Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 107540

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : December | Volume : 16 | Issue : 12 | Page : FC06 - FC08 Full Version

Sinapis arvensis-Wild Mustard as an Anti-inflammatory Agent: An In-vitro Study


Published: December 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/58609.17301
T Ashwini, Arul Amutha Elizabeth, Sneha Aishwarya, I Glory Josephine, S Brigida, R Srinivasan

1. Postgraduate, Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 2. Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 4. Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 6. Assistant Professor, Department of General Medicine, SRM Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
Sneha Aishwarya,
Plot No. 78, Bharathi Street, Annai Indira Nagar, Velachery, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
E-mail: snehaaishwarya24@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Inflammation is body’s immune response to harmful stimulus. Commonly used conventional anti-inflammatory agents are Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). But on prolonged long-term use, it causes serious adverse events. So, the search towards natural agents which have anti-inflammatory property are increasing nowadays. Sinapis arvensis is an annual flowering plant which has proven multipurpose medicinal phytoconstituents.

Aim: To evaluate in-vitro anti-inflammatory effects of flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis with diclofenac as standard.

Materials and Methods: This in-vitro study assessed the laboratory based anti-inflammatory activity, performed using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) assay in December 2021 at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. BSA at pH of 6.8 generated denatured proteins. The anti-inflammatory activity of the sample (flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis) and standard (Diclofenac) was assessed by adding to BSA and percentage of inhibition of denaturation were calculated using the formula based on the absorbance measured. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of collected data.

Results: The concentration-dependent inhibition of protein denaturation was observed for both Sinapis arvensis and Diclofenac. At 100 μg concentration, percentage of inhibition reached up to 81.8% and 100% for Sinapis arvensis and Diclofenac, respectively.

Conclusion: The present study showed that flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis exhibited concentration dependent anti-inflammatory property in-vitro which proves to be nearly equivalent with that of the standard Diclofenac.

Keywords

Bovine serum assay, Diclofenac, Flower extracts, Protein denaturation

Inflammation is the human body’s immune response to harmful intruders. Inflammatory response is basically the cellular and vascular response to trauma and the main purpose of it is to initiate the healing of the injured tissues (1). Inflammation can be classified into acute or chronic inflammation (2). Acute inflammatory response is initial response which is usually beneficial lasting for few days. It is characterised by rubor (redness), tumour (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) (3). An uncontrolled acute inflammation may end upto chronic inflammation, which may contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases (1). Chronic inflammation may result from various reasons like failure of acute inflammatory response, autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, lupus, asthma, psoriasis, etc.) (2).

Owing to its maladaptive and non-resolving inflammatory nature, the use of conventional anti-inflammatory therapy with drugs like NSAIDs, corticosteroids are crucial (4). The most commonly used NSAIDs are paracetamol, indomethacin, aspirin, diclofenac which inhibits cyclooxygenase enzyme thereby preventing the synthesis of inflammatory mediators like prostaglandin leading to analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects (5). Diseases like autoimmune disorders need long-term management but drugs like NSAIDs on prolonged use can cause serious adverse events such as cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal complications (6). So, the switch towards re-evaluating the medicinal plants which has anti-inflammatory effect is increasing nowadays because of their less reported adverse effects (7).

Sinapis arvensis (family Brassicaceae) is an annual plant, commonly called as ‘wild mustard’ (8). It has been traditionally used against rheumatic pain (9). The family (Brassicaceae) species, Sinapis alba are also known to have anti-inflammatory effect (10). Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID, which also has analgesic antipyretic activity, displays its action by inhibiting the activity of cyclo-oxygenase 1 (COX1), cyclo-oxygenase (COX2) enzymes, thereby inhibiting synthesis of inflammatory mediators like thromboxanes, prostacyclins, prostaglandin E2. In addition, it also has activity in decreasing the already raised substance P in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients (11). Diclofenac has also proved to possess superior intrinsic anti-inflammatory activity than the other NSAIDs (12). So, in this study diclofenac was used as the standard. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Sinapis arvensis by using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) assay, with diclofenac as standard.

Material and Methods

This laboratory-based in-vitro study was conducted at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, in December 2021.

Study Procedure

Preparation of Sinapis arvensis flower extraction: The Sinapis arvensis flower (100 g) was taken, washed, dried, and grinded into powder. An amount of 250 mL of ethanol was added to the flower powder. The extraction was carried out using Soxhlet apparatus for 8 hours at 70o Celsius (C), and then the extract was kept in rotatory evaporator following which the solvent was evaporated, and the extract was taken and kept at 4oC for further use.

