Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 162735

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : October | Volume : 16 | Issue : 10 | Page : VC01 - VC07 Full Version

Perception, Working Experience and Psychiatric Morbidity among Information Technology Professionals during COVID-19 Lockdown: A Cross-sectional Survey

Published: October 1, 2022 | DOI:
Anirban Ray, Subrata Das, Debasish Sanyal, Mainak Sankar Majumder

1. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 2. Associate Professor, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, ESI PGI MSR, ESIC Medical College and ESIC Hospital and ODC (EZ), Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 3. Professor, Department of Psychiatry, KPC Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 4. Director, Capgemini Technology Services India Limited, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Debasish Sanyal,
156, Bhupen Roy Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.


Introduction: In the year 2020, the functioning of the world changed in a big way. For a large part of the year, the world stayed locked indoor, due to the novel Coronavirus Disease -2019 (COVID-19). The need for Information Technology (IT) has reached a new height, and this is certain to persist. Though the IT professionals were mostly working indoors in 'work from home' mode, work pressure and boredom increased according to few studies. Work from home also has different set of employees’ expectations and organisational responsibilities.

Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity working experience and related perspectives of the new normal, as perceived by IT professionals.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (IPGME&R), Kolkata, West Bengal, India, between May 2020 and August 2020. A Google form-based survey was done which aimed to reach throughout the country. Consent was included as the first question of the form. An ethical clearance was taken from Institutional Ethical Committee of IPGME&R, Kolkata in convenience sampling of IT professionals. For the survey, a semistructured questionnaire was developed and Brief Resilience Coping Scale (BRCS), Ten Items Personality Inventory (TIPI), and K6 psychiatric morbidity screener were used to measure the psychiatric morbidity. Snow ball sampling methods was used to get the sample through free sharing of google forms over the internet. Relevant statistical tests were used to analyse the data, where p<0.05 had been considered significant.

Results: Total 72 IT professionals responded to the survey but only 71 were included due lack of informed consent. About 20 (28.2%) showed a high risk of losing their job as per their perception and 35 (49.29%) were highly worried about having COVID-19, while 44 (61.9%) were highly worried about bringing the infection home. 78.9% (n=71) showed screener positive psychiatric morbidity. Psychiatric morbidity was only dependent on “emotional stability” as a personality trait and “risk of Job loss” by regression analysis. Total 67 people were working from home, 37 (55.22%) felt the family time had increased, 28 (41.79%) felt family was happier due to work from home.

Conclusion: This study showed the psychiatric morbidity of IT professionals was quite high and it was not related to their resilience level and own perception of morbidity. Psychiatric morbidity was determined by emotional stability, and the threat of losing jobs. It also shed light on disease perception and state of work perception of IT professionals. Though work from home mode may compromise the work quality slightly but it was good for the families and personal stress levels of the employees.


Coronavirus disease 2019, Employment, Mental well-being, Pandemic, Stress, Work from home

The COVID-19 is the most determining event of the year 2020, and probably of the last century. A large part of the world was under lockdown during this time. The world has progressed at a virtual level in the year 2020. Thus, computers and associated services and the internet have become the most important driving force of the world in 2020. It has also given rise to new realisations and perspectives to people and society and a probable change in habits (1). The IT professionals have worked as silent warriors during this time and the world should be thankful to them (2).

One development has been the concept of work from home. This concept had been used before as a work option for an emergency to give flexibility to the employees. But this is the first time such a forced experiment on a large scale throughout the world had been conducted. On the one hand, it allowed companies to explore the pros and cons of administrative and output perspectives, on the other hand, employees’ expectations and requirements had to be explored and addressed (3),(4),(5),(6). It may change the working of the post COVID-19 era in the IT industry (3),(7),(8). Some studies had already examined the scenario from an industrial point of view and the International Labour Organisation have already published guidelines for employers (9).

