Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : February | Volume : 16 | Issue : 2 | Page : BC10 - BC12 Full Version

Effectiveness of Dexamethasone as an Adjunct Drug in Treatment of Critical COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Single Cohort Study

Published: February 1, 2022 | DOI:
Arvinder Pal Singh, Sahiba Kukreja, Rohit Arora, Manmeet Kaur Gill

1. Professor, Department of Anaesthesia, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India. 2. Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India. 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India. 4. Professor, Department of Microbiology, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Correspondence Address :
Arvinder Pal Singh,
Professor, Department of Anaesthesia, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences
and Research, Amritsar-143501, Punjab, India.


Introduction: Corticosteroids have shown controversial results in severe infections. Limited data is available to prove the efficacy of this drug against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Such studies have highlighted that steroids such as dexamethasone can be effective against the patients who are exhibiting severe symptoms of COVID-19.

Aim: To determine the effectiveness of dexamethasone as adjunct drug in treatment of critical COVID-19 patients.

Materials and Methods: This observational single cohort study was conducted on 50 COVID-19 positive patients admitted to the tertiary care hospital, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India during August 2020 to October 2020. Critically ill-patients suffering from COVID-19 receiving 6 mg dexamethasone along with standard treatment protocol as prescribed by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) were included in the present study. Serum interleukin-6, D-dimer, ferritin levels along with Cycle threshold (Ct) values from RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab were recorded on the day of admission and after 7 days of dexamethasone therapy along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and paired-t test.

Results: There were 22 males and 28 females enrolled in the study with mean age of males as 55 years and mean age of females as 56 years. The mean weight of males was 68.4 kg, while the mean weight of females was 59.8 kg. Statistically significant decrease in serum levels of interleukin-6, D-dimer, and ferritin after 7 days of dexamethasone treatment along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR was observed. The results were found to be different with p-values=0.001, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively.

Conclusion: Dexamethasone, as an adjunct drug, is an important corticosteroid that is efficient in countering the inflammatory response generated in COVID-19 patients along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR. It reduces the inflammatory markers in patients suffering from COVID-19.


Coronavirus disease 2019, Cytokine storm, D-dimer, Ferritin, Inflammation, Interleukin-6, Real time-polymerase chain reaction

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease affecting the respiratory system of an individual (1). The origin of this viral infection is quite controversial with the majority of evidence highlighting bats as the source of origin (2). The novel nature of the disease, rapidly increasing positive cases, and its associated mortality acted as a triggering factor for discovering new and improved prevention and treatment modalities (2).

The standard treatment protocol as prescribed by ICMR, India was based on administering hydroxychloroquine to COVID-19 patients with moderate to high severity of infection (3). This treatment also involved standard care such as treatment of each arising symptoms. Several controversial research findings proved this treatment protocol as statistically inefficient (4),(5). At the same time, countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom prescribed the use of corticosteroid dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with moderate or high severity of disease (6),(7),(8). Dexamethasone is an important steroid that is normally prescribed in patients suffering from different inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma, pneumonia (9). Its use in treating critically ill-patients with COVID-19 is still controversial (10).

Though there are different studies that have evaluated the function of some of the markers for diagnosing the severity of COVID-19 (6),(11), there are only limited studies that have actually studied all these markers together. Such study could be essential for planning treatment appropriate to patient condition (12),(13). The present study was conducted on COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms, receiving 6 mg of dexamethasone along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR. This study forms a baseline for future studies or future use of this drug for patients suffering from COVID-19.

Material and Methods

This observational single cohort study was conducted out on critically ill COVID-19 positive ill-patients admitted to the tertiary care hospital, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India, from August 2020 to October 2020. The study was conducted after obtaining Ethical Clearance from the Institution (Ethical clearance number Patho:232/2020 dated 24.08.2020). The patients were enrolled in the study after taking prior informed consent.

Inclusion criteria: All the patients who were showing symptoms of severe COVID-19 infection as laid down by the Government of India viz., severe pneumonia with SpO2 <90%, or acute respiratory distress syndrome were included in the study (14).

Exclusion criteria: The patients who did not fulfill the severity criteria let down by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare were excluded from the study irrespective of gender or age (14).

During the study period, 58 patients were enrolled in the study out of which eight patients were reported as lost to follow-up. Final sample size was 50 patients. These patients were given 6 mg dexamethasone as treatment protocol as an adjunct along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR.