BSA, at pH of 6.8, generates denatured proteins (inflammatory markers). Various concentrations of samples (flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis and Diclofenac) such as 20 μg, 40 μg, 60 μg, 80 μg, 100 μg were taken in separate test tubes and serial dilution were made upto 1 ml using methanol in respective test tubes

Control test tubes were also prepared with 50 μL methanol without the sample. An amount of 5 mL of 0.2% BSA was prepared in tris buffered saline at pH=6.8 and were added to all the test tubes (samples and controls). Samples and control test tubes were incubated at 37oC for 20 min and then at 72oC for 5 min. After incubation, samples and control were allowed to cool for 10 min and the absorbance was measured at 660 nm. Control test tubes did not show inhibition of denaturation. Both the samples (Sinapis arvensis and Diclofenac) denaturation inhibition were calculated and compared (13). Inhibition of denaturation (%) was calculated using the following formula: (14)

Inhibition of denaturation (%)= absorbance of control-absorbance of sample/ absorbance of control×100

Statistical Analysis

Descriptive analyses were used to analyse the collected data.

Results

(Table/Fig 1) shows percentage of inhibition were best at 100 μg sample concentration (Diclofenac -100% at 100 μg, sample Sinapis arvensis -81.8% at 100 μg). Based on the BSA, percentage of inhibition was calculated for both diclofenac and flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis. The absorbance was noted at varying sample concentration ranging from 20 to 100 μg.

Diclofenac showed the concentration-dependent inhibition of protein denaturation which reached up to 100 percent at 100 μg concentration. Flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis also showed concentration-dependent inhibition reaching upto 81.8 percent at 100 μg concentration (Table/Fig 1).

Discussion

Protein denaturation is a process by which protein loses its secondary and tertiary structure and its biological function may also be lost. Denaturation of protein is acclaimed as a marker for inflammation (15).

Denatured proteins end up forming the antigens which ultimately leads to the inflammation and inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. BSA assay is the widely accepted and used in-vitro protein denaturation assay to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the products. In this assay, denatured proteins are generated by using BSA at pH of 6.8, anti-inflammatory property of the substance can be identified by adding the substance to the inflammation (through the generation of denatured proteins) induced BSA. Protein denaturation inhibition by substances indicate anti-inflammatory property. Higher the degree of its inhibition, greater would be the anti-inflammatory potential (11).

NSAIDs also has a property of preventing protein denaturation (16). Even though synthetic chemical drugs like diclofenac have potent anti-inflammatory property, on prolonged use it can cause complications. Because of complications induced by prolonged conventional synthetic drug treatment, the search towards natural agents which has anti-inflammatory properties are increasing nowadays. Studies have shown that substances derived from plants are found to be effective, safe and alternative as an anti-inflammatory agent (17).

Sinapis arvensis had been used as rheumatic pain treatment traditionally (9). The anti-inflammatory activity of the flower extracts has been assessed by invitro BSA assay, by taking Diclofenac as standard. Results of this study revealed that Diclofenac showed 100% percentage of inhibition at 100 μg of sample concentration whereas flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis showed 81.8% percentage of inhibition at 100 μg sample concentration in the concentration dependent manner.

This study proves that Sinapis arvensis may exhibit similar anti-inflammatory effect in incremental manner probably with reduced complications when compared to that of conventional standard drug Diclofenac. There are not much researches proving the anti-inflammatory potential of Sinapis arvensis.

Plants have secondary metabolites as major constituents through secondary metabolism. These secondary metabolites have various medicinal properties. Secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids can be used as anti-inflammatory agents (18). Phytoconstituents of Sinapis arvensis were studied and found that they have more than 40 phytoconstituents including phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, which were known to possess anti-inflammatory property (19). Flavonoids has been extracted and isolated from flowers of Sinapis arvensis and the mixture of flavonoids were administrated to the inflammation-induced rat paw. The results showed that flavonoid mixture from the flower have a potent and prominent anti-inflammatory property (20).

Limitation(s)

Being an in-vitro and preliminary study, the results cannot be extrapolated to human beings Further in-vivo studies and clinical trials are required to prove the anti-inflammatory activity of Sinapis arvensis.

Conclusion

This study proves that at a maximum tested concentration of 100 μ μg Sample flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis showed 81.8% inhibition which is almost equivalent to that of standard Diclofenac. It is concluded that sample flower extracts of Sinapis arvensis have a potential anti-inflammatory effect in concentration dependent manner in-vitro.