Numerous studies have confirmed that in this pandemic mental health was one of the most affected areas (10),(11). The healthcare workers directly risked their lives (12),(13). The people, in general, might have lost their jobs and risked their well-being along with their near and dear ones (14). The IT professionals lost their routine and continuous work, boredom was also stressful due to the new compulsions of their jobs (15). Hence psychological morbidity, disease and job perception needed to be explored especially as the situation was somewhat different from the general population. Though there are many studies on healthcare workers’, psychological wellbeing and predictors of stress (16),(17), resilience is an important concept in mental health literature. It is defined as the ability of the person to perform adequately in a difficult and stressful situation (18),(19). In some studies, it had been conceptualized as a trait factor, where studies have shown more resilience in a person result in less anxiety and psychiatric morbidity and vice versa (19),(20),(21). In some other literature, resilience has been conceptualised as a dynamic construct, which can change with age, context and multiple other environmental factors (18),(22),(23),(24),(25),(26). This concept requires us to develop and train resilience in people (25),(27). Studies showed that sleep, age, and professional training impact the resilience in a person, which in turn influence the psychiatric morbidity in a particular situation like COVID-19 pandemic (25),(27).

Personality factors also can be instrumental in modifying the stress response in a person. The presence of certain factors makes a person more vulnerable to stress in a particular situation (28). From the mental health point of view, it is necessary to assess an IT professional’s perspective and mental health in the lockdown, while they were on 'work from home' mode. It is necessary to identify possible socio-demographic or psychological determinants for predicting the adjustment and morbidity in this new scenario. Therefore, this study was done to estimate psychiatric morbidity of IT professionals and to assess their perspective about ‘work from home’ as a new work culture.

Material and Methods

A google form-based survey was conducted in this cross-sectional study, between May 2020 to August 2020 through convenience sampling from IT professionals. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee (vide reference no IPGME&R/ IEC/2021/105). Data was collected purely from IT professionals who resided in different major cities of India namely Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Delhi NCR, Mumbai, Pune, and Bangalore during the lockdown period. All study subjects gave their consent to get enrolled in this study.

Inclusion criteria: IT professionals/persons who were working for more than two years in the computer and internet-related service industry and worked for an average duration of 40 hours or more in a week.

Exclusion criteria: Individuals who filled up the questionnaire form but did not fulfil the inclusion criteria of the study sample were excluded from the study. Individuals who had a history of a psychiatric disease diagnosed in the last five years or a history of psychiatric disease in parents were also excluded from the study (Table/Fig 1).

Sample size calculation: The sample size had been calculated from pilot study results through Epi-info software taking a 5% error and 95% confidence interval.


• A semistructured questionnaire was developed for this survey including socio-demographic data, perceptions about the disease as well as the lockdown. The main instrument for collecting data was an online questionnaire using Google Forms ( Form in word format was also used to collect responses via email. • Brief Resilience Coping Scale is a very short 4-item, free to use, resilience scale to measure how a person can perform in the face of adversity. Persons scoring 4-13 were designated as low resilient copers, 14-16 as medium resilient copers, 17-20 as high resilient copers, who adjust to adverse conditions well (29).
• Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) is a 10-item personality assessment questionnaire; its questions and norms are available in the public domain. It has direct and reverse score questions, one item each, for each of five subscales, that is extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experiences, etc, then it can be checked with male and female norm scores, to get the status of these qualities in such human being across the normative society (30).
• K6 screening scale: It is a psychiatric morbidity screener. If it is scored on a 1-5 scale then the cut-off is 18/19 (i.e., 18 = no morbidity, 19 = with psychiatric morbidity). It is also free to use and short, which is suitable for such online surveys (31).

Since there is no previous reference and this was a new experience for the entire world, it would be worth qualitatively assessing the perception of the IT professionals in managing lockdown stress or their perspective about 'work fro home', with some open-ended questions such as- pros and cons of work from home or any modification they would suggest to the current work from home structure, being explored as part of the study. A team of experts from diverse fields, including people working in the IT sector, psychologists, sociology and anthropology expert along with psychiatrists was formed to get suggestions about likely questions which would give valid and reliable information in this regard. A final questionnaire was formed taking into consideration the suggestions and arriving at a consensus and the questionnaire was validated by a pilot study on 30 participants. The questionnaire showed high internal consistency (chronbach’s 8=0.82).

