Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 106683

AbstractConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Short Communication
Year : 2022 | Month : December | Volume : 16 | Issue : 12 | Page : ZM01 - ZM03 Full Version

Youth and Zero Incidence, Zero Prevalence of Cancer in India- An Achievable Goal?

Published: December 1, 2022 | DOI:
HS Sreeshyla, HP Jaishankar, R Shashidara, Usha Hegde, Priyanka Nitin

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. 2. Reader, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. 3. Professor and Head, Department of Oral Pathology, Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences, Virajpet, Karnataka, India. 4. Professor and Head, Department of Oral Pathology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. HS Sreeshyla,
Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSSAHER, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.


Cancer is one of the main leading causes of high mortality and morbidity. It is also one of the preventable diseases with known risk factors in many of the cases. Youth are like double edged sword, by being the highly vulnerable group as well as the group with strong potential for disease prevention. Health education, creating strong awareness on the known avoidable risk factors among the young adults can prevent the occurrence of cancer. Simultaneously, using the educated young group to dissipate their knowledge to curb the cancer is the need of hour. Thought of zero incidence and prevalence of cancer in India looks unachievable. However, with the youth centred programmes, by the youth, for the youth and to the general public, such goals can be achieved.


Deaddiction, Health education, Morbidity, Mortality, Tobacco

Cancer has entangled the world with its vicious cradle and has become a great global concern. The associated socio-economic psychological encumbrance and high mortality-morbidity poor quality of life calls for immediate action to tackle this burden (1),(2),(3). There is an increased literacy rate in the country, an abundance of research added to the cancer literature every day, availability of highly advanced early diagnostic modalities and praiseworthy attempts made by government bodies, private organisations, educational institutions, healthcare units, Non Government Organisation (NGO) and various other officialdoms to increase awareness on cancer among the general public (4),(5),(6). Public awareness messages in the cinema halls and through social media are reaching wider audience (7). Inspite of all the persistent efforts, the cancer still remains a major health issue.

The update from Globocan 2020, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases and 10 million cancer deaths in 2020. If nothing is done about this now, IARC has estimated global cancer burden to rise by 47%, a total of 28.4 million cases by 2040 (8),(9). The projected incidence of cancer occurrence in India was 679,421 among males and 712,758 among females for the year 2020. The cancer registry data has estimated that there will be about 800,000 new cancer cases in India every year (10),(11). In 2019, an estimated 1,335,100 new cancer cases and 397,583 cancer-related deaths occurred among Adolescents and Young Adults (AYAs) worldwide (12). These cancer statistics in India from Globocan survey, Indian cancer registry and National Cancer Control Programme are highly distressing. The continuation of the present trend can lead to highly alarming statistics in next 20-50 years, especially with more youth succumbing to cancer death (8),(13). These darker stats force us at thriving towards its suppression at the earliest. Well-planned short-term projects with good outcomes, spread over longer duration, aiming to achieve zero incidence and zero prevalence of cancer, are essential and crucial.


The possibility of creating a cancer-free future by facilitating awareness and sensitising the adolescent-youth population about cancer, its causes, prevention and detrimental effects can aid India in lessening the competition for resource allocation between prevention of communicable diseases and cancer. As important as it is to help and support those with cancer and those with loved ones suffering from cancer, going forward, it is more important to promote its prevention.

The National Youth Policy of India-2014 has defined youth as persons in the age group 15-29 years (14). Youth comprises the major potential section of the society. Youth force is dynamic in nature and the youth of the nation are trustees of prosperity. They can play the dual role of being the participants as well as the deliverers. Globally, India has the largest youth population and will continue to do so for the next 20 years, as estimated by the National Statistical Commission of India (15). The present challenge is to channel this dynamic potential and resource for the welfare of people.

“The world’s biggest power is the youth” (Chanakya) and “We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build our youth for the future” (Franklin D Roosevelt). Quotes like these reinforce that youngster are energetic, enthusiastic, creative, innovative and challenge seekers. Youth are identified as both the key beneficiaries as well as deliverers (16). Therefore, it is time we develop youth centred programmes with the involvement of youth, for both youth and the other population (17).


