Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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On Sep 2018

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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Saraswati Dental College
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On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : December | Volume : 16 | Issue : 12 | Page : ZC27 - ZC31 Full Version

Evaluation of Shade Matching Accuracy of Smartphone Application compared to Conventional Visual Method: An Observational Pilot Study

Published: December 1, 2022 | DOI:
Tumma Sri Hari, Ektha Pai Thonse, Rajendra B Hallikerimath, Chithra L Melavanki, Ajay Kumar Nayak, Zarir Ruttonji

1. Third Year Postgraduate, Department of Prosthodontics Crown and Bridge, Maratha Mandal’s Nathajirao G Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Belgavi, Karnataka, India. 2. Third Year Postgraduate, Department of Prosthodontics Crown and Bridge, Maratha Mandal’s Nathajirao G Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Belgavi, Karnataka, India. 3. Professor, Department of Prosthodontics Crown and Bridge, Maratha Mandal’s Nathajirao G Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Belgavi, Karnataka, India. 4. Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics Crown and Bridge, Maratha Mandal’s Nathajirao G Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Belgavi, Karnataka, India. 5. Professor, Department of Prosthodontics Crown and Bridge, Maratha Mandal’s Nathajirao G Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgaum, Belgavi, Karnataka, India. 6

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Rajendra B Hallikerimath,
Maratha Mandal Dental College, R.S. No. 47 A/2, Bauxite Road, Belgavi, Karnataka, India.


Introduction: Shade selection has been always a challenging step for a dentist by using a shade guide in manual visual selection. “Colour Grab” application of the smartphone simplifies the procedure of shade selection by providing L a* b* values.

Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of the Smartphone application in shade selection compared to the visual method of shade selection.

Materials and Methods: This observational pilot study was conducted at Maratha Mandal Dental College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from January 2022 to March 2022. A total of 30 subjects were examined by five observers for shade selection using two methods- 1. Conventional visual method, 2. Smartphone application. A total of 300 samples were collected by the both methods. Colour grab application was used to determine L a* b* values of Vita Classic Shade tabs at a distance of 25 cm on neutral grey background and tabulated. Data was collected and subjected to statistical analysis. Cronbach’s alpha test for interobserver reliability analysis, intraclass correlation test and Spearman rho correlation tests were used to determine the inter-observer and intra-observer shade selection accuracy respectively.

Results: A total of 30 subjects (Females-16, Males-14) of age between 18-40 years were observed and analysed. For observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, the correlation coefficients were 0.962, 0.849, 0.824, 0.930 and 0.793, respectively at p-value <0.01 for all observers which was highly significant. This test showed that there was strong correlation between the two techniques for each observer which had excellent consistency.

Conclusion: Colour Grab smartphone application can be used as an alternative method to conventional visual method in shade selection.


Colour grab application, Shade selection, Vita classical shade guide

The natural tooth shade selection is a crucial step in fabrication of any dental prostheses. Selection of tooth shade via conventional technique involves a considerable subjective discrepancy from observer to observer. Dental shade matching appliances like colour grab, image colour identifier, colour harmony, the Dental Maintenance Plan (DMP) dental chromatcher, T shade have been brought into the market to overcome imperfections and inconsistencies of traditional shade matching such as the visual method, like the conventional shade guide and its derivative shade guides. Metamerism, inadequate conditions of colour matching, tools and practitioner’s eye fatigue are the inbred difficulties that are present in visual method of shade selection (1).

Over the last decade, different technology-based shade matching instruments have been available in the market to facilitate shade matching but they possess the disadvantage of increased expenses. Recently, mobile applications that can analyse the colour of objects are available. Dental shade matching by using digital technology may be feasible when the components of a colour are properly manipulated (2). Visual thresholds such as perceptibility and acceptability can be quantified only by combining visual and instrumental colour measurement methods (1).

In 1976, the International Commission on Illumination defined the CIELAB system also referred to as L a*b* system, as a perpetual uniform space, wherein change in colour corresponds to a numerical change. The L refers to perceptual lightness a*, b* correspond to various primary colours of vision: red (+a*) and green (-a*), blue (-b*) and yellow (+b*) respectively (3). Separating the colour features into L a* b* values facilitate favourable matching while using mobile applications (4). The “Colour Grab” application on the smartphone for dental colour matching simplifies the process by providing L a* b* values which aid in an accurate shade selection, provided the environmental settings which are optimised. Shade variations on a single tooth can also be detected using the application hence allowing better guidance to the clinician to select a shade in order to fabricate a more realistic aesthetic prosthesis. Smartphone cameras, even those without internal setting features, can be used as shade measuring instruments when appropriate lighting settings are employed by simplifying the challenges of the conventional technique of shade selection (2). In the present study, an attempt had been made to simplify the method using software like mobile apps available for use with android and can be downloaded from the appstore for free so that the user will know the required shade very immediately. The aim of present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the smartphone application in shade selection compared to the visual method of shade selection.

