Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
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Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

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Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

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Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

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" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
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Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2022 | Month : October | Volume : 16 | Issue : 10 | Page : ZE07 - ZE10 Full Version

Role of Intraoral Scanners in the Detection of Dental Caries: A Review

Published: October 1, 2022 | DOI:
Nikitha Sebastian, Ankita Singh, Paras Mull Gehlot, Annapoorna Ballagere Mariswamy

1. Postgraduate Student, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. 2. Postgraduate Student, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. 3. Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. 4. Professor and Head, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Paras Mull Gehlot,
Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.


Dental caries is an irreversible, microbial disease of the tooth which is characterised by demineralisation and dissolution of the hard tissues. Conventional methods such as visual and tactile examination, radiography, laser or light induced fluorescence methods help in the diagnosis of dental caries, though they lack sensitivity. Being an irreversible process, it is important to detect the caries process in its incipient stages. Very recently, intraoral scanners have also found their way through to the detection and diagnosis of dental caries, particularly, the incipient lesions. Use of advanced technology for the detection of dental caries in its incipient stages has enabled a change in the paradigm to minimally invasive dentistry which focuses more on a preventive approach to caries management. The present review paper attempts to summarise the available literature on the role of intraoral scanners in caries diagnosis by performing a online search on PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS and MEDLINE databases. Only full text studies authored in English and published in peer reviewed journals between 2010 and 2022 were included in the research. Keywords and terms from both review articles and original research papers were taken. A total of 36 papers were reviewed including full texts and abstracts.


Bitewing radiograph, Early enamel caries, Fluorescence, Near infrared radiation

Early identification of dental caries is still one of dentistry's most difficult tasks (1). The current protocol for the detection of dental caries relies on methods such as visual inspection, clinical and radiographic examination. These methods are known to have limited sensitivity and specificity which is a prerequisite to detect caries early on, when the tooth structure is still capable of remineralising. Recent advances in detection of caries include digital imaging, fibre optic transillumination, quantitative light/laser-induced fluorescence, tuned aperture computed tomography, ultrasound caries detector, Diagnodent (1).

The past decade saw the advent of the use of intraoral scanners in the field of dentistry and very recently its use in the detection of caries has been identified. Intraoral scanners are devices that use image sensors to acquire optical impressions of dentogingival tissues and then build point clouds using built-in scanning software (2). A laser or Light Emitting Diode (LED) light source facilitates the capture of surface topography of the intraoral tissues by the camera of the scanner. The images are then fed into a software that filters out aberrations before being fed into the manufacturing machine (3),(4).


Standalone scanners: These scanners convert intraoral scanning data into 3D models, which they either store as image files or finish the design using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software (4) (Table/Fig 1).

All-in-one scanning platforms with Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions: These scanners design the prosthetic appliances immediately from the optical impression. Hence, it is also called as ‘one-day treatment’ device (3) (Table/Fig 1).


The various mechanisms of action of the intraoral scanner systems are demonstrated in (Table/Fig 2) (4),(5),(6).


Current methods for the diagnosis of dental caries have mainly relied on visual and tactile methods in combination with radiographic examination. However, each of these methods have a set of drawbacks which render them non ideal. With visual examination being highly subjective and technique sensitive, and exposure to ionizing radiation being an area of concern, there is a huge demand for newer imaging technologies that have an increased efficiency and accuracy for the early diagnosis of a carious lesion (7).

The current treatment concept in restorative dentistry mainly focuses on the early detection and diagnosis of caries in order to prevent and avoid an extensive intervention.

Near Infrared Imaging (NIRI) is a useful diagnostic tool for early detection of caries. The scanners based on NIRI use a light having a wavelength of 850 nm in the electromagnetic spectrum which on penetration and interaction with the tooth forms images which are based on the optical properties of the tooth due to the scattering, absorption and transmission of dental tissues in near infrared radiation wavelength (7),(8),(9). Various studies carried out previously demonstrate NIRI and bitewing radiography to have reproducible results (10),(11),(12). However, NIRI would serve to be further advantageous over bitewing radiography in terms of the use of non ionizing radiation.

The scanner systems capable of caries detection work on the principle of confocal laser scanning microscopy which is based on the concept of preserving and gathering the in-focus reflected light from the specimen and discarding the off-focus light (13).

Further, imaging technologies utilising this principle employ different sources of light for caries detection.

Near Infrared Transillumination Technology

The iTero Element 5D scanner (Table/Fig 3)a, and Planmeca Emerald S scanner (Table/Fig 3)c utilises this technology wherein sound enamel which is transparent to near-infrared radiation due to the limited scattering of light, appears as a dark area by allowing the light to pass through it entirely, whereas sound dentin, due to its orientation of the dentinal tubules, appears bright in a NIRI image due to enhanced scattering of light (14),(15). The iTero Element 5D produces a 3D model, 2D colour photographs, and NIRI images mapped to the 3D model after scanning the area of interest using an optical, non contact mode. However, in early enamel lesions, demineralised enamel would contain gaps that scatter light substantially in the near infrared region. The difference between optical properties of sound enamel, demineralised enamel and the contrast between sound enamel and demineralised enamel, illuminated with near infrared range light with wavelength of 480 nm, which is high, resulting in enamel lesions looking bright (16),(17) (Table/Fig 4).

