Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
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Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
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Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Research Protocol
Year : 2022 | Month : December | Volume : 16 | Issue : 12 | Page : ZK01 - ZK03 Full Version

Immunoexpression of Podoplanin in Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and its Correlation with Survival: A Research Protocol


Published: December 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/58414.17238
Samiha Jameel Ahmed Khan, Madhuri Gawande, Alka Hande, Swati Patil, Archana Sonone

1. Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 2. Professor and Head, Department of Oral Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 3. Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 4. Associate Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Samiha Jameel Ahmed Khan,
Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
E-mail: samiha.khan26@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Podoplanin (PDPN) is a well-conserved mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein. According to various studies, podoplanin expression is seen in various human cancers and it also encourages the progression of the tumour. A high PDPN expression, specifically in oral cancers, shows a significant relation to the metastasis of lymph nodes and poor patient survival, suggesting its substantial role in identifying the malignant transformation of a lesion by its expression in initial oral tumourigenesis. Only few studies have mentioned the use of podoplanin marker in detection of malignant transformation of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs). Most malignant transformations are seen in cases of oral leukoplakia. The present study will help in early diagnosis of malignant transformation of leukoplakia by showing an increased expression of podoplanin, thereby, resulting in better treatment and prognosis of the disease.

Aim: To evaluate immunoexpression of podoplanin in leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and also to correlate it with the clinicopathological characteristics of leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) and the survival of OSCC patients.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study will be conducted in the Department of Oral Pathology at Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India. Surgically operated OSCC cases from year 2005-2019 in this Institute will be retrieved from the archival of the department. Ninety samples in total will be taken for the study, which will be further divided into three groups, consisting of 30 samples in each group as follows: leukoplakia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa (control). Immunohistochemical staining will be carried out, and podoplanin (PDPN) immunoexpression with different clinical characteristics of leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma will be assessed. Broder’s grading system will be used for histopathological grading of all cases of OSCC. The Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test will be used to statistically analyse the data.

Keywords

Immunohistochemistry, Oral neoplasms, Prognosis, Transmembrane glycoprotein

Oral cancer is considered to be the most common cause of the death by cancer. The most widely known cancer of the oral cavity is Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). The OSCC is usually led by Oral Potentially Malignant Diseases (OPMD). These OPMDs can be identified on a clinical basis owing to their characteristic presentation (1). These include: leukoplakia, Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF), erythroplakia and lichenoid dysplastic lesions (2),(3). Most malignant transformations are seen in cases of oral leukoplakia. Oral leukoplakia is a non scrapable, white lesion of oral mucosa that cannot be characterised as any other lesion (4). The paramount modalities for managing OPMDs and OSCC are prevention and early detection (1).

Patients’ quality of life is deteriorated by premalignant lesions of the oral cavity and their pathological sequelae, as managing the disease is unaffordable to the common people (5). Many researchers have found that OPMDs showing epithelial dysplasia are at more risk of malignancy than OPMDs showing no dysplastic features (6),(7). Histopathologic assessment is considered a “gold standard” for examining lesions with the possibility of transforming into malignancy. In histopathological examination, one of the important criteria is histopathological grading, which helps to determine the clinical and biological course of OSCC (8).

Local invasion/expansion, recurrence, the potential for metastasis, and disease-free survival of the tumour are predicted by assessing cell proliferation in histopathology through immunohistochemical evaluation (9). Researchers have found objective molecular markers capable of identifying lesions with a high potential of turning into malignancy (10). These markers help to erase the differences that arise due to inter-observer variability while diagnosing different grades of OSCC (11).

Podoplanin is a well-conserved mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein marker that is primarily used for lymphatic endothelial cells. PDPN expression is seen in various human cancers and encourages tumour progression (12). The PDPN expression is seen only on lymphatic endothelium and is not expressed on blood vessel endothelium. PDPN helps in the prevention of cellular adhesion (12). A high PDPN expression, seen in head and neck cancers, specifically in oral cancers, showed a significant relation to the metastasis of lymph nodes and poor survival of the patient. Some dysplastic and hyperplastic lesions, which were close to primary oral cancers, also showed expression of PDPN. This indicated that PDPN plays a notable role in identifying the malignant transformation of a lesion by its expression in initial oral tumourigenesis (13).

