Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 14749

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : November | Volume : 16 | Issue : 11 | Page : NC07 - NC11 Full Version

Prevalence of Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency in Belagavi, Karnataka, India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional

Published: November 1, 2022 | DOI:
Chethana Warad, Radhika Wani, Ruchi Singh

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, Karnataka, India. 2. Undergraduate Student, Department of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, Karnataka, India. 3. Undergraduate Student, Department of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Chethana Warad,
Plot Number 741, Scheme 40, Kuvempu Nagar, Belgavi, Karanataka, India.


Introduction: Colour vision deficiency is a common ocular disorder, but it often goes unnoticed due to lack of awareness and screening programmes. If detected early in life, it can help people choose suitable career paths and genetic counselling can help reduce the birth of colour-blind children and future disappointments in life.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of congenital Colour Vision Deficiency (CVD) among the general population in Belagavi at a tertiary level hospital and to spread awareness regarding CVD.

Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study, conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India (tertiary care hospital), from February 2022 to July 2022. The study population constituted 3131 people who visited the Ophthalmology Outpatient Department for routine eye examinations. A detailed ophthalmological examination was done, and colour vision was tested using Ishihara’s (38 plate) pseudoisochromatic test. Data was analysed using statistical software version 4.2.1 and Microsoft excel.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 40.74±15.86 years. The overall prevalence of congenital CVD was 150 (4.79%). The prevalence of congenital colour vision defects was 13 (0.9%) in females, and 137 (8.12%) in males (p-value <0.001). Deuteranomaly was the most common type of congenital CVD, found among 88 (58.67%), followed by protanopia among 28 (18.67%), followed by protanomaly and deuteranopia, each accounting for 17 (11.33%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of CVD among people belonging to the Belagavi district was remarkable. The prevalence rate was higher in males compared to females.


Deuteranomaly, Ishihara’s, Ocular disorder, Screening

Colour Vision Deficiency (CVD) or colour blindness is the decreased ability or inability to distinguish different colours under normal illumination conditions (1). A given colour is an admixture of the three primary colours in different proportion. Protan, deutan, tritan defects involve loss of L, M, S Cone functions, respectively. Each type of colour vision defect arises from rearranged deletions or mutations in the L, M or S photopigment encoding genes (2). The human rhodopsin gene is present on chromosome 3, while the blue sensitive cone genes are present on chromosome 7 and red- green sensitive cones are located on the q arm of X chromosome (3). If the ability to appreciate one or more primary colours is defective, the suffix used is anomalous and if absent, then the suffix used is anopia (4).

Colour vision deficiency can be congenital or acquired. Congenital CVD can be red-green (X-linked recessive) or blue-yellow (autosomal dominant). Acquired CVD can occur due to various reasons (ocular or neurological disease, drug toxicity or exposure to certain solvents) (5). The incidence of CVD is different in different geographical locations and shows racial variations with higher preponderance in men. Large random population surveys showed that the prevalence of CVD in European Caucasians is about 8% in men and 0.4% in women and between 4 % and 6.5% in men of Chinese and Japanese ethnicity (6). CVD allele frequency varies in the population. An incidence of 4% in African countries, 2.9-11% in Saudi Arabia (7),(8), lowest incidence rate of 2% has been observed in North America, south America, Fiji and certain Asian Indian tribes (9).

Colour vision deficiency often remains undetected due to lack of regular screening programs, lack of awareness about the condition and the patient simply gets adapted to the external environment (10). Colour vision deficiencies neither cause complete blindness nor are there any available therapeutics that can treat CVD (11). However, it is crucial for individuals to understand their colour vision status and their limitations so that they will be able to adapt better and make more informed career choices if detected early in life. To the best of authors’ knowledge, there are no reports regarding the prevalence of colour blindness among the general population in the Belagavi district, which lies in the Northwestern part of Karnataka. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of congenital colour vision deficiency among the general population in Belagavi, the biggest district and second capital of Karnataka state, and to spread awareness about the condition.

Material and Methods

This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India (tertiary care hospital), from February 2022 to July 2022. The Institutional Ethical Clearance (Ref No. MDC/JNMCIEC/374) was obtained prior to the start of the study. Subjects belonging to Belagavi district who visited Ophthalmology Outpatient Department for eye examination were explained about CVD, and those who wished to be a part of the study formed the study population.