The questionnaire was uploaded in a google form and shared over the internet on social media platforms with a request to send it to related individuals, specifically targeting IT professionals. This google form had an inbuilt consent question, which could be negated and that would take the participant out of the form, without any problem. The google form should take 20-30 minutes to complete which was also informed beforehand in the appeal. To ensure that some questions were not missed inadvertently by the participants, all questions were made compulsory except the qualitative questions after gaining experience from a pilot study.

Decision Tree

Classification tree analysis was done to detect potential interactions on a multilevel basis. Classification trees can be used to predict the membership of individuals in classes of a categorical variable (called the target variable), based on measurements of predictor variables. They are highly flexible since they can be used with a mixture of variable types in the same analysis (continuous, ordinal, or nominal), and do not require stringent theoretical or distributional assumptions of more traditional methods. It provides a method to screen large sets of potential predictor variables for an outcome variable to determine those that are the most important. The main distinction between more conventional methods such as logistic regression and classification trees is the treatment of interactions in the models. Most conventional methods assume that disease predictors act independently and, while interactions can be modelled, they are usually omitted to reduce complexity and the overall number of predictors in the model. In contrast, classification tree analysis assumes that interactions are the rule rather than the exception and, by using a method of recursive partitioning, facilitates interactions readily, allowing this analysis to model multilevel interactions that would be laborious, if not impractical, using traditional regression analyses (32),(33).

Network Analysis

Health research focuses on the human being, his environment and his social capital. Thus, univariate analyses may not explain the phenomenon under investigation because they capture the isolated action of each variable regarding the outcome under study.

With network analysis, it is possible to visually explore relationships that occur simultaneously between multiple variables. Networks are graphical structures composed of nodes and circular elements that represent variables (34). Nodes connect through lines called edges. Networks can be classified as unweighted and weighted.In unweighted networks, edges represent only the relationship between nodes, and in weighted networks, the magnitude of the relationships is shown. That is, the thicker the connection between nodes, the stronger the relationship between them. In addition, the edges may vary in colour depending on the direction of the relationship (positive or negative).

Statistical Analysis

The statistical programs by default defined that the green or blue colour represents a positive relationship, and the red, as a negative relationship. The authors used JASP SOFTWARE to perform network analysis (35). The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 26 was used for descriptive and decision tree analysis. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to be significant. Study variables were simply summarised in the form of frequency for categorical variables and mean for numerical variables.


A total of 72 people responded, 71 had valid answers. One person did not consent and aborted the form. Hence, 71 valid answers were included. Among them, male were 66 (92.9%) and females were 5 (7.1%) (Table/Fig 2). Out of 71, 36 subjects were working from 2-5 years and 24 were from 5-10 years. 41 (57.74%) had fear of losing jobs. Out of 71, 67 (94.4%) had worked from home during the pandemic (Table/Fig 3). Around 37 (55.22%) subjects were said that their families were getting more time from then than before and they were happier than before 28 (41.79%). Their opinion on work from home suggested that work from home was Inferior to office-based work 27 (40.27%) (Table/Fig 4). Total 66 (98.5%) felt work from home was a good option for emergencies and also often in regular times but was not good for regular workflow (Table/Fig 4). While assessing the perception of the pandemic, among the participants, 69% consider IT professionals as COVID- 19 front-liners. Regarding the solution to the pandemic, most of the IT professionals i.e., 42 (59.15%) felt that only vaccination can stop the pandemic (Table/Fig 5). Out of 71, 67 (94.4%) had worked from home during the pandemic.

The basic analysis had shown that 15 (21.1%) of the study subjects had a low resilience score, 33 (46.5%) had a medium resilient score and the rest 23 (32.4%) had a high level of resilience. The K6 Screener positive psychiatric morbidity was 56 (78.9%).

From a theoretical point of view, psychiatric morbidity can depend on participant personality factors, the ability to cope, maturity and age, sex etc. as they are demographic factors. The (Table/Fig 6) shows decision tree analysis to assess the influence of variables on psychiatric morbidity. In this model also, only “emotional stability” (p=0.001) significantly predicted the psychiatric morbidity. Interestingly ‘sources of information about the disease’ was also shown to be a strong predictor of psychiatric morbidity if the emotional stability was less (<=4) as per the TIPI.

