Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2022 | Month : November | Volume : 16 | Issue : 11 | Page : LE01 - LE05 Full Version

Netiquette and Ethics Regarding Digital Education Across Institutions: A Narrative Review

Published: November 1, 2022 | DOI:
Arti Gupta, Surendra Singh, Rajeev Aravindakshan, Rakesh Kakkar

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Institute of Medical Science and Research, Srinagar, Pauri, Uttarakhand, India. 3. Additional Professor, Department of Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India. 4. Professor and Head, Department of Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Arti Gupta,
Assistant Professor, Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Manglagiri-522503, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Information Technology (IT) has made rapid advancement since the turn of this century. Ergo, the scope and extent of IT has also grown, resulting in increase in the number of internet users, who have different reasons for using the IT resources. The users of this IT revolution include students worldwide; who interact with technology based on their needs, with relative ease and have found the whole experience enriching. Progress in IT has not only changed the way humans interact with technology but has also influenced the way of interaction between the people. The interaction online is mostly informal and comes without set guidelines and compounded with the relative anonymity provided by internet, also it has complicated an individual’s ability to interact in a respectful and responsible way. The problems relating to internet safety arise from such interactions. Flame wars and cyberbullying are some of the other risky behavioural interactions displayed online and can lead to severe consequences. The unethical use of IT resources in the form of plagiarism, piracy, identity theft etc also questions the moral of an individual. Whilst there may be some idea, multitude of issues regarding Netiquette and ethical use of IT resources are often poorly understood and the knowledge imparted is also fragmented. Moreover, contemporary educators are much in need of such information. Thus, there is a need to include and summarise current priority areas that relate to etiquette and ethics in digital education.


Bullying, Citizenship, Information technology, Plagiarism

The IT is everywhere and there is no denying that it will continue to expand further in the future. The world as we know will become more interconnected as IT continues to evolve. The role that IT and computers in general, play in people’s lives is of immense importance. There is a widespread use in the contemporary world and their ease of use makes them necessary tools to educate as well as a mode of self-learning for students. However, this sudden change and the growing evolution in the “speed and complexity of IT seem to lead to a dilution of ethical and social consciousness and a sweeping away of accountability and responsibility for personal behaviour” (1).

The Oxford Learner’s Dictionary defines “etiquette” as the formal rules of correct or polite behaviour in society. A person with good etiquette is an individual who behaves responsibly and acceptably around others. The social construct of etiquette thus is more concerned with making people around feel comfortable by following a set of principles that may be imbued in the cultural and societal factors of the time (2). According to the author Shea V, a similar set of rules for behaving properly online refers to “Netiquette” or more generically network etiquette (2). A further simplification by Miller S states “Netiquette as a blend of common sense, common courtesy, and dictates of the computer technology and culture established by internet users” (3). It is a dynamic concept that is being continuously interpreted and redefined in the light of changes in technology and from how people perceive these changes (4).

Ethics is concerned with moral rules while morality is the individual’s perception of what he considers good or bad (5). The origin of morality is more philosophical and more informal. It comes from the inner self and is then moulded into ethics based on collective wisdom. It governs how one acts based on certain guiding principles (5). More or less, ethics is a code of conduct for the morally upstanding (6). Similar to any discipline, ethics in IT is necessary for ensuring its fair use. Ethical use of IT and its resources implies that there is no misuse of technology for one’s benefit or to harm others (6).

Opinions may differ on the notion that etiquette and ethics while using IT systems are separate entities (2). Whether this is true maybe a subjective assessment of the subject matter but upon scrutiny of both, there seems to be considerable overlap (6). One cannot have good etiquette and bad ethics or the other way round and it would not be an exaggeration if one says for instance, that these may be synonymous for many purposes and intent. Moreover, a person following netiquette rules seldom strays beyond the proscribed ethical line (2). Such individual acts diligently and responsibly while engaging with others; respects personal data and gives credence to the person using the technology; and also identifies misuse of technology and thus refrains from harming others (2).

Why are Netiquette and Ethical use of IT Resources Important?

The IT including computers and the internet is integral to present society. Today’s internet is not a standalone project for some government agencies as was the case in its incipient stage but a more sociable entity with vibrant cyber-communities and a treasure trove of information for self-use and sharing. Though even today IT largely can be considered a neutral medium of communication, it “gives users with greater control over both temporal and spatial coordinates of communication” (4). It is a place for virtual mixing of culture and individualities with varied expectations. These communities and individuals are also composed of students and teachers on campuses exploring and seeking new knowledge, meeting new people, sharing ideas (7). Moreover, this has been greatly facilitated because campuses are now equipped with sophisticated digital technology which has eased as well as enhanced the reach of communication and information exchange (7).