Material and Methods

This observational pilot study was conducted at the Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, Maratha Mandal Dental College, Belagavi. After obtaining the ethical clearance, the study was conducted from January 2022-March 2022.

Inclusion criteria: A well-formed, healthy anterior teeth with good patient’s co-operation were included in the study.

Exclusion criteria: Hypoplastic, discoloured and crowded teeth and teeth with previous restorations were excluded from the study.

Sample size calculation: As per the minimum requirement for the pilot study, a total of 30 subjects were examined by 5 observers to do the shade selection in two methods:

1. Conventional visual method.
2. Through smartphone application.

Five post graduate students from the Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge were selected as observers who were experienced in shade selection for two years. The observers were unaware of the shade selected by their counterparts in both techniques of shade selection. Thirty patients with good to fair oral hygiene and no anterior teeth crowding or restorations were chosen for shade matching tests. Prior consent was taken regarding their participation in the study. Professional cleaning was advocated in the upper anterior teeth region (canine to canine) before the shade selection.


A smartphone application Colour Grab (version 3.9.2 © 2021 Loomatix Ltd.) and a smartphone camera (Samsung s21, 64 megapixels) was used along with Vita classic shade guide to collect the Lightness (L), red/green value (a) and blue/yellow (b) values of individual shade tabs in an optimised environment. A Grey solid background (4 munsells), natural light (during noon) was used for optimisation of the environment. (Table/Fig 1). The individual shade tabs were positioned within the frame of the camera till central yellow marking in the application was set at the middle-third of the shade tab (Table/Fig 2). Once stabilised, the yellow marking changes to a blue tick mark with L a, b values registered at the top of the application window. The readings were recorded for individual shade tab. (Table/Fig 3),(Table/Fig 4). The observers were provided with a chart containing the predetermined L a, b values of individual shade tabs as given in (Table/Fig 4). With same optimised conditions as visual method, each observer correlated the L a, b values of the tooth as determined through the Colour Grab application with the customised L a, b value for that particular shade tab as previously determined and tabulated in (Table/Fig 4) in order to select a shade (Table/Fig 5),(Table/Fig 6).

The two methods for shade selection were as follows:

Shade selection of the tooth using visual method: The patient was seated in an upright position facing north on a dental chair. The observer was asked to determine the shade of upper central incisor from an eye distance of 25 cm from the tooth during shade selection. Each observer determined the shade of 30 subjects and selected shades were tabulated (Table/Fig 7). If the shade selected by more than three observers were same, that shade was considered to be the shade of the tooth.

Shade selection of the tooth using smartphone application: The yellow marking of the application window was positioned in a manner to orient to the centre of the middle-third of the tooth. It was stabilised until the yellow marking changes to a blue tick mark. In the present study, the camera distance of 25 cm from the shade tab was used for optimisation of the environment (5). Optimised lighting conditions were used in this study, but in general clinical situations, the lighting conditions vary and there is no means to standardise the values for each situation. As the lighting conditions change, the specific values of each shade tab also changes. A total of 300 samples were collected from 30 subjects.

Interobserver Reliability Analysis was done for shade selection using conventional and smartphone application by using Cronbach’s alpha test.The cut off of Cronbach’s alpha was given in (Table/Fig 8).

Statistical Analysis

The statistical analysis was performed using International Business Management (IBM) Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistics for windows, version 25.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, New York, USA). Cronbach’s alpha statistical test was applied for Interobserver Reliability Analysis. Intraclass correlation test was applied to determine the shade selection accuracy between observers in both techniques. Spearman rho correlation test was applied to the observations recorded by the individual observers for both the techniques. The p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Two groups A and B, based on the method of shade selection were categorised in which each group consists of 30 subjects (females-16, males-14) of age between 18-40 years. The mean age and standard deviation were given in (Table/Fig 9). A total of five observers were selected to carry out the shade selection. Assessment of inter-observer reliability analysis for shade selection was done by Cronbach’s alpha test. Cronbach’s alpha test analysis were 0.964 and 0.935 by conventional technique and mobile app technique respectively (Table/Fig 10). This revealed that there is excellent consistency between observers in both techniques (Table/Fig 8). Intraclass correlation test for conventional technique was 0.842 and for app technique was 0.741. In both techniques, results were highly significant (p≤0.01). This suggests substantial agreement within the observers in both techniques (Table/Fig 11). Spearman rho test was applied to individual observers for both techniques. For observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 the correlation coefficients were 0.962, 0.849, 0.824, 0.930 and 0.793 respectively at p-value <0.001. This test showed that there was high significance and strong correlation between the two techniques for each observer (Table/Fig 12).