Using Network Analysis, K6 Cat (i.e. Psychiatric morbidity Yes/ No according to K6 Screener) shows a relationship between job risk codes and emotional stability. The K6 category has a high level of betweenness (betweenness means the measures of centrality. It is measured by the number of times a node lies on the shortest path between other nodes or the parameters to measure), so it acts as a bridge connection between the nodes or the objects those are measured by analysis. Details of the network analysis are given in the supplementary file (Table/Fig 7).


As there were a dearth of relevant literature, the findings of this study were difficult to corroborate and compare. But the descriptive utility of the study was immense, as it explores uncharted territory, as work from home is probably the new normal that is going to stay.

In this study psychiatric morbidity was found to be 78.9%. To the best of the authors knowledge, there is no study exclusively with information technology professionals who mainly worked from home. But there are multiple studies conducted on the general population and front line workers like healthcare professionals, these studies had shown a varied prevalence of stress from 6.0% to 81.9% across studies (13),(36). Healthcare professionals had a higher percentage of psychiatric morbidity than general populations (16). Here, IT professionals had less risk of job loss and less life risk than the general population and healthcare personnel. But they had a higher percentage of psychiatric morbidity as per this study (78.9% of K6 positive morbidity). Though an online study of Indian general population found the percentage of the population having a poor psychological wellbeing is around 71.7% and 74.1% reported moderate levels of stress (37). Another Indian study found only 26.7% had no psychiatric illness (38). Hence this study had a similar prevalence of psychiatric morbidity that is found in online surveys in India. The use of different scales might also be an issue. Most of the studies used specific scales for anxiety, depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) etc but this study used the psychiatric screener K6 (39),(40).

One study from Israel which used the same scale found psychiatric morbidity at 11.5% among dentists (41). Another study from Japanese office employees found the K6 median score of the population to be 9 (taking score range 1-5), whereas in this study it came to 24 (15). It could be because of sample bias, as the study sample is small, but it also raises the possibility of a separate norm score of the scale in the Indian population.

A rapid review of COVID-19 studies on mental health from Switzerland revealed exposure to COVID-19 infection had been a determinant of mental health problem (13). Whereas another study revealed patients with severe mental illness, not specifically due to COVID-19, significantly differ from their healthy counterparts in many personality traits. Symptomatic participant scored higher in neuroticism, and lower in extraversion and conscientiousness when compared with healthy controls (28). Another systematic review revealed that mental distress related risk factors included gender, age group (≤40 years), unemployment, chronic/psychiatric illnesses, and effect of social media concerning COVID-19 (30). Another large online survey from China revealed being female, and being at risk of contact with COVID-19 patients were the most common risk factors for mental health problems during COVID-19 (36). Female gender had been found to be determinant in few other studies also [40,42,43]. Another cross sectional online survey in adults of China revealed, high prevalence of mental health problems, which positively associated with frequently social media exposure during the COVID-19 outbreak (44). In this study, job loss was never a prominent issue. But a change of nature of job along with lifestyle changes could be important considerations. The sample consisted of a small number of females to consider a different sub-group. The group is also biased with relatively higher education and urban residence. Hence sex, residence and education could not be a predictor in this sample. But similar to other studies, personality factors and sources of information was a predictor of psychiatric morbidity.

A meta-analysis focusing on relationship of resilience and mental health observed negative correlation of trait resilience to negative indicators of mental health and positive correlation with positive indicators (19). A cross sectional observational study from Indonesia with healthcare workers in COVID-19 also showed significant relationship between both, state and trait anxiety and resilience (p<0.05) (21). Another online survey with healthcare workers in Italy suggested stress and burnout were predicted by low resilience along with lower age, female gender, greater exposure to COVID-19 (45). A review done in the year 2007 also examined resilience as a trait and its relation with occurrence of PTSD. It observed resilience as not a simple “flip side” of risk (46). But this study has shown resilient coping was very poorly correlated with screener positive psychiatric morbidity. Though previous data during pandemics showed a similar result (26).

