive pain: Damage to body tissue in six to eight weeks and pain reduces as the natural healing processes. Recurrent pain is often accompanied by swelling, haematomas, skin discoloration, and other clinical signs. Sharp, throbbing pain is one way to quantify pain (27).

Neuropathic pain: Neuropathic pain affects 7% to 10% of the general population and caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, which includes peripheral fibers. Numerous causes of neuropathic pain have been identified, and its prevalence is expected to rise as the world population grows, diabetes mellitus becomes more common, and cancer prognosis improves following treatment. Indeed, neuropathic pain has been linked to an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory somatosensory activation, as well as changes in ion channels and variability as far as how pain messages are processed in the central nervous system (28). Pain and sensory impairment are related neuroanatomically. Neuropathic pain is selectively described as burning, shooting, or pricking pain (28).

Non neuropathic Central Sensation (CS) pain: Evidence has emerged recently suggesting that patients with chronic pain have a nearly irreversible condition of hyperexcitability in the central nervous system, described as non neuropathic central sensation pain. Woolf and Salter (2000) state CS as an amplification of neuronal signals inside the central nervous system that causes pain hypersensitivity. There’s also no sign of a lesion, damage, or sickness of the neural system. Diagnostic examinations revealed no results. Pain is segmentally and neuroanatomically independent to the primary source of nociception. There are several areas of hyperalgesia outside and distant from the symptomatic area, and pain is most commonly reported as vague and dull (28).

S- Somatic and Medical Factors

Because of injury, central sensitisation refers to an increase in the excitability of neurons in the spinal dorsal horn that occurs and lasts significantly longer than the inducing nociceptive input. Other past or present conditions that unnecessarily influence CS, impermissibility or disuse of body parts, changing movement patterns, exercise ability, strength and muscle tension/tonus during movement are all physical and medical factors that may be present in people with CS (29).

C- Cognition and Perception

Physical therapists are well-known members of the multidisciplinary treatment team, and they play a crucial role in rehabilitation. For individuals with chronic low back pain limitations, there are a variety of cognitive behavioral treatment approaches accessible, and physical therapists use a number of them. The treatment theory can help with clinical treatment selection in cognitive behavioral pain rehabilitation and aid in a better comprehension of research findings (30).

E- Emotional Factors

E Bushnell MC et al., explained in the therapy, attentional and emotional factors influence pain perception. The severity of pain is increased when you concentrate and experience. Bad mood enhances the perceived unpleasantness of pain without changing its intensity. Pain ratings and a spinal nociceptive reflex were both affected by emotional valence in the same way. Pain was minimised while the reflex was increased as a result of the attention. As a result, it appears that multiple systems are implicated in pain regulation by attention and emotion (31).

B-Behavioural Factors

Chronic pain refers to short trauma related pain symptoms and suffering that have lasted longer than predicted and have defied more conservative and typical healthcare management measures. Before going over numerous options, several conceptual concerns are essential to any therapeutic approach. There is a need to address the issue of pain. In the management of chronic pain, traditional healthcare is combined with behavioural healthcare approaches (32).

S- Social Factors

Social relationships can influence coping strategies. The use of social referencing is one method. That is, people look to others for guidance on how to cope appropriately in a specific scenario. Social relationships also impact on coping because they provide direct information about the efficacy of various coping strategies. Into general, research shows that people who are more satisfied with assistance are also more to adopt adaptive coping strategies in stressful situations (33).

M- Motivation

Marlatt GA model is based on social cognitive psychology and includes a conceptual model of relapse as well as a set of cognitive and behavioral strategies to prevent or limit relapse episodes for a detailed description of the development, theoretical underpinnings, and treatment components (34). It was designed to help patients learn newly learned abilities that would reduce the likelihood of an initial relapse or recurrence, as well as prevent minor lapses from becoming full fledged relapses. The issue of possible lapses and relapses is not ignored in the model, nor is it attributed to treatment management program or patient failures. Pain recovery program should include such gaps and relapses as an important component (35), (36).

Biopsychosocial clinical assessment tool- A clinical categorisation approach was made in conjunction with a physiotherapist, based on diagnosis screening categories that were compared to international teams of specialists and therapeutic suggestions. Facts on the clinical classification instrument, such as illness, positive outlook in life, and fear avoidance, can be obtained. catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression are all descriptive words while thinking about beliefs. In clinical biopsychosocial assessments, scales was utilised.

OUTCOME MEASURES

Fear Avoidance Beliefs

Waddell G et al., colleagues developed the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire [FABQ] in response to the introduction of the biopsychosocial model of LBP (36). After adjusting for other relevant characteristics, the FABQ explains distinct levels of variance in employment loss and disability. The FABQ can be used to measure a subject’s thoughts about how physical exercise and job affect their LBP. It is made up of 16 different items. On a seven-point Likert scale, patients assess their confidence for each sentence (37). When assessing patients with pelvic girdle pain, the reliability [ICC- 0.97] and validity are good indicators of mental well, but the validity was unclear (38),(39).

Beck Depression Inventory

This was utilised to assess depression related symptoms and attitudes. There are 21 items on the scale, with a total score ranging from 0 to 63. This evaluation is utilised in the biopsychosocial model (40).

Pain Catastrophising Scale

This was used to evaluate the participant catastrophic thoughts of pain. the PCS is a 13 item questionnaire designed to measure the three components of pain related catastrophisation, rumination, magnification, and helpless-ness] unique score ranging from 0 to 52 (41). When assessing patients with PGP, the reliability [ICC- 0.97] and validity are good indicators of mental well, but the validity was unclear (42),(43).

Depression and Somatisation

People who suffer from chronic pain frequently describe greater bodily/somatic awareness. This study used the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) to evaluate psychological distress linked to depression and somatisation. This same clinical biopsychosocial performance is tested and use all (44).

Conclusion

It can be concluded that SIJ pain remains a significant issue for therapists, owing to the complexity of diagnosis, the disorder’s distinctiveness, and the technical hurdles of treatment. There are currently no well-designed studies evaluating clinical biopsychosocial assessment in SIJ pain, which should involve an assessment of various assessment methods coordinated by the patients.

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Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1]
DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/52803.16452

Date of Submission: Oct 10, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Dec 07, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Mar 14, 2022
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? NA
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Oct 11, 2021
• Manual Googling: Mar 12, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Apr 28, 2022 (30%)

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