Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018




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On Sep 2018




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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
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Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : November | Volume : 16 | Issue : 11 | Page : IC14 - IC18 Full Version

Lifestyle Modifications on the Expression of TCF7L2 Gene Polymorphism: A Cross-sectional Study


Published: November 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/58135.17133
Geetha Bhaktha, Divya Dattaprasad, Prashanthkumar Goudappala, Shivananda B Nayak

1. Scientist C, Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka, India. 2. Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Basaveshwara Medical College and Hospital, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India. 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Sri Siddhartha Academy of Higher Education (SSAHE), Tumkur, Karnataka, India. 4. Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Shimoga, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Geetha Bhaktha,
Scientist C, Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga-577201, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: bhakthageetha@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the result of the clustering of factors along with the communication between environmental factors and a strong hereditary component. In this modern age of investigation, molecular mechanisms of Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 (TCF7L2) linking with the physiological functioning in pancreatic and intestinal endocrine cells are explored. Hitherto few studies have been done in the Indian population with regard to gene polymorphism in TCF7L2 and T2DM concerning family history.

Aim: To study effect of lifestyle modifications on the expression of TCF7L2 gene polymorphism in subjects with family history of diabetes.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted over a period of 14 months September 2020 to November 2021) with 121 subjects from Shimoga district at Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India. The study was conducted after the approval by the Ethics Committee and subjects volunteering for the study have signed the informed consent. The study comprised of two groups. Both the groups had family history of T2DM, eventually persons who had not developed diabetes and had changed their lifestyle were grouped I (n=56) and subjects who had developed diabetes without any changes in their lifestyle were considered as group II (n=65). Fasting insulin, and fasting blood glucose was estimated along with the anthropometric variables like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference. Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) (rs7903146 and rs1225372) of TCF7L2 gene was genotyped using Tetra-primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System (T-ARM) protocol. Differences in clinical parameters and genotypic variants between groups, was calculated using the independent t-test and Chi-square test, a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Only fasting insulin and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) parameters were weakly significant in the study population. The risk allele frequency (T) was seen to be higher in the group I and the chances of getting diabetics was 2.02 times higher than the subjects of group II for rs7903146. This substantiates that the group I subjects were more predisposed to diabetes genetically. Since subjects with heterozygous genotype (CT or GT alleles) has been associated with the highest risk of developing T2DM, the association of heterozygous genotype was high in the group with lifestyle modification and was highly significantly associated with risk of being diabetic by 7.50 times for rs7903146 and 6.10 times for rs1225372. Further risk analysis of variants according to a model of inheritance was analysed and was observed that the co-dominant and overdominant models best fitted the association with an OR above 6 for both the polymorphism.

Conclusion: This study depicts that lifestyle modification masks the effect of risk variants for rs12255372 and rs7903146. The confounding nature of the influence of environmental factors over predisposition to inheritance is well depicted for the manifestation of T2DM among the genetic variants of TCF7L2.

Keywords

Diabetes mellitus, Gene frequency, Genetic, Risk assessment, Single nucleotide

Diabetes is a progressive disorder identified by hyperglycaemia with an array of dysfunctions that are the results of the combination of resistance towards insulin or insufficient insulin secretion leading to impaired beta-cell function. T2DM is the result of clustering of factors along with the communication between environmental factors and a strong hereditary component. Heritability estimates calculated from the families who are highly prone to T2DM provide a platform to understand the role of genetic and lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy dietary habits, no tobacco/alcohol products, adequate amounts of sleep, and managing stress levels) (1),(2).

Heritability of T2DM range from 20-80% (3). In a community based cross-sectional study by Zenebe T et al., it was seen that in a positive family history of diabetes the chance of having dysglycaemia in south west ethopia subjects was about 2.5 times higher than those who showed no family history of T2DM (4).

