Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 100901

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : December | Volume : 16 | Issue : 12 | Page : MC01 - MC04 Full Version

Aetiopathological Spectrum of Unilateral Nasal Mass: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

Published: December 1, 2022 | DOI:
S Prathiba, Ajay Kumar Neeli, SB Amarnath, Mahesh Kumar Revoori

1. Senior Resident, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, KIMS Hospital, Minister Road, Secunderabad, Telangana, India. 2. Senior Consultant, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, KIMS Hospital, Minister Road, Secunderabad, Telangana, India. 3. Associate Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, SVIMS-Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India. 4. Senior Consultant, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, KIMS Hospital, Minister Road, Secunderabad, Telangana, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Ajay Kumar Neeli,
Senior Consultant, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, KIMS Hospital, Secunderabad-500003, Telangana, India.


Introduction: The presence of unilateral symptoms or pathology should be regarded with extreme caution as sinonasal neoplasms in their early stages with subtle symptoms may mimic inflammatory pathology. It is always the otolaryngologist’s endeavour to diagnose a neoplastic pathology in the early stage to prevent further complications.

Aim: To study the aetiopathological profile, age, and sex distribution of unilateral nasal masses presented at a tertiary care centre, Telangana, India.

Materials and Methods: The present study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study consisting of 53 patients of all age groups, of both sexes, with unilateral nasal mass presenting to the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Outpatient Department (OPD) at Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Secunderabad, Telangana, India from December 2020 to June 2021. A detailed history was recorded and the patient underwent a complete ENT check-up, and head-neck examination followed by Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and biopsy.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 44 years and there were 47 males and six females. Nose block was the most common presenting symptom in 43 (81.1%). Middle meatus was the common site seen in 12 patients (22.6%). Inflammatory lesions was the most common observed in 24 (45.3%), followed by fungal sinusitis in 6 (11.3%), granulomatous lesions in 2 (3.8%), benign lesions in 15 (28.3%), and malignant lesions in 6 (11.3%).

Conclusion: Unilateral nasal masses were found common in males than females, with a peak incidence in the 5th to 6th decades of life. Histopathologically inflammatory lesions are the most common followed by benign and then malignant lesions.Any unilateral nasal mass should be viewed with a high index of suspicion for malignant lesions and should be subjected to diagnostic nasal endoscopy, imaging, and histopathological examination after surgical excision of the mass.


Inflammatory lesions, Malignancy, Nasal obstruction

Patients with nasal masses may present with rhinorrhoea and nasal obstruction. Unilateral persistent nasal obstruction may indicate the presence of an inflammatory or neoplastic lesion (1),(2). It is always the otolaryngologist’s endeavour to diagnose a neoplastic pathology in the early stage to prevent further complications. Most of the time, sinonasal neoplasms are present in an advanced stage because they do not cause early symptoms (3),(4). Most of the sinonasal masses have similar presenting features and symptomatology including nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, blood-stained nasal discharge, epistaxis, oral symptoms, facial swelling, orbital and ear symptoms (5),(6),(7).

Sinonasal masses have been instituted principally in the second to fourth decades of life (8),(9), however, malignant tumours have been mostly reported after the fourth decade (10),(11). Nasal polyps were the most common lesions with benign sinonasal masses observed (12),(13). Simple nasal polyps are round, smooth, soft, translucent, yellow, or pale glistening structures attached to the nasal or sinus mucosa by a relatively narrow stalk or pedicle. These are non tender and displaced backward on probing. These features clinically distinguish them from the turbinates, which are sometimes assumed to be nasal polyps by the less experienced (14). Various studies confirmed the predominance of squamous cell carcinoma in adult sinonasal cancers (15),(16),(17).

Clinical diagnosis of these unilateral nasal masses condition is based on the symptoms and clinical examination of the nose but often uses diagnostic tests like nasal endoscopy, imaging studies, and allergy tests. Histopathological examination plays a significant role in the diagnosis to rule out different types of malignancies (18). The present study mainly focuses on the aetiopathological profile, age, and sex distribution of unilateral nasal masses presented to the tertiary care centre.

Material and Methods

The hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the ENT OPD at Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Secunderabad, Telangana, India, from December 2020 to June 2021. The study was conducted after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC). (KIMS/IEC/2020/07-02).

Inclusion criteria: A total of 53 patients of all age groups and both sexes presented with unilateral nasal masses were included in this study.

Exclusion criteria: Patients with bilateral nasal mass, hypertrophied inferior turbinate and concha bullosa were excluded from the study.