Sample size calculation: Convenient sampling technique was used for selection and sample size was estimated using the following formula:

n= p (100-p)z2/ E2

Where, n was the sample size required,
p was the percentage occurrence of a state or condition (proportion or prevalence),
E was the percentage maximum error required, and
Z was the value corresponding to the level of confidence required.
The prevalence of colour vision deficiency in the Indian population was considered to be 2.98% (12). Hence, at 95% confidence level and a maximum error as 20% of prevalence, the sample size was given by:

n= 2.98×(100-2.98)×1.962 / 0.5962

Inclusion criteria: Subjects aged above or equal to 7 years, hailing from Belagavi district who visited Ophthalmology Outpatient Department for eye examination were explained about colour vision deficiency conditions and Ishihara’s test and those who consented to be part of the study were included in the present study.

Exclusion criteria: Subjects with optic nerve diseases, glaucoma, macular and retinal diseases, cataract or any other opacity of the media, red eye, patients diagnosed with diabetes, parkinson’s disease, alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic alcoholism, sickle cell disease, leukaemia, subjects with intellectual disability not able to perform the test, subjects under various medications which can affect colour vision, subjects with any other systemic conditions affecting colour vision, and subjects with a history of prolonged exposure to chemicals like prolonged contact with fertilisers and styrene were excluded from the study. All the above-mentioned causal factors for acquired colour vision deficiency were excluded to consider only congenital colour vision deficiency cases. Also, those who did not wish to take part in the study were excluded.

Study Procedure

Relevant information regarding age, gender, religion, place, education status, history of parent’s consanguinity, marital status, medical history, and drug history was collected and documented on a structured proforma. A complete ocular examination was done after recording a detailed systemic and ocular history.

Distant visual acuity was tested using Snellen’s visual acuity chart held at a six metre distance in a well-illuminated room. A thorough slit-lamp biomicroscopic ocular examination was followed by fundus evaluation either with 90 D lens or IDO using 20 D lens after dilating the pupil. Before pupillary dilatation, colour vision was tested using Ishihara’s pseudoisochromatic test (38 plate edition).

The subjects were comfortably seated in a well illuminated room and after recording visual acuity with Snellen’s chart, refraction was done wherever required, they were asked to perform the test with their respective Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) for each eye separately and binocularly as well.

The CVT plates were held at a distance of 2/3rd metre (arm’s length distance). The literate subjects were asked to read the numbers seen on the plate, whereas illiterate subjects were asked to trace the pattern lines with their fingers. In the 38-plate edition, plates 1 to 21 are screening plates, and plates 22 to 25 differentiate protans and deutans. Four or fewer errors are considered normal; eight or more errors are considered deficient. Each patient’s score was recorded, and they were classified as normal, deutan, or protan congenital colour vision deficient. Those who turned positive for colour vision deficiency were asked detailed history regarding the age of onset of this condition and whether they know what is colour vision deficiency and which type of colour vision deficiency he/she has and the consequences of CVD in their future life. Based on their responses they were considered to be either aware or unaware about CVD.

Statistical Analysis

Data is analysed using the statistical software R version 4.2.1 and Microsoft Excel. Categorical variables are represented by frequency and percentage. Continuous variables are given in Mean, SD/Median (Min, Max) form. A Chi-square test is used to check the dependency between categorical variables. The Shapiro-Wilk test is used to determine the normality of a variable. Mann-Whitney U test is used to compare the distribution of age over CVD. A p-value ≤0.05 indicates statistical significance.


The mean age of the 3131 subjects was 40.74±15.86 years; 1688 (53.91%) were males and 1443 (46.09%) were females, with a gender ratio of 1.17:1. Majority of the subjects were Hindu by religion. Consanguineous marriage was observed in 496 (15.84%) subjects; 2045 (65.31%) subjects of the study population belonged to rural areas of Belagavi district (Table/Fig 1).

The estimated overall prevalence of congenital CVD was 150 (4.79%). Deuteranomaly was the most common type prevalent in the population accounting for 88 (58.67%) subjects. The prevalence of congenital CVD was higher among males than females. Awareness regarding CVD amongst those who were positive for CVD was present in 80 (53.33%) subjects. Out of 150 subjects who had congenital CVD, majority were Hindus (Table/Fig 2).

Congenital CVD was more in females born out of consanguineous marriage. Whereas, in case of males, CVD was more in males born out of non consanguineous marriage. Overall, there was no significant association of parent’s consanguinity and CVD. (Table/Fig 3).


Colour vision deficiency is not a rare disorder of vision but, due to lack of regular screening facilities and social unawareness,it goes unnoticed many times. Colour vision deficiency is profoundly seen in men than women who mostly remain as carriers of the defective gene. CVD is commonly congenital and X-linked red green colour blindness is the widest spread form of vision impairment (1).

The present study was conducted in Belagavi district, Karnataka in all age groups for early detection of CVD. The overall prevalence of congenital CVD was 4.79 %. The study has proven the fact that males have a higher prevalence (8.2%) than females (0.9%), which reinforces the X-linked recessive trait of the defect.