In a work by Grant SF et al., an association between polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) gene and an risk of T2DM in population of Icelandic individuals was reported (5). Later it was replicated in other population like Danish cohort, and a cohort in the United States of America hence worldwide attention was gathered about this polymorphism, eventually being replicated in other ethnic group (6),(7),(8),(9),(10). A new era of investigation on molecular mechanisms of TCF7L2 linking with the Wnt signalling pathway had begun to extend till the physiological functioning in pancreatic and intestinal endocrine cells are explored (11). Since I#ITCFL7I?I gene posses effects on beta cell functioning, an investigation with respect to insulin is obvious. However among the world’s populations, the two polymorphism TCFL7 gene has shown a strong association with the hyperglycaemic state (5). Due to genetic heterogeneity (12) and high prevalence of diabetes, it is difficult to assume the result from similar studies. Diabetes Prevention Programs show the delay in progression of diabetes by changing the factors responsible for it. Hence to identify the effect of lifestyle modifications and the expressions of SNP of TCF7L2 gene, the study identified rs12255372 and rs7903146 and its association between the alleles and the group along with the calculation of model of inheritance.

To identify the disease risk by finding the association scores between the clinical outcome and SNP through model of inheritance (co-dominant, dominant, recessive and overdominant models) was calculated.

Material and Methods

This cross-sectional study was approved and conducted at Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka. India, over a period of 14 months (September 2020 to November 2021) with a total of 121 subjects. The recruitment of the participants were done only after the Ethics Committee approval. Ethical approval for the study was provided obtained from the Institute (SIMS/IEC/493/2020-21). The subjects were from Shimoga district of Karnataka, India.

Inclusion criteria: The subjects should have atleast any one parent (living or dead) identified as having T2DM before their age of 60 years. The subjects should be willing to share the details of his/her lifestyle which includes food habits, exercise, diabetic state and use of any other medications which influence the hyperglycaemic state.

Exclusion criteria: The subjects not willing to participate, not willing to share/does not know the parental history of diabetes, age above 60 years and less than 30 years, subject born out of consanguineous marriage and on drugs which influence hyperglycaemic state were excluded from the study.

Study Procedure

Thus the study participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=56) who were not diabetic, who has setup a lifestyle modification with a regular practice of moderate physical activity (2 ½ hours of brisk walking or cycling per week/30 minutes a day, five days a week) (13), had healthy dietary habits (the food plate contains half portion with non starchy vegetables, a quarter portion with healthy carbohydrate-rich foods, a quarter with lean protein rich foods, and a small dollop of healthy fats.), no tobacco/alcohol products, adequate amounts of sleep, and managing stress levels and did not develop diabetes. Group II (n=65) who were diabetic and who had not practiced/still not practicing lifestyle modification and had no healthy dietary habits. After explaining the objective and contents of the study to the participants, those who were willing to volunteer the study were recruited after signing the written informed consent.

Information relevant to the study like family history of diabetes, eating habits, physical activity was collected on the same day when individuals were recruited for the study.

Waist circumference was measured at the highest point of iliac crest. Hip circumference was measured at the maximum circumference of the buttocks using a measuring tape. WHR is the ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips. Measurements of the weight to the nearest 0.1 kg by a weighing machine and height to the nearest of 0.1 cm by an anthropometer rod were done. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2). World Health Organisation (WHO) experts has given the recommended cut-points for BMI categories in Asian populations (Indian population also included) as follows: <18.5, 18.5-23, 23-27.5, and ≥27.5 for underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese (14).

Blood sample was collected from these individuals in a fasting state (8-10 hours) and was used to isolate genomic Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and to estimate the levels of insulin and glucose, by testing fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin levels (in both groups). Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) is a method for assessing β-cell function and Insulin Resistance (IR) from basal (fasting) glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR was calculated using the formula fasting insulin (mu/mL)×fasting glucose (mg/dL)/405 (15).

The DNA was isolated from these blood samples using Himedia blood genomic isolation kit. The DNA was aliquoted and stored at -20°C. The SNP for rs12255372 and rs7903146 was genotype using T-ARM Polymerase Chain Reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) protocol as mentioned by Siewert S (16). The genotype was identified by looking at the fragment length measured in base pair (bp) by taking the DNA ladder as standard.

