Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 104231

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : December | Volume : 16 | Issue : 12 | Page : YC13 - YC17 Full Version

Effect of FIFA 11+, Dynamic and Regular Warm-up Protocols on Speed, Agility, and Lower Limb Explosive Power in Badminton Players: A Quasi-experimental Study

Published: December 1, 2022 | DOI:
Sudesh Chettri, Abhishta Sehdev, Nitin Kumar Indora, Vipin Indora, Pooja Anand

1. Physiotherapist, Department of Physiotherapy, Minerva Academy Football and Cricket Club, Mohali, Punjab, India. 2. Lecturer, Exercise Science, Gold Gym Fitness Institute, Delhi, India. 3. Research Scholar, Department of Physiotherapy, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Jhajjar, Haryana, India. 4. President, Department of Physiotherapy, Sukun Physiotherapy, Faridabad, Haryana, India. 5. Professor and Dean, Faculty of Physiotherapy, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India.

Correspondence Address :
Nitin Kumar Indora,
House No-1034, Sector 21c, Housing Board, Faridabad, Haryana, India.


Introduction: FIFA 11+ (Federation International Le De Football Association), has already shown a positive response to the various physical parameters and reduced injury rates in football players, similar studies were not performed on badminton players. With this background, the present study was conducted.

Aim: To compare the effects of FIFA 11+, dynamic warm-up, and regular badminton warm-up on speed, agility, and lower limb explosive power.

Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in different badminton academies located in Faridabad, Haryana, India, from September 2017 to March 2019 with the implementation of the programme for four weeks with a sample size of 48 players (both male and female) aged between 14-18 years participated in the study. The participants were divided randomly into group A; following FIFA 11+ protocol (11+ is a multifaceted warm-up program with four components- sprinting, strength, plyometric and balance), group B followed dynamic warm-up and group C followed their regular warm-up. The players followed the protocols for four weeks (12 sessions with FIFA 11+ for 15-20 minutes and dynamic warm-up of 15 minutes). A pre and postassessment was done for agility using a T-test, speed was assessed by a 10 m sprint, and Lower limb explosive power was assessed using the vertical jump test. The statistical tests used for analysis was the Post-Hoc Tukey test for between-group analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) paired t-test for within-group analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 software.

Results: There was no statistical difference between the three groups when the Post-Hoc Tukey test was done. However, when within the group analysis was done using paired t-test there was statistically significant difference for agility in group A (p-value=0.030) and speed in group B (p-value=0.021).

Conclusion: This study concludes that none of the three groups out performed the other for all the parameters.


Badminton, Performance, Prevention protocol, Sensorimotor training

Since 1992, badminton is an Olympic sport and is one of the most widely played sports across the globe (1),(2). Badminton demands a high level of technical and mental prowess, apart from cardiovascular endurance, good strength in muscles, speed, and agility are required (3). Along with it, flexibility and explosive strength are perineal (2). At an elite level, badminton requires the involvement of a combination of aerobic and anaerobic systems, which depends on the duration of the game (3). Warm-up is done prior to physical activity, to prepare the body for both physical and psychological aspects. The warm-up aims at improving both static and dynamic balance, neuromuscular coordination, and proprioception of joints along with improved flexibility (4),(5).

Dynamic stretching has been attributed in improving neuromuscular coordination, thus, improving athletic performance and prevents injury (6). In addition, it improves agility, sprint speed, and power, all being valuable performance determinants (7),(8),(9),(10). A study has revealed that it is also associated with improved oxygen uptake, and reduced values of blood lactate and blood pH (11). FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre created FIFA 11+ warm-up programme (F-MARC) with the chief goal being the prevention of the most regular football injuries by targeting cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems (12). An 11+ is a multifaceted warm-up programme with four components (sprinting, strength, plyometrics, and balance) performed to increase the physical fitness of the footballers (13).