But as with any other form of technology, IT can also be misused and in some cases abused. Sometimes the interaction between groups may bring forth some awkwardness or misunderstanding (8) and lead to not so much of a good experience, especially for a new user (2). Even well-meaning individuals forget that they are interacting with other real people behind that screen (2). Another point to note is the level of secrecy provided by this medium which may lead to a degree of indifference on the part of some users (2) and this may lead to consequences for others. Impersonation is one such act mainly done for financial gains. However, one needs to understand that there is nothing as an absolute secret even on the internet (2).

Inappropriate and unethical use of digital technology has been documented among students (9),(10),(11). Indeed, there have been instances of technology misuse among students with Young KS et al., reporting internet abuse ranging from 13-18.4% among university students which were significantly higher than that reported among adolescents (4.6-4.7%) (9). It has become of increasing concern for faculties and with more advancement in IT; it will be difficult to supervise, much more complex, and daunting in scale (10),(11). So, this may be an opportune moment for educators and faculties across institutions to familiarise their wards with Netiquette including ethics, so they can behave responsibly while using IT resources.


To understand how to bring about and thus sustain changes in etiquette among students as well as to strengthen the ethical use of IT resources across campuses, first one must understand what challenges them.

Netiquette or a Lack Thereof

Students on campuses need to learn about etiquette while using IT. Thorough knowledge of basic etiquette makes them responsible for their actions and consequences. However, the knowledge of netiquette amongst the IT users is sporadic at best and among non-English speakers, it may be even lower (12), as the sense of necessity and usefulness for the netiquette rules has been found to be lower among the non-English speakers using IT resources (12). Netiquette demands that one remains respectful to others while online but core rules that govern netiquette are seldom known to everybody. Even experienced individuals may lack awareness about all the standards of netiquette (2). Formal written rules are rarely available.

Online communities interact with each other across different parts of the globe. In real life, they have a different set of norms based on their culture and ethos. These norms are translated to online behaviour which is then transformed into etiquettes. What may seem innocent in one culture may be misunderstood by others. This creates an issue while formalising netiquette rules. Moreover, there also may be a lack of universality in the application of netiquette rules. However, the basic thread for netiquette remains the same everywhere and that is to “Respect the Human” (2).

The Rapid Advance in IT and Issues Related to Etiquette

IT has been growing by leaps and bounds over the years. There was a time when sending an email was the most important action one would carry out on the internet. Bandwidth was limited and one’s immediate social circle on the internet was their friends. Nobody knew what e-commerce was and internet banking was still a myth. As rapid strides were made in Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms, a new and better user-friendly interface was developed. Social media connected everyone’s lives such that it was possible to make friends in other parts of the world. Many people in urban areas are buying every possible item of interest including clothes, groceries, books, etc. from the internet (2). For educators, it has become possible to teach their students online using real-time video conferencing applications and thus bring some sort of face-to-face interaction which was earlier not possible. This rapid advance however has compounded the problem of IT etiquette as newer and updated rules need to be framed and followed. Earlier etiquette norms were provided for Electronic mail (e-mail), chat rooms, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), World Wide Web (www) apart from mobile or cell phone etiquettes (2). But students now need to evolve their etiquettes based on the current technological scenario that is most appropriate for such advancement. However, this progress is not only rapid but also more complex. As such etiquette norms need to be reframed and refined because of current situations and this will take time and will vary according to the cultural and contextual milieu of the users of the said technology. Educators at campuses therefore now have to act as facilitators between the students and technology.


One of the epitaphs of etiquette demands that one needs to treat others as one himself expects to be treated. This is seldom the case with many users who have faced abuse, insults, and oftentimes plain obscenity at them. Cyberbullying is bullying with the use of digital or electronic technologies. It generally takes place over the internet and social media platforms are one of the commonest places for cyberbullying (13). Cyberbullying may take different forms (adapted from Willard Nancy’s Educator’s Guide to Cyberbullying and Cyberthreats) (14): Denigration (Sending or posting gossip or rumours about a person to damage his or her reputation or friendships), Exclusion (Intentionally and cruelly excluding someone from an online group), Flaming (Online fights using electronic messages with angry and vulgar language), Harassment (Repeatedly sending nasty, mean, and insulting messages), Impersonation (Pretending to be someone else and sending or posting material to get that person in trouble or danger or to damage that person’s reputation or friendships), Outing (Sharing someone’s secrets or embarrassing information or images online), Trickery (Talking someone into revealing secrets or embarrassing information, then sharing it online), Cyberstalking (Repeated, intense harassment and denigration that includes threats or creates significant fear).