The COVID-19 pandemic probably provided the largest opportunity to experiment with working from home as a mode of work. It was a good option for families as flexibility of work and family time was increased. The family was also happy according to the participants. But the job stress was largely similar for most of the participants. On one side they saved time and energy by avoiding travelling, but connectivity and equipments issue took away more time. Face to face discussions were also useful to get across communication properly and also human touch makes the work easier. Another problem was lack of fixed office hours, which some participants wanted to modify in the work culture of WFH along with that some of them also wished for more virtual rendezvous. They also preferred that company should arrange for a stable high-speed internet connection at their home as this was one of the biggest obstacles they faced. This observation was in line with other studies done on the impact of work from home in pre COVID-19 era (47).

Regarding quality of work, the group was undecided. Almost equal number of participants voted for improvement as well as worsening of work quality, but the larger section opined that there was no change. Most of them felt that WFH would prevail in future as well, but for intermittent use as an alternative and not entirely as a mainstay for work.


This study had a small sample size with convenient snowball sampling through the internet that lead to occurrence of information bias, which is common in such internet based surveys. The smaller number of responses may suggest that the quality of responses was adequate. The participants were motivated to answer and opine. It was an anonymous survey, hence did not target forced completion under external coercion and pressure. Hence, for such uncharted territory, a genuine response of such detailed quality is invaluable. However, a more large-scale study with extensive Strength Weakness Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis and employee satisfaction analysis would be needed.


Psychiatric morbidity is quite high in IT professionals of India, but interestingly it was not related to their resilience level and own perception of morbidity. Psychiatric morbidity was only determined by the emotional stability and the threat of job loss for the employee during the pandemic. Working from home was good for families. Though work quality may suffer, stress levels of employees themselves would reduce. The new way of working was tested during the lockdown in the IT industries and that may be adopted in near future in this industry. In this perspective, the psychological morbidity of the employees has great importance. The study has focused on the need for future large-scale studies to take care of the well-being of IT professionals.