Study have reported a decrease in soccer injury by 30-70%; being about 50% in adolescent footballers including both genders. Also, substantial injury declination has been reported in elite basketball when 11+ programme was utilised (14). FIFA 11+ is reported to be beneficial in comparison to conventional dynamic warm-up in the prevention of injuries to the lower level (15).

Although FIFA 11+, is a tailored programme used in football, which has already been shown to produce a positive response to the various physical parameters and reduce injury rates in football players, such studies were not performed in Badminton players. With this motive, the present study was conducted with an aim to compare the effects of (Federation International Le De Football Association) FIFA 11, dynamic warm-up and regular badminton warm-up on speed, agility, and lower limb explosive power in badminton players.

Material and Methods

A quasi-experimental study was conducted in different badminton academies located in Faridabad, Haryana, India, from September 2017 to March 2019 with the implementation of the programme for four weeks with a sample size of 48 players (both male and female) collected using the G-Power method. Ethical clearance was obtained (MRIIRS/FAHS/2017/166).

Inclusion and Exclusion criteria: Age being 14-18 years’, both male and female, with a minimum of 6 months of experience in playing badminton, with participation at school or district/state level championships. Exclusion criteria included any musculoskeletal injury/pain, any cardiovascular disorder, fracture, or ligament injury within six months, or any upper/lower extremity deformity.

Study Procedure

After attaining consent forms signed by the parent/coaches, the player’s height, weight, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were taken prior to the session. Height was measured in centimetres by means of a stadiometer, weight was measured in kilograms by means of a digital weighing machine, and BMI was calculated in kg/m2. After the measurements were taken, the players were made to do a warm-up for five minutes which involved jogging and dynamic stretching. After that, the participants were given detail about the different tests which were to be performed. The first test includes a speed test which was taken for a 10 m distance and measured with a stopwatch in seconds, the second test includes a t-test for agility, measured with a stopwatch in seconds, and the third test was a vertical jump test (sargent jump test) for lower limb explosive power, measured in centimetre.

After the test was completed, the players were conveniently assigned into 3 groups (with 16 players in each group):

• Group A to follow FIFA 11+ warm-up
• Group B to follow the dynamic warm-up
• Group C who were kept in a controlled group followed their regular warm-up routine.

The participants were assessed again post four weeks of the warm-up programme. All the groups received similar training for badminton other than the warm-up being provided.

A 10 m speed test: Time for a 10 m sprint in a straight track was measured by using a stopwatch. Each sprint was started from an individually selected standing position. Each player completed 3 trials of 10 m sprints spread over 60 seconds of the recovery period, and the mean of the three sprints was taken (16).

T-test agility test: Three cones (B, C, and D) were placed within 5 yards (4.57 m) distance between cone B to cone C and cone B to cone D, respectively and the fourth cone A was placed at a distance of 10 yards (9.14 m) from cone B. Players began with both their feet behind the starting point A. Each player ran forward 9.14 m (10 yards) on the go signal to point B and tapped the cone with the right hand. They then shuffled to the left direction; 4.57 m (5 yards) and tapped cone C with their left hand. Players then shuffled to the right at 9.14 m and tapped cone D with the right hand. They then shuffled to the left 4.57 m back to point B and tapped the cone with their left hand. The player then ran backward, passing the finishing line at point A (Table/Fig 1). A one minute gap between the trials was given for recovery. Three test trials were completed, and time was recorded using stopwatch in seconds. The means of the trials were used for statistical analyses (17).

Vertical jump test: The athlete stands on the side of a wall and reaches up with the hand nearest to the wall, with feet flat on the floor and then marks the point with the chalk. This is termed as the standing reach height. The athlete then stands aside from the wall and jumps vertically as high as possible using both arms and legs to help in projecting the body upwards and tries to make a mark on the wall at the highest point of the jump. The difference in distance between the standing reach height and the jump height is the score (Table/Fig 2). A 45 seconds to one minute of the gap is given in between each trial and the best of three attempts is recorded. The distance is measured in centimetres (18).