Fluorescence Technology

Certain other caries detection scanner systems such as the 3Shape TRIOS 4 (Table/Fig 3)b utilise blue-violet light (415 nm) in contrast to near infrared range light (480 nm), which receive and detect fluorescence signals remitted from dental hard tissues. Such systems rest on a concept similar to the reliable quantitative light-induced fluorescence, allowing higher specificity and sensitivity in results compared to clinical visual examination and radiographic methods and are in fact seen to be comparable to histological assessment of caries detection (18),(19). Michou S et al., found only minor differences between in-vitro and in-vivo diagnostic performances of IOS devices, and concluded different approaches can be investigated for possible optimisation of the IOS devices in caries diagnosis (18).

When blue-violet light is illuminated onto a sound tooth surface, a portion of it is absorbed by fluorophores in the enamel and dentin and re-emitted at a longer wavelength as green fluorescent light. However, presence of demineralisation in the tooth causes the intensity of the green fluorescence to reduce and so the carious lesion appears dark on the fluorescent images (18),(19).

By collecting all of the colour information available on the 3D model and assessing any differences in colour signal intensity on the tooth surface, as well as fluorescence variations correlating to sound and demineralised tooth structure, four algorithms identifying red green fluorescence signals (Rfluo, Gfluo) were devised for the intraoral scanner systems - ALG1, ALG2, ALG3 and ALG4 [18,19]. The first three algorithms incorporate the fluorescent information i.e. (ALG1, ALG2, ALG3) while the last one, ALG4 is based on sound tooth colour information. For initial enamel caries, ALG1 and ALG4 were seen to be most accurate (0.70,0.69) and sensitive (0.74,0.71) whereas for caries extending into the outer and middle third of dentin, ALG3 and ALG4 were seen to be most accurate (0.87,0.86) and specific (0.88,0.86) (19).

Intraoral scanner systems have also utilised scoring systems that incorporated the red green fluorescent components on illuminated tooth surfaces into mathematical functions that help quantify the fluorescent signal (19).

f1 - Defined the ratio of red to green fluorescence at the examination sites and allowed quantification of severity of carious lesion.
f2 - The absolute green fluorescence measured at the examination site.
f3 - Defined the ratio of green fluorescence at the examination site and sound tooth surface and allowed quantification of demineralisation of the hard tissues.
f4 - Defined as the ratio of total red to green fluorescence at the examination site to the sound tooth surface.

Assessment of the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of these functions, using histological evidence as a reference revealed highest collective specificity and sensitivity with f2, f3, and f4 while lowest was seen for f1 (19). Early detection of a carious lesion allows for preventive steps to be taken. To improve caries diagnosis, researchers have created better and newer approaches with more advanced and sensitive methods over time. (Table/Fig 5) includes various studies comparing intraoral scanners with other methods for incipient caries detection (10),(14),(20),(21),(22),(23),(24),(25),(26),(27),(28),(29).

Advantages and Disadvantages

The recent development of intraoral scanners as an aid for the detection of dental caries serve to be advantageous in early detection and intervention of incipient carious lesion and documentation for long-term follow-up. Also, they help in reducing chairside time and allow easier communication with the patient. However, its limitations can be described in terms of higher equipment costs, the need for a clear, isolated field and difficulty in the detection of caries around the restorative margins.


Increasing adoption of dental technologies such as intraoral scanners for diagnosis and treatment planning have seemed to help both, dentists and patients alike in terms of treatment experiences. However, there is limited evidence on their efficiency in caries detection in patients. This could, in part, be due to its high cost, making it uneconomical for a clinical setup. There are various in-vitro and invivo studies that have proven intraoral scanners sensitive to detect initial caries which were corelatable with histological findings and have been accepted by standard caries research organisations such as European Organisation for Caries Research (ORCA), though not as gold standard or substitute but as an adjunct diagnostic aid (30).

Over the years, dentistry has undergone tremendous transformation from traditional, invasive methods to unconventional, reliable, minimalistic methods for caries detection. Increasing demand for highly sensitive methods of caries detection through intraoral scanners would not only allow a shift in the caries management protocol to conservative restorative procedures, but could also motivate dentists and patients to adopt caries preventive measures, owing to their high sensitivity.


By addressing one of the most challenging aspects of preventive dentistry, intraoral scanners have helped significantly in the diagnosis of incipient dental caries, enabling patients to avail preventive treatments. It also makes for a better medical experience by reducing patient discomfort, risks of cross infection and clinician’s chairside time. High adoption of intraoral scanners would be a huge step in the evolution of dental diagnosis, serving as efficient adjuncts to the conventional diagnostic aids.


The authors wish to thank Dr. Priyanka Keshav for the illustration and iTero®, 3Shape’s Trios and Planmeca for their product images.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/58180.17105

Date of Submission: Jun 02, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jul 01, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Aug 11, 2022
Date of Publishing: Oct 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? NA
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? NA
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

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• iThenticate Software: Aug 08, 2022 (11%)

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