Previous studies conducted by Deepa AG et al., and Patil A et al., have mentioned the role of podoplanin in diagnosis of various OPMDs (14),(15). But, the present study will focus mainly on evaluating the podoplanin expression in leukoplakia, which is the most capable of malignant transformation. Also, leukoplakia is more common in the population of this western region of India, where this study will be conducted. Evaluation of PDPN in leukoplakia will help in preventing further progression of disease by detecting its risk of malignant transformation at an early stage. The various clinicopathological features of leukoplakia will be compared and correlated with OSCC. A three-year survival analysis of OSCC patients will also be done in present study to see the prognosis of the disease.

The aim of the research protocol is to evaluate immunoexpression of Podoplanin (PDPN) in Leukoplakia (LP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with the survival of OSCC patients. The null hyposthesis is that podoplanin immunoexpression will remain the same in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and OSCC. Alternative hypothesis is that, podoplanin immunoexpression will increase through normal oral mucosa to leukoplakia to OSCC.

Material and Methods

This retrospective study will be conducted in the Oral Pathology Department at Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India, after obtaining the approval of the Institutional Ethical Committee {DMIMS(DU)/IEC/2022/760} and informed consent of the patients.

Inclusion criteria: Total 30 OSCC cases and 30 LP cases that will be clinically and histopathologically diagnosed and who will be treated surgically for primary treatment, will be included. Normal oral mucosa will be used as control to compare the podoplanin expression in normal and abnormal conditions.

Exclusion criteria: The cases with head neck cancer history in the past, recurrent or distant disease, and patients who have undergone preoperative treatments, except biopsy will be excluded from the the study.

Sample size calculation: Sample size was estimated using Cochran’s formula (16) for the present study

N=Z2pq/e2

Where;

Z is the level of significance at 5%
i.e. 95% Confidence interval=1.96
p=Samples showed positive podoplanin expression focally
in small group of cells in the basal layer of epithelium=35%=0.35 q=(1-p)
e=Error of margin=10%=0.10
N=1.962×0.35×(1-0.35)/0.102
N=90, hence, 90 patients needed in the present and 35% prevalence was taken from previous study by Deepa AG et al., (14).

Study Procedure

Ninety samples in total will be taken for this study which will be further divided into three groups, consisting of 30 samples in each group as follows:

• Leukoplakia (n=30): Random cases of leukoplakia will be selected for OPMDs group from the archival of department.
• Oral squamous cell carcinoma (n=30): Surgically operated OSCC cases from year 2005-2019 in this Institute, will be retrieved from the archival of the department.
• Normal oral mucosa (control) (n=30): Normal oral mucosa will be taken from surgically extracted third molar cases after patient’s verbal consent.

The histopathological grading of all OSCC cases will be done using Broder’s grading system (17).

The patient’s details like age, gender, habits and site of the lesion, clinical history, duration of disease, and microscopic features of the lesion will be recorded. A three-year retrospective follow-up will be done for the patients selected for OSCC for survival analysis since the time of surgery. Under low power view (100X), all the Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections will be screened. Immunohistochemical staining will be carried out, and Podoplanin (PDPN) immunoexpression with different clinical characteristics of leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma will be assessed.

Immunohistochemistry

Tissue sections (4 μm thickness) will be retrieved from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (fixed with formalin). They will be transferred on 3-Amino Propyl Tri-ethoxy Silane (APES) glass slides. Deparaffinisation will be done using xylene, and the slides will be rehydrated with lower ethanol concentrations. Antigen retrieval will be done by heating the slides in tris-Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) in a pressure cooker for 5 mins. Blocking of endogenous peroxidase activity will be done with 3% H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) for 10 mins. Ultraviolet block reagent will be used to treat the slides for five minutes. Incubation of slides will be done for one hour at room temperature with mouse monoclonal anti-human podoplanin primary antibody (D2-40). Later, secondary antibodies will be followed using horse radish peroxidase for 30 minutes. A substrate chromogen (3’-Diaminobenzidine Tetrahydrochloride) will be used for staining, and counter staining will be done using Harris haematoxylin. Dehydration of sections will be done, followed by clearing and mounting, and podoplanin expression will be observed according to the grades of podoplanin mentioned above. These findings will be observed under a light microscope (14).

Expected outcome: The podoplanin immunoexpression is expected to increase through normal oral mucosa to leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting its use in assessing the potential for malignancy of leukoplakia and aggressive behaviour of OSCC. Immunoexpression of podoplanin will help predict the transformation of leukoplakia into malignancy and the prognosis of OSCC patients.