FIFA 11+: The FIFA 11+ involves the exercises in three parts (Table/Fig 3), the first part of the programme includes six running exercises (19). The next part includes six exercises in part two for strength, balance, and plyometrics, all of which include three different levels of difficulty from beginners to advanced. The third part contains three advanced running exercises. All the applicants in group A followed the FIFA 11+ warm-up level 1 (beginners) for four weeks. The 11+, which substituted the normal warm-up training, took about 15-20 minutes to finish. Entire exercises determined the stability of the core, eccentric hamstring strength, neuromuscular control, and agility.

Set-up for exercise (Table/Fig 4): Six pairs of cones were used and placed parallel to each other with about a five to six-metre distance between the cones. Two athletes begin together from the starting point of the cones and jog and perform different exercises beside and inside the cones and then run along from the outside while returning from the last cones.

Dynamic warm up: The dynamic warm-up programme was selected from the study done on badminton players by Magner A et al., (10). Athletes from group B followed the dynamic warm-up programme for four weeks period. Stretching procedures were explained for the dynamic protocol to the athletes. The duration of the dynamic warm-up procedure was 15 minutes. The stretching was performed by the players according to their individual points of discomfort and limits (10) (Table/Fig 6),(Table/Fig 7).

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis was performed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. All the groups were analysed for within-group differences for the various variables by means of a paired-samples t-test with a significance level set at 0.05. For between the group analysis the groups were analysed using Tukey’s Post-Hoc Analysis with the level of significance set at 0.05.


The mean age of the participants in group A was 14.56±0.70 years and nine males and seven females (Table/Fig 9).

The mean of prespeed in FIFA 11+, dynamic stretching, control group was 2.45±0.22, 2.41±0.11 and 2.44±0.21, respectively (Table/Fig 10).

In group A (FIFA 11+) there was statistically significant improvement seen in agility with p-value 0.03. In group B (dynamic stretching) there was statistical significance in speed with p=0.02 (Table/Fig 11).

The result of the post-hoc analysis shows that there was no significant difference between the groups (Table/Fig 12).


Though the findings of the study revealed no statistically significant difference between all three groups of the study. However, it was observed that there was an improvement in agility among the group of FIFA 11+ and speed in the dynamic group with statistical significance when the within-group analysis was done. The results of this study are supported by the results of the following studies.

A study by Impellizeri F et al., on physiological and performance responses to the FIFA 11+, found no substantial differences in agility and sprint, and vertical jump and extensor strength (20). Also, a study by Steffen K et al., 2008, reported no significant performance differences in any of the variables (like strength, vertical jump, sprint and soccer skill tests) between the intervention group (using the FIFA 11 programme) against the control group (21). The possible reason for the results is that the FIFA 11+ might not have been rigorous enough to provide adequate physiological stimulus to reach the desired training effects (20),(21).

The results of the present study were contrary to the results of Gee TI et al., where the use of modified FIFA 11+ protocol on female court-sport athletes gave an effective response by enhancing dynamic neuromuscular control and sport-specific physical performance (22). A study also showed effective improvement in female badminton athletes’ performance ability, in preventing sports injury and improving limb asymmetry by implementing integrative neuromuscular training (5). Lu Z et al., found significant improvement in the use of combined balance and plyometric training on dynamic balance in elite badminton athletes (23). Ganeshkumar T and Senthilkumar PK, when implemented neuromuscular training and specific skills training in school-level badminton players found a significant influence on speed and leg explosive power (24).

Dynamic stretching protocols had no significant time, condition, and interaction effects over the 10-m sprint time when analysed for the effect of warm-ups incorporating different volumes of dynamic stretching in highly trained male soccer athletes. The results may be due to incorrect technique of the subjects to have the ability to efficiently accelerate in comparison to experienced sprinters (25). Dynamic stretching neither had improvement nor did it hamper performance when applied alone or in combination with static stretching in a study done to analyse the effects of warm-ups involving static or dynamic stretching on agility, sprinting, and jumping performance in trained individuals (7). Static form of stretching when involved with a dynamic form of warm-up impeded sprint performance in collegial athletes. This could be the reason for FIFA 11+ not reporting any improvement in the parameter of speed (26).