The colour of an object is determined by light that enters the human eye from that object. What is commonly known as “the colour of a tooth” is actually the colour of the reflected light perceived by the human visual system. Retina consists of a cell layer which reacts to light stimulation and is made of rods and cones. The eye can differentiate up to 300 spectral colours provided, considerably more light is available to activate the cones. Hence for every aesthetic dentist, it is challenging to determine and replicate the appearance of teeth. It requires patience, perseverance and good visual perception to mimic teeth to its closest form and detail (5). In dentistry, colour is communicated on a regular basis but often misunderstood. Shade selection is determined by visual and scientific components however, every human eye does not have the same capacity of perceiving it in a standardised manner (6). Fondriest J stated that after continuous light is incident on the retina and light is removed from the retina instantly, the receptors continue to be active and send signals to the brain for a short period of time. This is known as spreading effect. An alteration in perception is caused by an after image which is a physiologic effect of normally functioning receptors. The fatigue of cone receptors leads to negative after image as they become insensitive to further stimulation. (7). This is why, when shade selection is done by using shade tabs close to a tooth, it is necessary to decide the appropriate shade within seconds.

Brunescence as defined by Pensler AV is the natural browning of the cornea that occurs with age and acts as a filter, changing the appearance of colours. Hence apart from features of the tooth, the ability of the clinician’s eye to differentiate the shades based on hue, chroma, value is also essential in the process of shade matching (8),(9). Since shade selection is dependent on subjective perception of the clinician’s eye, any discrepancy during this process can lead to a restoration that does not match the patient’s existing dentition rendering it unesthetic (8). Using an additional aid like smartphone application in such a situation can be a boon to a dentist to provide a patient with an excellent prosthesis as shade selection is the primary requisite for a successful prosthesis.

Albert CJ et al., assessed colour in dental prosthesis using smartphone. They aimed to use photographs taken with smart phones to ease the process of shade selection for the dental surgeon. VITA 3D MASTER shade guide was used on a single tooth photograph for colour assessment. The study concluded that although it is a complementary method to conventional method, smartphone tools are capable of minimising possible failures in shade selection (10). Mohammadi A et al., studied the validity and reliability of colour selection by smartphone photography using two smartphone applications and Adobe Photoshop software on Vita Lumin Vacuum and 26 shade tabs of Vita 3D Master. The study concluded that high validity and reliability is observed when shade taking is done by calibrated smartphone pictures and Adobe Photoshop (11). A prospective clinical study was conducted by Raza F et al to determine the reliability of software application in natural teeth shade selection and concluded that software applications offered reliability and repeatability in shade selection (12). In the current study, the observations derived from the results were consistent with previous studies that smartphone application for selection of shade is reliable and complementary method to conventional visual shade matching using shade tabs. This method can be used in situations where there is eye fatigue, reduced capacity of a clinician to differentiate between shades, and artificial illumination conditions, provided the values of the shade tabs using the application are predetermined in the existing illumination situation (13). The application can be used even in smartphones without internal camera settings.


Sample size was small. Only upper central incisors were used for shade determination so further studies need to be done on larger sample size and on different teeth, as shade variations are seen among different teeth segments.


The Colour Grab smartphone application was accurate and a very simple method in selecting the shade. The reliabilty analysis for both the methods of shade selection was excellent with chronbach’s alpha score 0.964 for conventional method and 0.935 for app technique. The primary goal of a successful prosthesis is excellent aesthetics and patient satisfaction. To achieve this, shade selection plays a pivotal role. “Colour Grab” application of the Smartphone simplifies the procedure of shade selection by providing L a* b* values. To design and implement new and appropriate smart apps, professional requirement regarding shade matching need to be identified by researchers and software companies. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate the application in different light conditions in order to be used in regular practice.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/57724.17348

Date of Submission: May 12, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jun 02, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Sep 05, 2022
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: May 14, 2022
• Manual Googling: Sep 01, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Sep 04, 2022 (13%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

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