Any form of cyberbullying can lead to victimisation of the person being bullied which can, in turn, lead to worsening grades, dropping out, of course, physical violence, depression, and other mental health issues including suicide. It has also been highlighted that the person perpetrating the act of bullying often has the same level of distress as the victim (15). So, educators need to tread a fine line when dealing with cyberbullying.

The phenomenon of cyberbullying is not limited to schools but has also pervaded the campus space. A study done by Zalaquett CP and Chatters SJ indicated that cyberbullying continues from high school to college and that college victims still reported significant psychological effects (16).

Cyberbullying in any form is not just a crime but against the very morals of etiquette and ethics. Numerous resources both regulatory and legislative are available to the victims of cyberbullying (17). On- and off-campus support should be provided to the victims as well.


Plagiarism in writing has been a bane for academics. It has been defined by the World Association of Medical Editors as “… the use of others’ published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source” (18). In fact copying, another’s an idea and masquerading it as one’s own.

There can be many types of plagiarism that are common among students on college campuses. For example, Turnitin, a software provider found the 10 most common types of plagiarism by college students, the so-called “The Plagiarism Spectrum” (19). Plagiarism can also be distinguished based on whether somebody’s work is verbatim or mosaic or paraphrasing of original work of others. Plagiarism breeds academic dishonesty among students (20). Other times the copyright of the plagiarised material can be infringed (21).

It also affects the learning of students. Moreover, it is a serious breach of ethics as well as etiquette.

Experts conclude that “informing students that instructors look for plagiarism in assignments and that there are consequences if it is discovered can help to deter students from plagiarising and create an environment where it is clear that ethical behaviour is valued” (22).

Lack of Knowledge of User Responsibilities

Many campuses around the world issue statement and policies for user responsibilities of IT. These may range from privileged access, use that is limited to the specific purposes that align with learning, prohibition to post any content that is deemed offensive or abusive while also deterring the user from impersonation to gain access (23). Users are also required to report any security risk to the IT resources and respect the intellectual property rights and privacy of others. Physically harming the IT resources also comes under the preview of user responsibilities at campuses (23).

However, knowledge about user responsibilities is inadequate amongst the students at campuses. Worse still many of the faculties’ may also lack proficiency in these responsibilities, making it an uphill task to impart such knowledge and training to their wards. Institutions should therefore frame policy statements about user responsibilities and disseminate the same to educate all concerned. These statements besides promoting responsible behaviour and safeguarding both the user and the IT resources have also been observed to shape norms of netiquette. However, it is also true that netiquette and the ethical principle of IT have also influenced the method in which communities create and interpret these statements (23).

Software Piracy

Software piracy and piracy of other copyrighted material including music, games, etc. among students on campuses are common. A wide variety of social correlates including older age, male gender, more experience with the use of computers, personal computer ownership, and a positive attitude towards piracy was found to be important for software piracy in colleges (24). A study by Chiang E and Assane D concluded that software piracy among college students can be attributed to the need for such software during their course, low level of income of students, higher than average technical skills, and peer-to-peer facilitation of such activity (25).

Whatever the reasons may be, piracy in any form cannot be condoned as it infringes upon the copyright of the owner, breaking of which may result in fines or jail time. Moreover, this pirated software may pose a security risk to the user as that version may be outdated or may be infected with malware. Pirated software also reduces the sales of legitimate software resulting in losses to the original manufacturer (24).

Students, need to be educated about software piracy with a focus on IT etiquettes and ethics which would raise their perceived moral intensity against it (24). There should also be provisions of punishment for anyone who participates in such activity.


In the narrowest sense, privacy or in the context of IT “restricted access” is the ability of the individual to choose what information they don’t want to share and what they want to, with others (26). It is fair to say that right to privacy should not be compromised. However, with the growing reach of the internet, there are concerns that as consumers of such services people are prone to breaches in privacy (26).

In this digital world, where people have shared their personal information to connect with others, it seems impossible that all of data is private. The information that one may have shared for friends or families is readily available to others for whom one’s information was not intended. Moreover, data is being collected by third parties including governments and corporations and this should be a cause of alarm (26). In an article on privacy by Alexander J, he argues that personal data could be used for purposes that they were not originally intended to be collected for or that the data handlers could have biases and opinions with regards the personal data (26). There are moral reasons as well for protecting personal data (27). Personal data can also be misused by individuals who may have malicious intent, most commonly for financial gains.

In college campuses, breach of privacy of an individual can be done by the college wherein the college or the staff may knowingly or unknowingly disseminate information about their students. Moreover, students can also misuse privacy if they intend to use someone’s information without their prior consent or when this information is being used for bullying others. Data misuse or violation of personal data is not only criminal but also against the basic tenets of ethics and etiquette (27).

