Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 102181

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2022 | Month : December | Volume : 16 | Issue : 12 | Page : YD01 - YD03 Full Version

Influence of Physiotherapy in the Vigilant Revitalisation of Decubitus Ulcer: A Case Report

Published: December 1, 2022 | DOI:
Neha Nilesh Bhagdewani, Anam R Sasun, Shubhangi Patil

1. Intern, Department of Community, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Wardha, Khamgaon, Maharashtra, India. 2. Intern, Department of Community, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Wardha, Gondia, Maharashtra, India. 3. Professor and Head, Department of Community, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Wardha, Khamgaon, Maharashtra, India.

Correspondence Address :
Neha Nilesh Bhagdewani,
Intern, Department of Community, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi, Wardha-4422001, Maharashtra, India.
Email id:


Decubitus ulcer seems to be the most typical side-effects seen in chronic patients due to postspinal cord injury, various neurological conditions and prolonged periods of immobilisation. This is a type of skin and soft tissue lesion that develops as a result of prolonged or continuous skin pressure. All of the pressure sensitive sites are the occiput, trochanters, sacrum, malleoli and heel. A 43-year-old male patient experienced road traffic accident that resulted in cervical spinal cord injury and was bed ridden for the past five months, developing grade 4 bed sores over bilateral buttocks and sacral region. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the dorsal spine revealed cervical canal stenosis with neural forminal stenosis and neural impairment at C3-C4 to C6-C7 disc levels. Braden score and functional independence measures were the outcome measures used to evaluate patient condition. Physiotherapy was initiated to deal with symptoms such as lower limb weakness, bed sores in the bilateral buttock and sacral region and hand activities. It entailed a variety of therapeutic approaches aimed at teaching patient transfers and bed mobility as well as making the patient functionally independent. Laser therapy had been used to speed wound healing and to explore if it is beneficial in combating massive, chronic pressure sores. In this case, it was also demonstrated that advanced physiotherapy rehabilitation, which included laser therapy, was advantageous to the patient and led to significant outcomes after a spinal cord injury.


Cervical spinal cord injury, Laser therapy, Outcome measures, Physiotherapy rehabilitation

Case Report

A 43-year-old male patient came to the Casualty Department with the main complaint of lower limb paraparesis. The patient had a history of a Road Traffic Accident (RTA) that occurred five months back, resulted in head trauma, loss of consciousness and cervical cord injury. Cervical canal stenosis with neural forminal stenosis and neural impairment at C3-C4 to C6-C7 disc levels revealed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the dorsal spine on day three of the accident. There was minimal collection of fluid in the prevertebral region at the C4-C5 vertebral level (Table/Fig 1). Patient underwent surgery to treat cervical myelopathy after a month. Antibiotics, analgesics, antacids, antiepileptics, and other supportive medicines were given to the patient postoperatively. Vital signs, haemodynamics and neurological state were all stable in the patient. The patient had been bed ridden for the past five months. Grade 4 bed sores over bilateral buttocks and sacral region were present (1).

After taking the informed consent from the patient, for symptoms such as weakness in both lower limbs, bed sores in the bilateral buttock and sacral region and for hand activities physiotherapy was initiated. Admission to the hospital was done after five months for the present complaint and physiotherapy rehabilitation began after five days of admission according to the timeframe. The patient was attentive, oriented to time, place and person. Intelligence and memory were normal on general evaluation, according to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (2). When limbs were palpated, they had reduced muscle strength in their bilateral lower limbs, scoring a 0/5 for lower limb and 3/5 for upper limb on the Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) scale (3). Deep and cerebral sensations were unaffected but active Range of Motion (ROM) in the joints of both lower limbs was compromised. Babinski sign was positive in the right ankle jerk response. Bladder and bowels were both significantly affected. On local examination, a bed sore measuring 10×15 cm on the left side and 8×12 cm on the right side was found, along with skin discoloration that seemed to be black with foul smelled drainage. The Functional Independence Measures (FIM) score was 75/126 and the Braden score was 7/23 (4),(5). (Table/Fig 2),(Table/Fig 3) showing illustrations of bed sores before and after therapy.

Therapeutic Intervention

The patient was given the following interventions while in bed: upper limb strength training, lower extremity passive motions, position into prone and lateral lying, hand activities, passive stretches (Table/Fig 4). Laser therapy was also given for four weeks with a 15 day follow-up. The non contact, continuous beam emission (non pulsing) at 658 nm wavelength, Light cure Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide (GaAlAs) class IV near-infrared laser was applied. The following dosage parameters were used: 7-10 watts power; dose range 6 J/cm2-9 J/cm2; sacral area (10×5) cm2 at different energy densities; treatment time ranged between 8-15 minutes for ulcer five times per week for one month (6). The grid method was used to spread the wound area and the application was done with a non contact probe moving at 1cm/second (Table/Fig 5). The pretreatment and post-treatment follow-up and outcomes are shown in (Table/Fig 6).


Decubitus ulcers, commonly known as bed sores or pressure ulcers, are skin and soft tissue injuries that develop as a result of continual or sustained skin pressure over bony areas (8). First, second, third and fourth stage incidence rates for pressure ulcers were 45% (95% CI: 34-56), 45% (95% CI: 34-56), 4% (95% CI: 3-5) and 4% (95% CI: 2-6), respectively. The orthopaedic surgery ward’s patients had the highest incidence of pressure ulcers (18.5%) (95% CI: 11.5-25) (9). Pressure ulcers are progressive in nature, largely caused by pressure and shear and are most frequently observed in bedridden, chair bound, or immobile individuals. The failure of the reactive hyperaemia cycle in the pressure prone area continues to be the most significant etiopathology (10). The diagnosis of infection is difficult and is dependent on a mix of primary and secondary clinical symptoms, tissue in the wound, the condition of the wound environment, inflammation indicators and findings from the gold-standard microbiological investigation of targeted samples. Important clinical criteria known as NERDS-STONEES are used to distinguish between deep tissue infection and critical colonisation when making an infection diagnosis. Pressure ulcer infections occur 5-80% of the time and biofilm is present in 90% of cases (11).