Stretching considerably impedes the 20 m time performance. The study showed that both forms of stretching showed no change or influence for both boys or girls in terms of 20 m performance. Dynamic stretching acutely decreased counter movement jump performance by 2.2% in both genders. In common, flexibility values were enhanced after no stretching (5.2%), static stretching (12.1%), and dynamic stretching (6.5%) both in young boys and girls. Dynamic stretching formed less variations in CMJ and sit and reach than static stretching (6). No noticeable alteration was witnessed in the peak jump height during jump performance for up to five minutes after both the stretching procedures in a group of female volleyball athletes (5). Also, the jump performance of female basketball athletes was unchanged by either of the two stretching protocols when the jumps were accomplished four minutes after the stretching procedures (27).

It was also witnessed that the acute outcomes produced by the FIFA 11+ on the four different groups of physical performance measures in the adolescent athletes engaged were alike to those found by the conventional football-related warm-up programme evaluated. Another important assumption of the study is that employment of the programme even at three days/week for four weeks could not produce any affirmative outcomes chronically on the performance measures examined (28).


The non homogeneity of the population as players in the study were from four different academies.


There was no statistically significant difference observed between the experimental and control groups. Although, it was found that statistical significance was present when the within-group analysis was done for agility in FIFA 11+ and speed in a dynamic group. This suggested that the warm-up followed by the badminton players in the control group was equally effective in maintaining performance in comparison to FIFA 11+ and dynamic stretching.


Expressing sincere gratitude to Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, Haryana, India. Also, thanks to all the participants and coaches from different badminton academies (Manav Rachna Sports Academy, KL Mehta Badminton Academy, Titans Badminton Academy, and Kirti Badminton Academy) in Faridabad for supporting and being part of the study.