Major areas where World Health Organisation contribute to cancer prevention are Tobacco Control, Palliative Care and Human Resource Development (10),(13). Human resource section should include youth as the major segment. Young trained personnel in various specialities, at various levels should play the key changers.


Education and health are interdependent. While the health status impacts the academic achievement, the academic status will have an impact on health. When combined, health education can have a great bearing (18). Adolescence provides a great window of opportunity for cancer education and intervention. Such an education should be targeted at this group, as they are in an age of active learning as well as in a stage where risky behaviours, such as smoking, begins (19),(20).

Primary prevention is the most effective mode of combating this situation. Health education is an important tool for prevention and early detection of cancers. The cancer associated risk factors are highly preventable. Hence, risk factor modification should be the prime facade. This health education should be provided to children when they are still impressionable, when the new habits they develop or the knowledge they obtain about health and diseases will have an impact on their future health. The best places to introduce this shift are in schools and universities. Teenagers and young adults encountering peer pressure in these settings try out new behaviours. It is necessary to train and equip college and high school professors to spread information about oral cancer and its simple prevention. Risk factors, healthy lifestyles, preventative actions, and advice about the negative consequences of alcohol and cigarettes should be added to the curricula of schools and universities. Also, strict measures to engage the youth in any kind of activity- be it sport or cultural, be made mandatory. This will keep them healthy, busy and away from the unwanted habits (10),(20),(21). This has to be approached together as lifestyle modification should be adopted in young age, for proficient results. Public health officials and education department must collaborate to sustenance quality school health programs that meet the changing needs of today’s youth (10),(18). Educational interventions and platforms should address obstacles to preventative behaviour and target specific areas of cancer prevention, such as avoiding tobacco products, maintaining healthy diet and limiting sun exposure. Educating adolescents on cancer prevention is essential to lower their risk of cancer in the future (19),(20).

Just like ‘Red Ribbon Clubs’ that are formed in schools and colleges to tackle Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), schools and colleges should also have groups formed by the youth, for the youth wherein students are the mentors as well as the counsellors. When any valuable health information is given by peers, it is well accepted by youth. The participation of the youth not only as the receiver but also as the contributor is a powerful psychological boost for the youths (22). Regular discussions, Interactions, question and answer sessions will keep the information fresh. Freshers’ introduction program should include briefly about tobacco and its ill-effects. This should be followed by an interaction program regularly to keep reminding the youth about the ill-effects of tobacco and its future, i.e., cancer.

Anti-tobacco Programmes

A 50% of all cancers in males are tobacco related and teen age is the most sensitive, vulnerable and easily tangled state (10),(13),(23). Anti-tobacco programs targeting the young are the need of the hour. There are legislations to enforce anti-tobacco laws and sale restrictions (23). However, their strict enforcement is possible with the involvement of the beneficiaries. Student committee’s at all educational institutes should be mandated to monitor strict enforcement of these regulations to yield better outputs. Counselling and deaddiction centres should work towards zero youth tobacco registries at their centres and the counselled youth should be employed and encouraged to take up the responsibility of further counselling the needy. This prevents them from re-addiction and the experience makes them the expert counsellors. Government level inventiveness for development of youth wing, employing the youth dedicated for cancer prevention will be a great initiative.

Media Education

Health magazines that are led by and contributed by youth about cancer facts and experiences should be initiated at national and regional levels with focus on local language. Educative materials in the form of audio-videos, posters, leaflets, flipcharts etc., has to be developed and advertised in the leading dailies for creating awareness about cancer among the general public. Interactive programme which provides an interface to the people with experts on cancer issues and moderated by youth should be conducted to educate the public. This in turn, becomes self-educative too. At every interaction each of us will learn something new as a take home message. Conducting campaigns and parades for cancer awareness will be more effective if conducted in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) hotspots like malls, multiplexes and academic institutions rather than conducting them on a busy road on a busy and hot day. Sensitising the youth on a consistent basis will help them generate an innate memory of the shortcomings and create a sense of consciousness and responsibility towards this malady. To effectuate, giving out brochures about cancer awareness along with movie tickets, gift hampers, purchase bills will prove helpful (24),(25).