In this case report, it was shown that in contrast to the other studies listed below, very advanced physical therapy rehabilitation, which included patient education, laser treatment, stretches, strength training, range of motion exercises, and home-based exercise regimens, had a significant positive impact on the patient’s quality of life. The present state of knowledge and improved therapeutic options for pressure ulcers has received special attention. Similar to a study done by Bhattacharya S and Mishra RK, role of stress relieving items like pillows and mattresses in the therapy strategy was also highlighted in the case report (10). Exercises were used in spinal cord injury treatment to increase functioning. Because each spinal cord injury is different, each person needs a customised rehabilitation approach. Following a spinal cord injury, a physiotherapist will assess one’s functional skills, provide a specific training program, and assist patients in achieving realistic recovery objectives (12). There are currently a number of different ways to treat a wound, like debridement, improved dressings, use of antibiotics and reconstructive surgery.

The benefits and drawbacks of both the present and newer approaches have also been examined, along with novel therapeutic possibilities such as negative pressure wound therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and cell therapy (10). The treatment of pressure ulcers using laser therapy at a wavelength of 658 nm appeared to be successful. In one investigation, the wavelengths of 808 and 940 nm had no impact (6). Physical methods with an emphasis on lasers, shockwaves, photodynamic treatment, Ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy and lights, are most frequently employed in the management of wound healing. These modalities require further attention and should be kept in mind while treating persistent ulcers in order to determine the ideal wavelength, dosage, approach and crucially proper treatment protocols (13). More gait retraining and standardised Activities of Daily Living (ADL) programs are needed to perhaps enhance healing and rehabilitation, as well as to promote therapy in the gym rather than the ward as often as possible to lessen the impact of pressure sores (14). The goal of the study was to determine how physiotherapists handle patients with paraplegia and sacral pressure ulcers as well as the efficacy of laser therapy for treating large and severe pressure ulcers.


In this case study, it was demonstrated that very advanced physical therapy rehabilitation, which included laser treatment, stretches, strength training, range of motion exercises and home-based exercise regimens, had a considerable positive influence on the patient’s quality of life. Authors found that physiotherapy helped the patient to understand about the condition by giving them the necessary training, by using different therapeutical techniques. Effect of Laser therapy in treating large, chronic pressure sores had also been studied.


Zaidi SRH, Sharma S. Pressure Ulcer. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls 2022. Available from:
Tombaugh TN, McIntyre NJ. The mini-mental state examination: A comprehensive review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40(9):922-35. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ciesla N, Dinglas V, Fan E, Kho M, Kuramoto J, Needham D, et al. Manual muscle testing: A method of measuring extremity muscle strength applied to critically Ill patients. J Vis Exp. 2011;(50):2632. [crossref] [PubMed]
Gkouma A, Theotokatos G, Geladas N, Mandalidis D, Skordilis E. Validity and reliability evidence of the Functional Independence Measurement (FIM) for individuals with neurological disorders in Greece. J Med-Clin Res & Rev. 2022;6(5):01-11. [crossref]
Bergstrom N, Braden BJ, Laguzza A, Holman V. The Braden scale for predicting pressure sore risk. Nurs Res. 1987;36(4):205-10. [crossref] [PubMed]
Taradaj J, Halski T, Kucharzewski M, Urbanek T, Halska U, Kucio C, et al. Effect of laser irradiation at different wavelengths (940, 808, and 658 nm) on pressure ulcer healing: Results from a clinical study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013:e960240. [crossref] [PubMed]
Nas K, Yazmalar L, S¸ ah V, Aydin A, Önes¸ K. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries. World J Orthop. 2015;6(1):08-16. [crossref] [PubMed]
Bluestein D, Javaheri A. Pressure ulcers: Prevention, evaluation, and management. AFP. 2008;78(10):1186-94.
Afzali Borojeny L, Albatineh AN, Hasanpour Dehkordi A, Ghanei Gheshlagh R. The incidence of pressure ulcers and its associations in different wards of the hospital: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Prev Med. 2020;11:171.
Bhattacharya S, Mishra RK. Pressure ulcers: Current understanding and newer modalities of treatment. Indian J Plast Surg. 2015;48(1):04-16. [crossref] [PubMed]
Kučišec-Tepeš N. Characteristic features of pressure ulcer infection. Acta Med Croatica. 2016;70 Suppl 1:45-51.
Gupta N, Raja K. Physiotherapy care for adults with paraplegia due to traumatic cause: A review. DCID. 2016;27:72. [crossref]
Feily A, Moeineddin F, Mehraban S. Physical modalities in the management of wound(s). Intech. 2016. [crossref]
Pather D, Mudzi W. An audit of the physiotherapy management of paraplegic patients with sacral pressure sores. S Afr J Physiother. 2013;69(4):55-61. [crossref]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/57927.17282

Date of Submission: May 20, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jun 11, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Sep 26, 2022
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Jun 06, 2022
• Manual Googling: Sep 20, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Sep 23, 2022 (6%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)