Study Procedure

After obtaining consent from the patients, all patients were evaluated thoroughly after a detailed history and complete ENT, head and neck, and systemic examination. Patients underwent nasal endoscopic and radiological examination {Computed tomography-paranasal sinuses (CT-PNS)}, to make an aetiological diagnosis of unilateral nasal mass. Cases with orbital and intracranial complications were further evaluated with {Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)} and other relevant investigations. All cases of unilateral nasal mass were subjected to biopsy and sent for histopathological examination.

Statistical Analysis

Data entry was done using MS Excel and was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 16.0) for MS Windows. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out to explore the distribution of several categorical and quantitative variables. Categorical variables were summarised with n (%), while quantitative variables were summarised by mean±Standard Deviation (SD). All results were also presented in tabular form and were also shown graphically. The difference in the two groups was tested for statistical significance using parametric tests such as t-test, and categorical variables were tested by Chi-square test.


Out of these 53 patients who had unilateral nasal masses, the age range of patients was from 15-75 years with a mean age of 44 years. These masses were more commonly seen in males 47 (88.7%) than in females 6 (11.3), and the symptoms were also seen more on the right side, 35 (66%) than on the left side, 18 (34%). Nose block was the most common presenting symptom seen in 43 (81.1%) (Table/Fig 1).

Middle meatus was the most common site of the location of seen in 12 (22.6%) (Table/Fig 2).

The most common clinical findings on nasal endoscopy were observed to be polyp 46 (86.8%) (Table/Fig 3). Based on the histopathological analysis, the most common diagnosis was an inflammatory lesion in 24 (45.3%) (Table/Fig 4). Among inflammatory lesions, ethmoidal polyps were the most common histopathological diagnosis 14 (26.4%) (Table/Fig 5).

Final diagnosis vs clinical finding: All the inflammatory lesions presented as polyps. Even in malignant lesions, polyps were the most common. Mass was common in all benign lesions including the bleeding tumor like juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and other lesions like Wegener’s granulomatosis, inverted papilloma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Proliferative lesions were found in malignant lesions and locally aggressive benign tumours like ameloblastoma (Table/Fig 6),(Table/Fig 7),(Table/Fig 8),(Table/Fig 9),(Table/Fig 10),(Table/Fig 11).


Unilateral nasal masses can be broadly classified into non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Non neoplastic lesions could be inflammatory or granulomatous. Neoplastic lesions could be benign or malignant. Unilateral nasal masses always need special attention, as they have varied clinical symptoms and presentations. Early diagnosis with a high index of suspicion for malignancy helps prevent grave complications. The present study throws light on age and sex distribution, varied clinical presentations, aetiology, and pathology of unilateral nasal masses in all ranges of age groups.

In the present study, most of the unilateral nasal masses presented with nose block (81.1%). This was probably because any inflammation in the nasal mucosa, irrespective of its cause will lead to nasal obstruction. But, the severity of nasal obstruction may vary from person to person, what one person feels may be of less importance to another patient with the same level of obstruction (5). Other symptoms were epistaxis, headache, nasal discharge etc. These were consistent with the study by Nair S et al., stated nasal obstruction as the commonest symptom followed by rhinorrhoea, headache, epistaxis, facial pain, hyposmia, and less frequently orbital symptoms (19).

The middle meatus 12 (22.64%) was the most common site of origin of unilateral nasal mass on endoscopy. In the middle meatus common site was ethmoid. Other sites were choana, septum, turbinate, frontal recess, nasopharynx, and sphenoid. These findings were similar to the study by Sridhar Rao M et al., which reports the most common site of unilateral nasal mass being the middle meatus followed by the lateral wall, roof of the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx (20). The study by Bakari A et al., conducted illustrates ethmoidal sinus, maxillary sinus, and osteomeatal complex as the commonest site followed by frontal sinus, sphenopalatine foramen, septum, skull base, and middle turbinate (14).

On endoscopy, the most common findings were polyps followed by mass and proliferative lesions. These findings were also consistent with the study by Sridhar Rao M et al., where polypoidal lesions were seen in 70%, fleshy in 18.45%, and ulceroproliferative in 2.92% (Table/Fig 12) (14),(18),(19),(20),(21),(22),(23).


The sample size is relatively too small, to make population-based conclusions.


Incidence of unilateral nasal mass was more common in the 5th to 6th decades of life and seen more commonly in males than females. Histopathologically inflammatory lesions are the most common, followed by benign and malignant lesions. The clinical presentation of unilateral nasal lesions may be indistinguishable, therefore, thorough evaluation of patients with nasal endoscopy, relevant imaging, and histopathological examination are extremely important for accurate diagnosis and early intervention.