The results were comparable to the results of the study done by Shrestha P and Pradhan PMS, who found the prevalence of CVD to be 5.2% (0.74% in females and 9.77% in men) in the Nepalese population (13); 4.71% prevalence rate (8.73% in men and 1.69% in women) was observed in a study done among adult Kashmiri population (10); 2.98% (3.89% in males and 0.18% in females) prevalence was noted from a study done at pre-employment screening in Indian population (12). Globally, 4.8% CVD prevalence was reported in Singapore population (14), 3.5% (6.8% in men and 0.6 % in females) in Sudanese population (15), 4.1% (3.6% among male and 0.6% among female students) prevalence was noted in Ethiopian school children (16). However, the present results are different from the prevalence rates reported in studies done in Iran (13.93%) (17), Turkey (7.33%) (18), Saudi Arabia (21.3%) (19). A detailed comparative analysis of the present study with other reported studies in various geographic locations is given in (Table/Fig 4).

In terms of religion, CVD was more prevalent among Hindus and lowest among Christians. In the present study, parents’ consanguinity had a statistically significant association among females who had colour vision deficiency though it was not statistically significant among men. Cultural practices like consanguineous marriages are an important factor in the prevalence as congenital CVD is transmitted as an X linked recessive condition (5).

In the current study, only 11.82% of the study population were illiterates and more than 50% of the study population were beyond SSLC, but still, out of 150, 80 (53.33%) of the people who had congenital CVD were unaware of their condition. Colour vision deficiency is reported to be associated with low literacy rate (1), poor socio-economic status (18), specific geographical locations (17), consanguinity (5).

Though, there are no remarkable associations observed between levels of CVD, educational status and career selection, people with CVD struggle a lot in different phases of life (24),(25). Like during childhood, in schools they struggle in subjects where colours are involved like use of graphs or charts in maths, use of chemical agents in science labs or maps in social studies (25),(26). After completing education, when they move for job, they may find it difficult to meet work expectations that can turn out to be an obstacle for their career growth (26),(27). Normal colour vision requirements are a part of many occupations both public and private sector like police services, various medical branches, military services, fashion designing, driving etc in which colour plays a significant role. The psychological impact of a person being denied of a job when he is diagnosed as colour blind or colour vision deficient can be devastating. If its for the first time it might result in complaints, litigations, refusing to accept. So, it is highly important to create social awareness about CVD and screening programs are needed at the right time to help people make careful choice of career paths and to overcome the future challenges.

Population-based screening programmes should be initiated for early detection and to plan appropriate strategies. Colour vision screening programmes in schools should be mandatorily complemented with visual acuity testing. Parents and children can be counselled for future career plans. Pros and cons of enrolling for human trials for gene therapy for CVD which is more likely to be useful if applied early in life should be discussed (28). Youngsters should be motivated to overcome this ailment and be a productive, useful asset to the society.


Current study was a hospital-based screening, the sample size was small, home to home survey was not done. The Ishihara’s pseudoisochromatic plates was used for the detection of colour blindness, which detects only red-green deficiency, so the prevalence of Tritan (blue colour) deficiency, though rare, could not be found.


With time, patience, and practice, people can adapt to colour vision deficiency since it often goes undetected, mainly due to lack of awareness about the defect. Although it is not a life-threatening disorder, it greatly hinders people from choosing certain career opportunities, leading to psychological trauma. So, there is a need to create awareness about colour vision deficiency and its impact on various stages of life. Genetic counselling in the general population will help decrease the number of children with this deficiency. The Ishihara’s pseudo isochromatic plates test is a cost-effective, easily portable, non invasive, fast, and sensitive testing modality for both diagnosis and screening of congenital red-green colour vision deficiency. Population-based screening programmes should be initiated for early detection and to plan appropriate strategies.