Internet Safety

Internet is used for a wide variety of purposes. These may differ based on an individual’s need but what’s common is a certain level of risk associated with it. Internet safety deals with the welfare of the individual while using the internet (28). It helps avoid any mishap while online. An individual’s personal information is their domain but its unsanctioned use for malicious purposes can lead to consequences as fraud, identity theft, and loss of possessions (2). The most common methods used for gathering personal information may include phishing, scams, or sending malware or spam. Another reason for concern, while being online is for one’s safety as well as the safety of people around us, especially young children for they may become victims of crime that may or may not be linked to financial purposes only (28). Students across campuses are also vulnerable to internet crime. Knowledge of etiquette allows them to understand those risks. Etiquette allows students to practice good online habits (2).

Digital Citizenship and the making of a Digital Citizen

This is truly a digital era and information technology has pervaded every aspect of life. It’s a common thought that these technological innovations have made lives easier and less mundane. IT has also facilitated the way students acquire knowledge. Today information gathering is not only limited to structured classroom learning but has been supplemented by more inclusive, individualistic, and simpler methods (29). The role of IT in teaching has never been as important as having been seen during the pandemic (29). Even educators are now keen on learning the ropes of this digital revolution. However, this blowing-up of digital technology has created its fair share of problems. Internet addiction in students as well as the distracting usage of technology during the class is noteworthy while technology has also made students less focused on research (30).

But despite these concerns and as educators, one cannot keep students from participating in this digital revolution. The solution lies in inculcating a sense of responsibility towards these technologies. This can be brought about by framing policies and programs that make the user considerate about these responsibilities; that appeal to their reason and help them in practical situations. A step in the right direction is the evolution of the concept of digital citizenship. According to experts “Digital citizenship is a set of skills for thinking critically, behaving safely, and participating responsibly in the digital world. It includes appropriate, responsible behaviours in areas such as internet safety, privacy, reputation, identity, communication, collaboration, copyright, creativity, and skills around finding and evaluating trustworthy information online. In addition, digital citizenship includes the deliberate, age-appropriate use of digital tools to have a positive impact on personal, family, school, social, and community life.” (31).

In essence, it is the etiquette and ethics for using IT wherein its sound knowledge prepares the individual to use IT diligently and responsibly. Additionally, digital citizenship imparts skills, which help an individual in making informed choices that in turn protect them from any harm while using IT services. The idea and framework of digital citizenship when adopted have made the internet safer, engaging, and more empathetic (31).

The importance of digital citizenship for students on campuses cannot be amply stressed; for they are the generation that both are the consumer as well as the victim of this IT burst. They represent the future generation and the educator’s aspiration of an ideal digital citizen, and thus the first step should be to provide them with tools and know-how on the importance of being a digital citizen. Ribble M and Bailey G have extensively worked on the issue of digital citizenship and have identified nine themes that are crucial to this concept (32). They are Digital Access (full electronic participation in society), Digital Commerce (the electronic buying and selling of goods), Digital Communication (the electronic exchange of information), Digital Literacy (the process of teaching and learning about technology and the use of technology), Digital Etiquette (the electronic standards of conduct or procedure), Digital Law (the electronic responsibility for actions and deeds), Digital Rights and Responsibilities (those requirements and freedoms extended to everyone in a digital world), Digital Health and Wellness (physical and psychological well-being in a digital technology world) and Digital Security (the electronic precautions to guarantee security) (32).

Being a digital citizen encompasses all traits and skills that make the individual understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behaviour (33). How should one teach values of digital citizenship on campuses then? Well one thing is certain; an upstanding digital citizen needs to be engaged rather than have him burdened with barriers. It also needs to be stressed that any program or curriculum on digital citizenship should be student-centered rather than authoritative and should include their experiences and feedback. The idea is to empower them to make informed decisions. Moreover, digital citizenship goes beyond “responsible use” and now has expanded to “technology use aligned to values and ethics” (34).


The boom in IT has led to problems that educators did not foresee. Sense of perceived anonymity provided by the IT resources has brought about some unfortunate consequences. Netiquette and internet ethics may help in resolving some of these issues. It is thus recommended that institutions should frame policy measures that inculcate responsible use of IT resources that are tailor made for students and are made after taking into confidence the views of students, without burdening them with arbitrary norms. Students should be guided to make informed choices. The teacher of today should not only teach but also act as a role model in digital citizenship.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/56978.17150

Date of Submission: Jun 14, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jul 19, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Sep 08, 2022
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? NA
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Jun 14, 2022
• Manual Googling: Jul 18, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Sep 06, 2022 (6%)

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