Information, Education and Communication (IEC) is the key to tackle cancer. Social media can be a remarkable tool in achieving this. Discussion forums, YouTube, Facebook page, Twitter, Instagram to name a few, are all at our finger tips. Using this social media, general public and youth in particular can be targeted. Authentic information about anything related, from tobacco, its side-effects, need for healthy lifestyles, risk factors for cancer should be made available. This information should be advertised while visiting the social media site. Just like other product ads which pop up while we watch a video or visit a site, information about ill-effects of tobacco, its relation to cancer, how to quit tobacco, helpline numbers, contact of tobacco intervention centres should also be displayed which cannot be skipped, but need to be viewed. Personalised, interactive educational program using already established resources will allow for the promotion of cancer prevention.

Social media platforms like “Know Your Lemons”, awareness for breast cancer, Caped India, for cervical cancer and many other Non Profit Organisations (NPOs) promote awareness and provide facilities for early detection and prevention of certain cancers. This has made cancer education accessible and easy. Certain months of the year have been allocated specifically for cancer awareness, like Oral Cancer awareness month (April), Breast Cancer awareness month (October), where campaigns and screening camps are installed to access people who cannot be accessed otherwise through the internet (5),(6).

Since youth are a reservoir of creativity, new ideas, energy and volunteering in NPOs will prove beneficial. Youth should be involved to spread awareness on importance of practising genital hygiene and safe sexual practices. Messages by youth icons in this regard will have a great impact. Celebration of Cancer Awareness Days, No Tobacco Day, Specific Cancer Days/weeks/months and such Cancer specific programmes can be made more fruitful if they are youth centred. Health melas, dramas, street acts, rallies, competitive events and theatre plays by the youth at large public gatherings and educational institutions will be great motivators (13),(16),(17). Well planned strategies, keeping targets, monitoring the implementation, and usefulness of these programme by the youth and finally recognising the outstanding efforts of the youth is necessary to streamline these endeavours.

These youth centred strategies can be distributed and implemented for now, worked upon for better tomorrow to achieve the goal of zero incidence and prevalence of cancer. It should initially begin with modifying the lifestyles of the current youth, deaddicting the habituated youth, improving the quality of cancer affected youth, educating the school children and the AYA comprehensively regarding cancer, involving the youth to percolate the message to all other sections of the society and ensuring continuous monitoring, revisiting and evaluation.


Reduction of once upon a time dreadful diseases like tuberculosis, leprosy, plague should be the driving motive at achieving the zero incidence and zero prevalence of cancer in the future, which even though appeared unachievable, has been made possible with involvement of youth. The measures adopted for cancer control in the developed countries may not be applicable to the Indian context. Under such situations, acting locally and youthfully will be the best solution. Employing and nourishing youth oriented community programs, workshops to prevent substance use and develop sportsmanship, can educate and reduce the exposure to cancer risk factors, improving the healthy lifestyle and social wellbeing of the society.

Authors contribution: Dr. Sreeshyla- literature search, Concept, manuscript preparation, editing, final proof; Dr. Jaishankar- Concept, literature search, editing, final proof; Dr. Shashidara- Concept, Design, final proof; Dr. Usha Hegde- manuscript preparation, final proof; Dr. Priyanka Nitin- literature search, final proof.