Fareed M, Anwar MA, Afzal M. Prevalence and gene frequency of colour vision impairments among children of six populations from North Indian region. Genes Dis. 2015;2(2):211-18. [crossref] [PubMed]
Venkatesh N Prajna, Deepak P Edward, Manali Hazarika. Physiology of the eye. N Venkatesh Prajna, Peyman’s principles & practice of ophthalmology, 2nd edition vol.1. New Delhi: Jaypee: 2019.p. 47-52.
Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Bopp S, Saad Othman I, Ducournau D. Strategy for the management of macular edema in retinal vein occlusion: The European Vitreo Retinal Society macular edema study. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:870987. [crossref] [PubMed]
Kharel S, Mainalee M. Congenital Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) in children living in high altitudes of nepal. J Mol Genet Med. 2017;11(4):01-02. [crossref]
Shah A, Hussain R, Fareed M, Afzal M. Prevalence of red-green color vision defects among Muslim males and females of Manipur, India. Iran J Public Health. 2013;42(1):16-24.
Birch J. Worldwide prevalence of red-green colour deficiency. J Opt Soc Am A. 2012 29(3):313-20. [crossref] [PubMed]
Osuobeni EP. Prevalence of congenital red-green color vision defects in Arab boys from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1996;3(3):167-70. [crossref] [PubMed]
Voke J, Voke P. Congenital dyschomatopsias among Saudi Arabians. Saudi Med J. 1980;1:209-14.
Gegenfurtner KR. Cortical mechanism of color vision. Nat Rev Neurosci 2003;4(7):563-72. [crossref] [PubMed]
Masood T, Nazeer M, Farooq S, Saleem SM. A study of color vision deficiency in an adult Kashmiri population. International Journal of Current Advanced Research. 2017;06(07):4849-53. Doi:
Chakrabarti A, Chakraborti S. Red-green colour vision deficiency and lack of awareness among rural school students in India. Iran J Public Health. 2015;44(7):1018-20.
Kundu BK, Chakma B. Prevalence of colour vision defect in the Indian population-results from a pre-employment screening centre of a tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research. 2020;7(9):I19-I23.
Shrestha P, Pradhan PMS. Congenital colour vision deficiency among patients attending outpatient department of ophthalmology in a Tertiary Care Centre: A descriptive crosssectional study. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2022;60(247):278-81. doi: 10.31729/jnma.7319. PMID: 35633257; PMCID: PMC9226731. [crossref] [PubMed]
Chan YK, Tay MT, Lim MK. Xq28: Epidemiology and sex-linkage between redgreen colour blindness and G6PD deficiency. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1994;2(3):318-22.
Alrasheed SH, EL Awad ME, Abdulbagi AA, Abdu M. Congenital and acquired colour vision deficiency among population in North Kordofan State of Sudan. Sudanese J Ophthalmol. 2017;9(1):22-27. [crossref]
Woldeamanuel GG, Geta TG. Prevalence of color vision deficiency among school children in Wolkite, Southern Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11:838. [crossref] [PubMed]
Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Pakzad R, Yekta A, Heravian J, Nabovati P, et al. The prevalence of color vision deficiency in the northeast of Iran. J Curr Ophthalmol. 2017;31(1):80-85. PMID: 30899851; PMCID: PMC6407150. [crossref] [PubMed]
Citirik M, Acaroglu G, Batman C, Zilelioglu O. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2005;12(2):133-37. [crossref] [PubMed]
Dahlan HM, Mostafa OA. Screening for color vision defects among male Saudi secondary school children in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Med J Cairo Univ. 2013;81(2):513-17.
Sutender Naresh. Study of color blindness in Jat Sikhs. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995;39(2):127-30.
Kim H, Ng JS. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency in an Adult Population in South Korea. Optom Vis Sci. 2019;96(11):866873. Doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001441. PMID: 31688694. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ugalahi MO, Fasina O, Ogun OA, Ajayi BG. Prevalence of congenital colour vision deficiency among secondary school students in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2016;23(2):93-96. [crossref] [PubMed]
Reddy AVP, Babu GR,Prasad KV. Prevalence of colour blindness in school children in Guntur City, Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research. 2017;4(11):2266-68.
Ramachandran N, Wilson GA, Wilson N. Is screening for congenital colour vision deficiency in school students worthwhile? A review. Clin Exp Optom. 2014;97(6):499-06. [crossref] [PubMed]
Mehta B, Sowden PT, Grandison A. Philadelphia PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2018. Does deuteranomaly place children at a disadvantage in education settings?: A systematic literature review. In Progress in Colour Studies: Cognition, language and beyond L MacDonald, C Biggam & G Paramei (eds) pp. 341-55. [crossref]
Chan XBV, Goh SMS, Tan NC. Subjects with colour vision deficiency in the community: What do primary care physicians need to know? Asia Pac Fam Med. 2014;13:10. [crossref]
Steward JM, Cole BL. What do color vision defectives say about everyday tasks? Optom Vis Sci. 1989;66(5):288-95. [crossref] [PubMed]
Hassall MM, Barnard AR, Maclaren RE. Gene therapy for color blindness. Yale J Biol Med. 2017;90(4):543-51.

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/60162.17138

Date of Submission: Sep 10, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Oct 01, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Oct 30, 2022
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. No

• Plagiarism X-checker: Sep 16, 2022
• Manual Googling: Oct 18, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Oct 29, 2022 (20%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)