Sample size calculation: 56 subjects in group I and 65 subjects in group II were collected. In order to avoid the under power of the study/to detect a difference if a difference really exists, an online sample size estimator (http://osse.bii.a-star.edu.sg/index.php) (17) for case-control association studies was used. The base values were set for the conventionally used significance level of 5% at 80% power, with minor allele frequencies of 16% and 43% in cases and controls, respectively. A sample size of 44 in each group was calculated (18).

Statistical Analysis

The results from clinical parameters are presented as mean±SD. Results are presented as absolute numbers and percentages in parentheses for risk alleles and genotype. Differences in clinical parameters between groups was calculated using the independent t-test. Differences in the genotypic variants between groups was tested using the χ2 test and the measure of association was given by odds ratio. When the association between a genetic marker and a trait is estimated in a population-based study, a biologic evidence supporting a particular genetic model of inheritance for the risk allele exists. To discover which of the variant best fit with the inheritance model, risk analysis of variant according to model of inheritance for both the genotype was performed. Hence the inheritance model was explored under co-dominant, dominant, recessive and overdominant models. The genotype frequencies did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium among the subjects in both the groups. All statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0,) with a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Overall characteristics of the study population is expressed as mean±standard deviation and is shown in (Table/Fig 1). It was found that both the groups of the study population did not differ much in their clinical parameters. A significant difference (p-value of 0.047) was observed in the fasting insulin level between the study populations.

(Table/Fig 2), (Table/Fig 3) shows banding patterns of SNP rs7903146 and rs12255372. For SNP rs7903146, bands at 172,420 base pair represents homozygous for risk allele T. Bands at 306,420 base pair represents homozygous for allele C. Bands at 172,306,420 base pair represents heterozygous condition. Similiarly, for SNP rs12255372, bands at 362,587 base pair represents homozygous for risk allele T. Bands at 281,587 base pair represents homozygous for allele G. Bands at 281,362,587 base pair represents heterozygous condition as shown in (Table/Fig 3).

(Table/Fig 4) shows association of variants of SNP rs7903146 and rs12255372 among the study population. Both the polymorphisms were found in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The chances of getting diabetics among the subjects of group with lifestyle modification according to risk allele frequency was 2.02 times higher than the subjects of group without lifestyle modification. Heterozygous genotype was significantly associated with the risk of diabetes among both the polymorphism (p<0.0001).

To identify which of the variant best fit with the inheritance model, risk analysis of variant according to model of inheritance for both the genotype was performed and depicted in (Table/Fig 5), (Table/Fig 6). The inheritance model was explored under co-dominant, dominant, recessive and overdominant models. In co-dominant model C/T was significantly associated with T2DM, that is a subject with C/T allele had greater risk of suffering from T2DM as compared to CC allele. It was observed that co-dominant and overdominant model best fitted the association with an OR 7.50 and 7.69 for rs7903146 polymorphism and with an OR 6.10 and 7.69 for rs12255372.

(Table/Fig 7) shows the association of variants for genotype rs7903146 when grouped as carriers (CT-TT) versus non carriers (CC). It was observed that fasting insulin and fasting glucose level was highly significant in diabetic group and this association was lost in control group. Similarly BMI and weight showed significantly difference in diabetic group only. The association of variants for rs12255372 when grouped as carriers (GT-TT) versus non carriers (GG) failed to show any significant association with the parameters as shown in (Table/Fig 8).

Discussion

One of the fundamental feature of developing T2DM is lack of lifestyle modification. It is well studied that certain lifestyle changes greatly influence the use of insulin by the body cells. Clinical trials involving humans have shown that changes in lifestyle can prevent the progression of T2DM from impaired glucose tolorance state (19). Evidence even from animal models have shown that increase in body weight, increase in blood sugar levels and abnormal insulin regulation causes DNA changes in multiple genes resulting in diabetic features (20),(21),(22). Since TCFL2 gene is now considered to have largest susceptible for the disease and further variants in TCFL2 gene has been constantly associated with T2DM in several population globally and nationally including India (10),(18),(23),(24),(25),(26), the TCFL2 gene was selected for the study. In a study done by Chandak GR et al., it was found that there was no association between TCF7L2 genotypes with age at diagnosis, BMI or WHR, but the risk genotype at rs12255372 was associated with higher fasting plasma glucose (p-value <0.001), higher 2 hours plasma glucose (p-value=0.0002) and HOMA-IR (HOMA-R; p-value=0.012) in non diabetic subjects (10). Also according to a study conducted by Bodhini D et al., the T allele of the rs12255372(G/T) and rs7903146(C/T) polymorphisms of TCF7L2 gene confer susceptibility to T2DM in Asian Indians (21).