References

1.
Chen L, Deng H, Cui H, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, et al. Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs. Oncotarget. 2018;9(6):7204-18. [crossref] [PubMed]
2.
Pahwa R, Goyal A, Jialal I. Chronic inflammation. StatPearls 2021 Sep 28.
3.
Hannoodee S, Nasuruddin DN. Acute Inflammatory Response. [Updated 2021 Nov 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556083/.
4.
Odegaard JI, Chawla A. Pleiotropic actions of insulin resistance and inflammation in metabolic homeostasis. Science. 2013;339(6116):172-77. [crossref] [PubMed]
5.
Gunaydin C, Bilge SS. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at the molecular level. Eurasian J Med. 2018;50(2):116-21. [crossref] [PubMed]
6.
Wongrakpanich S, Wongrakpanich A, Melhado K, Rangaswami J. A comprehensive review of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in the elderly. Aging Dis. 2018;9(1):143-50. [crossref] [PubMed]
7.
Oguntibeju OO. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities from selected countries and regions of Africa. J Inflamm Res. 2018;11:307-17. Doi: 10.2147/JIR.S167789. [crossref] [PubMed]
8.
Zargar M, Kavhiza NJ, Bayat M, Pakina E. Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis) Competition and Control in Rain-Fed Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Agronomy. 2021;11(11):2306. [crossref]
9.
Erbay MS¸ , Anil S, Melikoğlu G. Plants used as painkiller in folk medicine in Turkey–III: Rheumatic pain. Marmara Pharm J. 2018;22(2):133-41. [crossref]
10.
Xian YF, Hu Z, Ip SP, Chen JN, Su ZR, Lai XP, et al. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea in mouse models of inflammation. Phytomedicine. 2018;50:196-04. Doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.05.010. Epub 2018 May 19. [crossref] [PubMed]
11.
Heendeniya SN, Ratnasooriya WD, Pathirana RN. In vitro investigation of anti-inflammatory activity and evaluation of phytochemical profile of Syzygium caryophyllatum. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2018;7(1):1759-63.
12.
Pradal J. Comparison of skin permeation and putative anti-inflammatory activity of commercially available topical products containing ibuprofen and diclofenac. J Pain Res. 2020;13:2805-14. Doi: 10.2147/JPR.S262390. [crossref] [PubMed]
13.
Dragan MA, Stan CD, Panzariu A, Profire LE. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of some new ferullic acid derivatives. Farmacia. 2016;64 (2):194-97.
14.
Marius M, Amadou D, Donatien AA, Gilbert A, William YN, Rauf K, et al. In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and in vivo anticolitis effects of combretin A and combretin B on dextran sodium sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2020;2020:4253174. [crossref] [PubMed]
15.
Ruiz-Ruiz JC, Matus-Basto AJ, Acereto-Escoffié P, Segura-Campos MR. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic compounds isolated from Melipona beecheii honey. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2017;28 (6):1424-37. [crossref]
16.
Ashok D, Madhuri EV, Sarasija M, Kanth SS, Vijjulatha M, Alaparthi MD, et al. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking of spirofurochromanone derivatives as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. RSC advances. 2017;7(41):25710-24. [crossref]
17.
Nunes CDR, Barreto Arantes M, Menezes de Faria Pereira S, Leandro da Cruz L, de Souza Passos M, Pereira de Moraes L, et al. Plants as sources of anti-inflammatory agents. Molecules. 2020;25(16):3726. [crossref] [PubMed]
18.
Mohammed MS, Osman WJ, Garelnabi EA, Osman Z, Osman B, Khalid HS, et al. Secondary metabolites as anti-inflammatory agents. J Phytopharmacol. 2014;3(4):275-85. [crossref]
19.
Al-Rubaye AF, Kadhim MJ, Hameed IH. Determination of bioactive chemical composition of methanolic leaves extract of Sinapis arvensis using GC-MS technique. Int J Toxicol Pharmacol Res. 2017;9(2):163-78. [crossref]
20.
Ali AA, Hassanean HA, Mohammed M, Kamel MS, El-Khayat ES. Chemical and biological studies of Sinapis arvensis growing in Egypt. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Assiut. 2000;23(2):99-109. [crossref]

Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1]
DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/58609.17301

Date of Submission: Jun 22, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Aug 12, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Oct 21, 2022
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? NA
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? NA
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Jun 30, 2022
• Manual Googling: Oct 10, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Oct 20, 2022 (6%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com