Kumar M, Dwivedi S. Impact of coronavirus imposed lockdown on Indian population and their habits. International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research. 2020; 5(2):88-97.
Arshad M. COVID-19: It’s time to be thankful to our ICT professionals. Int J Inf Technol Electr Eng. 2020;9(2):23-31.
Cyril Bouquet. COVID-19 caused the future of work to arrive early: Here is how.| IMD [Internet]. IMD business school. Available from: /research-knowledge/articles/ How-COVID-19-caused-the-future-of-work-to-arrive-early. [cited 2021 Feb 7].
Pimentel E. Remote work requires us to reconsider how to evaluate and pay employees [Internet]. The Conversation. Available from: http://theconversation. com/remote-work-requires-us-to-reconsider-how-to-evaluate-and-payemployees- 146009. [cited 2020 Dec 12].
Dahik A, Lovich D, Kreafle C, Bailey A, Kilmann J, Kennedy D, et al. What 12000 employees have to say about the future of remote work [Internet]. India - EN. 2020. Available from: gains-covid-19. [cited 2021 Feb 7].
Troup C, Peetz D, Ramia I, Weststar J, O’Brady S, Werth S, et al. Working from home during COVID-19: What do employees want? [Internet]. The Conversation. Available from: 19-what-do-employees-really-want-148424. [cited 2020 Dec 12].
Mitta S. Work from home has been “successful” during Covid-19 lockdown. What next? - The Economic Times [Internet]. [cited 2020 Dec 12]. Available from: home-has-been-successful-during-covid-19-lockdown-what-next/ articleshow/75470580.cms?from=mdr.
Saxena S. Trends that will transform IT industry post COVID-19 [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 12]. Available from: https://www.cxotoday. com/corner-office/trends-that-will-transform-it-industry-post-covid-19/.
International Labour Organisation. An employers’ guide on working from home in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 [Internet]. International Labour Organisation; 2020 [cited 2021 Feb 7]. Available from: wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---act_emp/documents/publication/ wcms_745024.pdf.
Javed B, Sarwer A, Soto EB, Mashwani ZU. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic’s impact on mental health. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2020;35(5):993- 96. Available from: Doi:10.1002/hpm.3008. [crossref] [PubMed]
Kathirvel N. Post COVID-19 pandemic mental health challenges. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;53:102430. Available from: Doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102430. [crossref] [PubMed]
Sun N, Wei L, Shi S, Jiao D, Song R, Ma L, et al. A qualitative study on the psychological experience of caregivers of COVID-19 patients. Am J Infect Control. 2020;48(6):592-98. [crossref] [PubMed]
Zürcher SJ, Kerksieck P, Adamus C, Burr CM, Lehmann AI, Huber FK, et al. Prevalence of mental health problems during virus epidemics in the General Public, Health Care Workers and Survivors: A rapid review of the evidence. Front Public Health. 2020. Available from: fpubh.2020.560389. [crossref]
Vindegaard N, Benros ME. COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:531- 42. Available from: Doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048. [crossref] [PubMed]
Kabasawa K, Tanaka J, Komata T, Matsui K, Nakamura K, Ito Y, et al. Determination of specific life changes on psychological distress during the COVID- 19 pandemic. PLoS One. 2021;16(8): e0256481. journal.pone.0256481. [crossref] [PubMed]
Krishnamoorthy Y, Nagarajan R, Saya GK, Menon V. Prevalence of psychological morbidities among general population, healthcare workers and COVID-19 patients amidst the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2020;293:113382. Doi: 10.1016/j. psychres.2020.113382. [crossref] [PubMed]
Gupta S, Sahoo S. Pandemic and mental health of the front-line healthcare workers: a review and implications in the Indian context amidst COVID-19. Gen Psychiatr. 2020;33(5):e100284. Available from: Doi:10.1136/gpsych-2020- 100284. [crossref] [PubMed]
Fletcher D, Sarkar M. Psychological resilience: A review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory. European Psychologist. 2013;18(1):12-23. Available from: [crossref]
Hu T, Zhang D, Wang J. A meta-analysis of the trait resilience and mental health. Personal Individ Differ. 2015;76:18-27. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S0191886914006710. [crossref]
Perlman D, Patterson C, Moxham L, Taylor EK, Brighton R, Sumskis S, et al. Understanding the influence of resilience for people with a lived experience of mental illness: A self-determination theory perspective. J Community Psychol. 2017;45(8):1026-32. [crossref]
Setiawati Y, Wahyuhadi J, Joestandari F, Maramis MM, Atika A. Anxiety and resilience of healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2021;14:01-08. Doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S276655. [crossref] [PubMed]
Rutter M. Stress, coping and development: Some issues and some questions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1981;22(4):323-56. Available from: Doi: 10.1111/ j.1469-7610.1981.tb00560.x. [crossref] [PubMed]
Lutha SS, Cicchetti D. The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies. Dev Psychopathol. 2000;12(4):857-85. Doi:10.1017/ s0954579400004156. [crossref] [PubMed]
Vanderbilt-Adriance E, Shaw DS. Conceptualizing and re-evaluating resilience across levels of risk, time, and domains of competence. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2008;11(1-2):30-58. Available from: Doi:10.1007/s10567-008-0031-2. [crossref] [PubMed]
Bozdağ F, Ergün N. Psychological resilience of healthcare professionals during COVID-19 pandemic. Psychol Rep. 2021;124(6):2567-86. Available from: Doi:10.1177/0033294120965477. [crossref] [PubMed]