Studies from literature state that the family history of diabetes inherit a predisposition to be clinically diabetic, the contribution of practicing lifestyle modification among such individual is questioned (21),(22). Hence it aimed to assess the genotypic distribution of the two polymorphism on TCF7L2 gene in the subjects with family history of diabetes and with/without lifestyle modification. It was observed that only a small significant difference at the level of 0.047 was observed in the fasting insulin level between the study populations. This reflects that there exhibits a relationship between sedentary lifestyle and insulin level. Further though both the groups had same BMI, it was apparent that the WHR exhibited a significant statistical difference. This again shows lifestyle modification do change the fat stored around their waist line.

Looking into the (Table/Fig 4) association of variants among the study population, it was observed that risk allele frequency (T) was unexpectedly found to be higher the group with lifestyle modification and was weakly significant for rs7903146. This confers that the subjects in the diabetic study population may not have been predisposed to diabetes genetically in consideration of the two polymorphism studied. Further extending the association of genotype, the frequency of heterozygous genotype was high in group with lifestyle modification and was highly significantly associated with risk of being diabetic by 7.50 times for rs7903146 and 6.10 times for rs1225372 .

The inheritance model for risk analysis of variant showed that co-dominant and overdominant model best fitted the association with an OR above 6 for both the polymorphism. This seems to be nearly two times higher than previous studies reported by Nanfa D et al., and Alami FM et al., by a study conducted on Iranian population (27),(28).

According to a study conducted in United States as Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and also other studies, the polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene variants (rs12255372 and rs7903146) predict the progression to diabetes in persons with IGT (10),(29),(30).

The study supports the concept that the T allele likely to have progression to diabetes by means of insulin secretion. In this study when the association of risk variants were stratified based on the clinical and biochemical parameters, it was observed that fasting insulin and fasting glucose showed statistically significance (Table/Fig 7) only in group without lifestyle modification between wild and mutant genotype for rs7903146 whereas the comparative analysis in the group with lifestyle modification revealed no significant association between the wild and mutant genotype for rs12255372 and rs7903146. Therefore it happens that the SNP rs7903146 is a much more influential risk factor than rs 12255372 in subjects who have not modified their lifestyle in this study population.

There are several hypothesis to find that TCFL7 has a role in adipocyte differentiation. It is speculated that a decrease in TCF7L2 expression in fat tissue could be established when on a caloric restriction or as TCF7L2 is part of the Wnt signalling cascade, and this inhibits adipogenesis, An influence of TCF7L2 variants on modulation of BMI was observed in DPP and in an European study (29),(30),(31),(32), thus exhibiting a mitigated diabetogenic effect by these SNPs but such association was not found in present study. However in this study, an association with the variants in the diabetic group with no lifestyle modification for rs 7903146 was found thus drawing attention to introduce lifestyle changes .

Hence the future prospective of the study is that profiling the variants with the exposure to the risk may help us to understand the geographic and racial differences reported for T2DM incidences worldwide. Based on the result it shows that each population has its own genetic profile for T2DM. Thus further studies are warranted to increase the understanding.

Limitation(s)

This study did not have short-term or long-term follow-up. Further studies with follow-up can be conducted in future.

Conclusion

This study depicts the effect of lifestyle modifications on the risk variant for rs12255372 and rs7903146. The confounding nature of the influence of environmental factor over predisposition to inheritance is well depicted for the manifestation of T2DM among the genetic variants of TCF7L2. Further it is considered that in this study rs7903146 appear to be significantly associated with the contribution of the disease hence shows that lifestyle changes has helped to mitigate the effects of genes on diabetes risk.

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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/58135.17133

Date of Submission: May 31, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jul 05, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Oct 25, 2022
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Jun 11, 2022
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• iThenticate Software: Oct 22, 2022 (5%)

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