Goswami S, Gupta SS, Raut A. Understanding the psychosocial impact of oral cancer on the family caregivers and their coping up mechanism: A qualitative study in rural Wardha, Central India. Indian J Palliat Care. 2019;25(3):421-27. [crossref] [PubMed]
Baumann E, Koller M, Wiltfang J, Wenz HJ, Moller B, Hertrampf K. Challenges of early detection of oral cancer: Raising awareness as a first step to successful campaigning. Health Educ Res. 2016;3:136-45. [crossref] [PubMed]
Sreeshyla HS, Shashidara R, Sudheendra US. Diagnostic aids in oral precancer and cancer. Indian J Multidiscip Dent. 2014;4:928-34.
Shankar A, Roy S, Rath GK, Chakraborty A, Kamal VK, Biswas AS. Impact of cancer awareness drive on generating understanding and improving screening practices for breast cancer: A study on college teachers in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18:1985-90.
Cohen SA, Cohen LE, Tijerina JD. The impact of monthly campaigns and other high-profile media coverage on public interest in 13 malignancies: A Google Trends analysis. Ecancermedicalscience. 2020;14:1154. [crossref] [PubMed]
Nishimura, Y, Acoba JD. Impact of breast cancer awareness month on public interest in the United States between 2012 and 2021: A Google trends analysis. Cancers. 2022;14:2534. [crossref] [PubMed]
Nandru S, Kodali PB, Thankappan KR. Perceived effectiveness of anti-tobacco advertisements used in Indian cinema: Results of a cross-sectional study from South-India. Journal of Substance Use. 2022. [crossref]
Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71:209-49. Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
WHO, IARC, Latest global cancer data, 15 December 2020. Available from [Accessed on 12/01/2022].
Varghese C. Cancer prevention and control in India. Available from: https://main. In%20India.pdf [Accessed on 12/01/2022].
Mathur P, Sathishkumar K, Chaturvedi M, Das P, Sudarshan KL, Santhappan S, et al. Cancer Statistics, 2020: Report from National Cancer Registry Programme, India. JCO Global Oncol. 2020;6:1063-75. [crossref] [PubMed]
You L, Lv Z, Li C, Ye W, Zhou Y, Jin J, et al. Worldwide cancer statistics of adolescents and young adults in 2019: A systematic analysis of the global burden of disease study 2019. ESMO Open. 2021;6(5):100255. [crossref] [PubMed]
Chatterjee S, Chattopadhyay A, Senapati SN, Samanta DR, Elliott L, Loomis D, et al. Cancer registration in India-Current scenario and future perspectives. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(8):3687-96. PMID: 27644602.
Ministry of youth affairs and sports, Government of India, National youth policy 2014. Available from: nyp_2014.pdf [Accessed on 12/01/2022].
NSO, India, Annual report 2020-21. Available from documents/213904/848928/Annual_Report_2020_21_Eng.pdf/d448c47a-fa4e- 17c5-7a34-e8fe3063b06a?t=1613993557446 [Accessed on 12/01/2022].
Young people’s participation in community-based responses to HIV from passive beneficiaries to active agents of change. UNAIDS 2019. Available from: https://
Engaging young people for health and sustainable development: Strategic opportunities for the World Health Organisation and partners. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Morse LL. Let schools do it! Helping schools find a role in cancer prevention. J Adolesc Health. 2013;52(5 Suppl):S89-92. [crossref] [PubMed]
Abraham O, Szela L, Feng E, Egbujor M, Gay S. Exploring youth perceptions about cancer prevention and preferences for education: A qualitative study. J Cancer Educ. 2021. [crossref] [PubMed]
Barros A, Santos H, Moreira L, Ribeiro N, Silva L, Santos-Silva F. The cancer, educate to prevent model-the potential of school environment for primary prevention of cancer. J Cancer Educ. 2016;31(4):646-51. [crossref] [PubMed]
Parambil NA, Philip PM, Balasubramanian S, Padmanabhan M. Educational short film versus powerpoint based lecture in school tobacco awareness programs: Study from a tertiary cancer Center, Kerala, India. Indian J Public Health. 2022;66:61-63.
Government of India. Ministry of Health & Family welfare. National AIDS Control Organisation. Red Ribbon Express. Available from:
Chaudhry K. Tobacco control in India. In: Agarwal SP, Rao YN & Gupta S (Eds.) Fifty years of cancer control in India. Directorate General of Health Services, Govt. of India, New Delhi, India, 2002.
Dinshaw KA, Shastri SS, Patil SS. cancer control program in India: Challenges for the new millennium. Health Administrator. 2010;17:10-13.
Rao YN, Gupta S, Agarwal SP. National cancer control programme: current status & strategies. Available from: ministryofhealth/pg49to55.pdf [Accessed on 12/01/2022]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/57748.17320

Date of Submission: May 13, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jun 06, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Oct 14, 2022
Date of Publishing: Dec 01, 2022

Author declaration:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: May 16, 2022
• Manual Googling: Aug 23, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Oct 11, 2022 (4%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)