Statistical Analysis

The association between podoplanin expression status and clinicopathologic parameters will be analysed using the Chi- square test. Also, the survival of OSCC patients will be assessed using Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test will be used to test for significant differences.

Results

Deepa AG et al., conducted a study in which podoplanin immunoexpression was compared in twenty cases each of OL, OSMF, and OSCC to normal oral (buccal) mucosa using IHC. For this, D2-40 (monoclonal antibody) was used. When OSCC, OSMF, and OL were compared to normal oral mucosa, a remarkable upregulation in the grades of PDPN immunoexpression was seen. This increase in podoplanin expression was seen with decreasing grades of differentiation. PDPN expression was seen increasing in oral submucous fibrosis compared to oral leukoplakia. The conclusion of this study was that PDPN expression in epithelial cells of dysplastic lesions could significantly predict the risk of malignancy (14).

A study performed by Aiswarya A et al., evaluated podoplanin expression in 25 samples of leukoplakia and 30 samples of OSCC as a molecular marker to predict the risk of malignancy in leukoplakia cases. Podoplanin expression was seen to be increasing from normal oral mucosa to oral leukoplakia to OSCC. The podoplanin staining score was seen to be remarkably increasing from mild dysplasia to carcinoma in-situ in cases of oral leukoplakia. Well-differentiated OSCC group displayed the highest expression of podoplanin. Their study concluded that the progressive increase in podoplanin expression in case of oral leukoplakia through the increasing grades of dysplasia suggests a high risk for malignancy (18).

Kawaguchi H et al., evaluated the expression of podoplanin to see the progression of oral cancer in 150 cases of leukoplakia using IHC along with long-term follow-up. The follow-up was done to assess the correlation of demographic features with PDPN expression. Oral leukoplakia cases which were positive for podoplanin showed a significantly greater risk for oral cancer compared to those with negative PDPN. They stated that, histology and PDPN expression help further stratification of oral cancer development. This study concluded that PDPN expression is most frequent in leukoplakia cases. PDPN, along with histology, can be a vital marker for predicting potential for oral cancer development in leukoplakia cases (19).

Patil A et al., conducted a study where they assessed the significance of PDPN as a biomarker for cancer probability in leukoplakia. They also correlated PDPN expression to different grades of OSCC. The investigation of PDPN expression was done in 40 cases each of leukoplakia and OSCC using IHC. A remarkable increase in PDPN expression was seen from mild dysplasia to severe dysplasia and from well-differentiated OSCC to poorly differentiated OSCC in this study. This study came to a conclusion that, PDPN could be used as a biomarker for the identification of initial oral tumourigenesis (15).

Karunagaran M et al., conducted a study in which comparison and analysis of the expression of podoplanin and its pattern of distribution in normal oral mucosa and OSMF were made. This was compared with the increase in grades of dysplasia from mild to moderate to severe dysplasia using IHC. Forty cases were taken, and four groups were formed comprising- normal oral mucosa (group A), OSMFmild dysplasia (group B), OSMF- moderate dysplasia (group C), and OSMF- severe dysplasia (group D). They observed that podoplanin expression increased with an increase in scores of dysplasia. This study indicated that expression of PDPN increases as the grades of dysplasia increase, implying its part in the potential of the disease for malignant transformation (20).

Limitation(s)

The only limitation of the present study is the small sample size. Further studies with greater sample size and follow-up are recommended, to demonstrate the exact role of podoplanin in OL and OSCC.

Conclusion

Podoplanin plays a significant role in identifying malignant transformation of a lesion by its expression in initial oral tumourigenesis. Podoplanin, along with histology, can be a valuable marker for predicting the potential for oral cancer development in leukoplakia cases.

References

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Hande A, Sonone A, Gadbail A, Gawande M, Patil S, Sharma P. Modalities to restrain the progression of oral potentially malignant diseases and oral squamous cell carcinoma in COVID-19 pandemic. J Oral Oncol. 2021;114:105072. [crossref] [PubMed]
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Van der Waal I. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa; terminology, classification and present concepts of management. Oral Oncol. 2009;45(4-5):317-23. [crossref] [PubMed]
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Gupta B, Ariyawardana A, Johnson NW. Oral cancer in India continues in epidemic proportions: evidence base and policy initiatives. Int. Dent J . 2013;63(1):12-25. [crossref] [PubMed]
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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/58414.17238

Date of Submission: Jun 13, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Aug 10, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Sep 23, 2022
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Jun 21, 2022
• Manual Googling: Sep 22, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Nov 11, 2022 (3%)

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