Ooi CH, Tan A, Ahmad A, Kwong KW, Sompong R, Mohd Ghazali KA, et al. Physiological characteristics of elite and sub-elite badminton players. J Sports Sci. 2009;(4):1591-99. [crossref] [PubMed]
Phomsoupha M, Laffaye G. The science of badminton: Game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics. Sports Medicine. 2015;45(4):473-95. [crossref] [PubMed]
Chin MK, Wong AS, So RC, Siu OT, Steininger K, Lo DT. Sport specific fitness testing of elite badminton players. Br J Sports Med. 1995;29(3):153-57. [crossref] [PubMed]
Fernandes AD, Silva CD, Costa IT, Marins JC. The “FIFA 11+” warm-up programme for preventing injuries in soccer players: A systematic review. Fisioterapia em Movimento. 2015;28(2):397-405. [crossref]
Dalrymple KJ, Davis SE, Dwyer GB, Moir GL. Effect of static and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance in collegiate women volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):149-55. [crossref] [PubMed]
Paradisis GP, Pappas PT, Theodorou AS, Zacharogiannis EG, Skordilis EK, Smirniotou AS. Effects of static and dynamic stretching on sprint and jump performance in boys and girls. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(1):154-60. [crossref] [PubMed]
Chaouachi A, Castagna C, Chtara M, Brughelli M, Turki O, Galy O, et al. Effect of warm-ups involving static or dynamic stretching on agility, sprinting, and jumping performance in trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(8):2001-11. [crossref] [PubMed]
Herman SL, Smith DT. Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-term performance benefits. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1286-97. [crossref] [PubMed]
Hough PA, Ross EZ, Howatson G. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):507-12. [crossref] [PubMed]
Magner A, Chatham K, Spradley B, Wiriyapinit S, Price W, Akins T. Static stretching versus dynamic warm up: The effect on choice reaction time as measured by the Makoto Arena II. The Sport Journal. 2012;15(1):01-10.
McMillian DJ, Moore JH, Hatler BS, Taylor DC. Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: the effect on power and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(3):492-99. [crossref] [PubMed]
Silva JR, Silva JF, Salvador PC, Freitas CD. The effect of “FIFA 11+” on vertical jump performance in soccer players. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano. 2015;17(6):733-41. [crossref]
Daneshjoo A, Mokhtar AH, Rahnama N, Yusof A. Effects of the 11+ and Harmoknee warm-up programs on physical performance measures in professional soccer players. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2013;12(3):489.
Jäger T, Kiefer J, Werner I, Federolf PA. Could slackline training complement the FIFA 11+ programme regarding training of neuromuscular control? European Journal of Sport Science. 2017;17(8):1021-28. [crossref] [PubMed]
Grooms DR, Palmer T, Onate JA, Myer GD, Grindstaff T. Soccer-specific warm- up and lower extremity injury rates in collegiate male soccer players. Journal of athletic training. 2013;48(6):782-89. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ayala F, Calderón-López A, Delgado-Gosálbez JC, Parra-Sánchez S, Pomares- Noguera C, Hernández-Sánchez S, et al. Acute effects of three neuromuscular warm-up strategies on several physical performance measures in football players. PloS One. 2017;12(1):e0169660. [crossref] [PubMed]
Pauole K, Madole K, Garhammer J, Lacourse M, Rozenek R. Reliability and validity of the T-test as a measure of agility, leg power, and leg speed in college-aged men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2000;14(4):443-50. [crossref]
de Salles P, Vasconcellos F, de Salles G, Fonseca R, Dantas E. Validity and reproducibility of the sargent jump test in the assessment of explosive strength in soccer players. J Hum Kinet. 2012;33(2012):115-21. [crossref] [PubMed]
19. e.pdf.
Impellizzeri FM, Bizzini M, Dvorak J, Pellegrini B, Schena F, Junge A. Physiological and performance responses to the FIFA 11+(part 2): A randomised controlled trial on the training effects. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(13):1491-502. [crossref] [PubMed]
Steffen K, Bakka HM, Myklebust G, Bahr R. Performance aspects of an injury prevention program: A ten week intervention in adolescent female football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(5):596-604. [crossref] [PubMed]
Gee TI, Morrow RA, Stone MR, Bishop DC. A neuromuscular training program enhances dynamic neuromuscular control and physical performance in court-sport athletes. Translational Sports Medicine. 2020;3(1):09-15. [crossref]
Lu Z, Zhou L, Gong W, Chuang S, Wang S, Guo Z, et al. The effect of 6-week combined balance and plyometric training on dynamic balance and quickness performance of elite badminton players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;19(3):1605. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ganeshkumar T, Senthilkumar PK. Efficacy of specific skill and neuromuscular training on speed and explosive power among badminton players. Nutrition and Physical Education. 2019;4(1):1455-57.
Turki O, Chaouachi A, Behm DG, Chtara H, Chtara M, Bishop D, et al. The effect of warm-ups incorporating different volumes of dynamic stretching on 10-and 20-m sprint performance in highly trained male athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(1):63-72. [crossref] [PubMed]
Winchester JB, Nelson AG, Landin D, Young MA, Schexnayder IC. Static stretching impairs sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008;22(1):13-19. [crossref] [PubMed]
Unick J, Kieffer HS, Cheesman W, Feeney A. The acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on vertical jump performance in trained women. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(1):206. [crossref] [PubMed]
Robles-Palazón FJ, Pomares-Noguera C, Rodríguez FA, Hernández-Sánchez S, Martínez-Romero MT, de Baranda PS, et al. Acute and chronic effects of the FIFA 11+ on several physical performance measures in adolescent football players. European Journal of Human Movement. 2016;36:116-36.

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/56703.17380

Date of Submission: Mar 28, 2022
Date of Peer Review: May 13, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Nov 16, 2022
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Apr 12, 2022
• Manual Googling: Nov 11, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Nov 15, 2022 (7%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)