Cai W, Lian B, Song X, Hou T, Deng G, Li H. A cross-sectional study on mental health among health care workers during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102111. Available from: Doi:10.1016/j. ajp.2020.102111. [crossref] [PubMed]
Bahar A, Koçak HS, Samancioğlu Bağlama S, Çuhadar D. Can psychological resilience protect the mental health of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic period? Dubai Med J. 2020;3(4):133-39. https://doi. org/10.1159/000510264. [crossref]
Santesteban-Echarri O, MacQueen G, Goldstein BI, Wang J, Kennedy SH, Bray S, et al. Personality and risk for serious mental illness. Early intervention in Psychiatry. 2021;15(1);133-39. Available from: eip.12921. [crossref] [PubMed]
Sinclair VG, Wallston KA. The development and psychometric evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Assessment. 2004;11(1):94-101. Available from: Doi:10.1177/1073191103258144. [crossref] [PubMed]
Gosling SD, Rentfrow PJ, Swann WB Jr. A very brief measure of the big five personality domains. J Res Personal. 2003;37(6):504-28. [crossref]
Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication [published correction appears in Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(7):768. Merikangas, Kathleen R [added]]. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593-602. Available from: Doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593. [crossref] [PubMed]
Piramuthu S. Input data for decision trees. Expert Syst Appl. 2008;34:1220-26. Available from: Doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2006.12.030. [crossref]
Chen Y-L, Hsu C-L, Chou S-C. Constructing a multi-valued and multi-labelled decision tree. Expert Syst Appl. 2003;25(2):199-209. [crossref]
Hevey D. Network analysis: a brief overview and tutorial. Health Psychol Behav Med. 2018;6(1):301-28. Available from: Doi:10.1080/21642850.2018.1521283. [crossref] [PubMed]
JASP Team. JASP (Version 0.16)[Computer software] [Internet]. 2021. Available from:
Xiong J, Lipsitz O, Nasri F, Lui LMW, Gill H, Phan L, et al. Impact of COVID- 19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2020;277:55-64. Available from: jad.2020.08.001. [crossref] [PubMed]
Grover S, Sahoo S, Mehra A, Avasthi A, Tripathi A, Subramanyan A, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2020;62(4):354-62. Available from: Doi: 10.4103/psychiatry. IndianJPsychiatry_427_20. [crossref] [PubMed]
Prajapati NK, Parikh NC, Shah ND, Darji VM, Jariwala HB, Miroliya MT. Evaluation of psychiatric morbidity in COVID-19-positive inpatients referred to consultationliaison Psychiatry in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian J Psychol Med. 2021;43(4):330- 35. Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
Özdin S, Bayrak Özdin S. Levels and predictors of anxiety, depression and health anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in Turkish society: The importance of gender. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;66(5):504-11. Available from: Doi:10.1177/0020764020927051. [crossref] [PubMed]
Zhang W, Wang K, Yin L, Zhao WF, Xue Q, Peng M, et al. Mental Health and Psychosocial problems of medical health workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Psychother Psychosom. 2020;89(4):242-50. Available from: https:// [crossref] [PubMed]
Shacham M, Hamama-Raz Y, Kellerman R, Mijiritsky O, Ben-Ezra M, Mijiritsky E. COVID-19 factors and psychological factors associated with elevated psychological distress among dentists and dental hygienists in Israel. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(8):2900. Available from: Doi:10.3390/ ijerph17082900. [crossref] [PubMed]
Mazza C, Ricci E, Biondi S, Colasanti M, Ferracuti S, Napoli C, et al. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among italian people during the COVID- 19 pandemic: Immediate psychological responses and associated factors. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):3165. Available from: https://doi. org/10.3390/ijerph17093165. [crossref] [PubMed]
Chatterjee SS, Chakrabarty M, Banerjee D, Grover S, Chatterjee SS, Dan U. Stress, sleep and psychological impact in healthcare workers during the early phase of COVID-19 in India: A factor analysis. Front Psychol. 2021;12:611314. Available from: Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.611314. [crossref] [PubMed]
Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, Wang Y, Fu H, Dai J. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231924. Available from: Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231924. [crossref] [PubMed]
Di Giuseppe M, Nepa G, Prout TA, Albertini F, Marcelli S, OrrÙ G, et al. Stress, burnout, and resilience among healthcare workers during the COVID- 19 emergency: The role of defense mechanisms. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(10):5258. Available from: 4601/18/10/5258. [crossref] [PubMed]
Hoge EA, Austin ED, Pollack MH. Resilience: Research evidence and conceptual considerations for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2007;24(2):139-52. Available from: Doi:10.1002/da.20175. [crossref] [PubMed]
Oakman J, Kinsman N, Stuckey R, Graham M, Weale V. A rapid review of mental and physical health effects of working at home: How do we optimise health? BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1825. Available from: Doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09875-z. [crossref] [PubMed]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/53767.16894

Date of Submission: Jan 05, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Feb 12, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Aug 24, 2022
Date of Publishing: Oct 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Jan 06, 2022
• Manual Googling: Aug 23, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Aug 30, 2022 (6%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)