Karthikeya P, Mahima VG, Bhavna G. Sinonasal verrucous carcinoma with oral invasion. Indian J Dent Res. 2006;1:82-86. [crossref] [PubMed]
Kristensen S, Vorre P, Elbrond O, Sogaard H. Nasal schneiderian papillomas. Clin Otolaryngol. 1985;10:12534. [crossref] [PubMed]
Haerle SK, Gullane PJ, Witterick IJ, Zweifel C, Gentili F. Sinonasal carcinomas. epidemiology, pathology, and management. Neurosurg Clin N Am [Internet]. Elsevier Inc. 2013;24(1):39-49. [crossref] [PubMed]
Goy J, Hall SF, Feldman-Stewart D, Groome P. Diagnostic delay and disease stage in head and neck cancer: A systematic review. Laryngoscope. 2009;119(5):889-98. [crossref] [PubMed]
Fasunla J, Ogunkeyede SA. Factors contributing to poor management outcome of sinonasal malignancies in South-west Nigeria. Ghana Med J [Internet]. 2013;47(1):10-15.
Rawat DS, Chadha V, Grover M, Ojha T, Verma PC. Clinico-pathological profile and management of sino-nasal masses: A prospective study. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2013;65(Suppl 2):388-93. [crossref] [PubMed]
Chukuezi AB, Nwosu JN. Pattern of nasal and paranasal sinus tumours in Owerri, Nigeria. Res J Med Sci. 2010;p:11-14. [crossref]
Zafar U, Khan N, Afroz N, Hasan S. Clinicopathological study of non-neoplastic lesions of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. Medknow Publications; 2008;51(1):26. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ogunleye A, Fasunla A. Nasal polyps-clinical profile and management in Ibadan, Nigeria. Niger J Surg Res. 2006;7(1):164-67. [crossref]
Lathi, Syed MM, Kalakoti P, Qutub D, Kishve SP. Clinico-pathological profile of sinonasalmasses: A study from a tertiary care hospital of India. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2011;31:372-77.
Humayun AHP, Huq AZ, Ahmed ST, Kamal MS, Kyaw Khin U, Bhattacharjee N, et al. Clinicopathological study of sinonasal masses. Bangladesh J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;16(1):15-22. [crossref]
Nepal A, Chettri ST, Joshi JJ, Karki S. Benign sinonasal masses: A clinicopathological and radiological profile. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2013;41(1):04-08. [crossref] [PubMed]
Dasgupta A, Ghosh RN, Mukherjee C. Nasal polyps-histopathologic spectrum. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;49(1):32-37. [crossref] [PubMed]
Bakari A, Afolabi OA, Adoga AA, Kodiya AM, Ahmad BM. Clinico-pathological profile of sinonasal masses: An experience in national ear care center Kaduna, Nigeria. BMC Res Notes. 2010;3:186. [crossref] [PubMed]
Dubal P, Sanghvi S, Raikundalia M, Kanumuri VV, Svider PF, Baredes S, et al. Sinonasal Malignancies: Site-specific incidence and survival in 12,582 patients. Neuro Insti N Jersy. 2013.
Chu Y, Liu HG, Yu ZK. Patterns and incidence of sinonasal malignancy with orbital invasion. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012;125(9):1638-42.
Bist SS, Varshney S, Baunthiyal V, Bhagat S, Kusum A. Clinico-pathological profile of sinonasal masses: An experience in tertiary care hospital of Uttarakhand. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2012;3(2):180-86. [crossref] [PubMed]
Aljafar H, Alenazi E, Alkhatib A, Alazzeh G, Almomen A. The clinicopathological and radiological features of unilateral nasal mass in adults, a tertiary hospital experience. Int J Otorhinolary Head and Neck Sur. 2020;6(7). [crossref]
Nair S, James E, Awasthi S, Nambiar S, Goyal S. A review of the clinicopathological and radiological features of unilateral nasal mass. Indian J Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Sur. 2011;65(S2):199-04. [crossref] [PubMed]
Sridhar Rao M, Prasad AS, Shaila, G.Baleswari. Clinico-pathological profile of Sinonasal masses in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J App Res. 2017;7(1):939-41.
Gomes P, Gomes A, Salvador P, Lombo C, Caselhos S, Fonseca R. Clinical assessment, diagnosis and management of patients with unilateral sinonasal disease. Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española. 2020;71(1):16-25. [crossref] [PubMed]
Shuaibu I, Usman, Ajiya A. Unilateral sinonasal masses: Review of clinical presentation and outcome in Ahmadu Bello university teaching hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2020;61:16-21. [crossref] [PubMed]
Belli S, Yildirim M, Eroglu S, Emre FK. Single-sided sinonasal mass: A retrospective study. North Clin Istanbul. 2018;5(2):139-43. [crossref] [PubMed]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/60743.17217

Date of Submission: Oct 12, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Nov 01, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Nov 26, 2022
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Oct 13, 2022
• Manual Googling: Nov 22, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Nov 25, 2022 (19%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)