The current observational study was compiled using the data obtained from critically ill-patients suffering from COVID-19. Total 4 mL blood was taken in red vacutainer and the blood was allowed to clot for 30 minutes. It was later centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 17 minutes and the serum was separated for performing biochemical tests. Ferritin and D-dimer was performed on Vitros 5600 using chemiluminescence method, and interleukin-6 was performed using Immulite 2000 Xpi using chemiluminescence method. The Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test was performed using commercially available kit Labgun exofast by Labgenomics, using the protocol provided by the manufacturer. The primers and probes were included in the ready to use mastermix of the kit (15),(16).

The mechanism of action of dexamethasone is given in (Table/Fig 1). The results of ferritin, interleukin-6, D-dimer, and RT-PCR of study participants were recorded on day 0 and day 7 of dexamethasone treatment along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR.

Statistical Analysis

The results obtained from the study were represented as the median and interquartile range on 0 days and 7 days. These results were also analysed using independent student’s t-test. The results of 0 days and 7 days were compared using paired t-test. Paired t-test analysis was performed on the selected parameters on results of day 0 and day 7 of treatment. The p-value ≤0.05 is considered as significant, while the p-value ≤0.001 is considered as highly significant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0.


The data of 50 patients were compiled for analysis. There were 22 males and 28 females enrolled in the study with mean age of males as 55 years and mean age of females as 56 years. The mean weight of males was 68.4 kg, while the mean weight of females was 59.8 kg (Table/Fig 2).

It was observed that the median Ct value of the N gene was 14.8 with an interquartile range of 12.3 to 18.5. The median gradually improved to 19.5 on day 7 with an interquartile range of 18.1 to 23.2. The median Ct value of the RdRp gene was 14.7 with an interquartile range of 12.4 to 18.4. The median Ct value improved to 20.4 on day 7 with an interquartile range of 18.3 to 23.4 (Table/Fig 3).

The median ferritin value on day 0 was 747.5 with an interquartile range of 486.5 to 1286.2, while the median value on day 7 was 310 with an interquartile range of 210 to 422.5. The median interleukin-6 and D-dimer value on day 0 were 62.4 (interquartile range 28.7 to 181.7) and 4.5 (interquartile range 1.4 to 7.3), respectively. The median values of these parameters were gradually reduced to 17.5 (interquartile range 12.6 to 27.8) and 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5) on day 7 of dexamethasone administration along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR (Table/Fig 3).

Wilcoxon-Signed rank test was analysed on different parameters by comparing data of day 0 with data of day 7. It was observed that the Ct value of the N gene and the RdRp gene was significantly different between day 0 and day 7 with p-value ≤0.001. Similarly, ferritin, interleukin-6, and D-dimer were also different between day 0 and day 7 with p-value ≤0.002, ≤0.001, and ≤0.003, respectively (Table/Fig 3).


The current study involved the study of interleukin-6, D-dimer and ferritin levels in the severe COVID-19 positive patients. These parameters were chosen as they were considered as strong predictors of severity of the disease (17),(18),(19). In the present study, it was observed that serum interleukin-6 levels were increased in all patients at the time of admission. This finding was in accordance with the study by Bhandari S et al., who observed a similar increase in interleukin-6 in patients who were critically ill (20). This could be because of heightened inflammatory response due to COVID-19 infection. It was further observed that there was a statistically significant decrease in serum interleukin-6 levels after 7 day treatment with 6 mg dexamethasone. This was also reported in studies by Giles AJ et al., and Bronicki RA et al., (21),(22).

The serum D-dimer and serum ferritin levels were found to be increased in these patients at the time of admission and showed a statistically significant decline in levels after 7 day treatment with 6 mg dexamethasone along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR. This decline could be due to dexamethasone countering cytokine storm, reducing the formation of the blood clots, and maintaining the normal iron level (23),(24),(25). Similar results were also observed by Burugu HR et al., (26).

The Ct value of the N gene and the RdRp gene remained positive in RT-PCR results. Though the change in Ct values was significant, the majority of patients did not attain negative nucleic acid status. Previous research findings have confirmed the increased duration of viral shedding after treatment with dexamethasone (27).

The present study showed that the use of dexamethasone helped in countering the inflammatory response generated due to infection of COVID-19 as an adjunct drug along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR. The gradual reduction of immune response against the disease helped in reducing the ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 levels in the patient. The study by Rubio-Rivas M et al., has highlighted the importance of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone in countering the cytokine storm and normalising these parameters (28).


The limitations of the present study were that the sample size was small. The follow-up period could have been increased to confirm the duration of viral shedding in patients after dexamethasone treatment along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR.


The current study highlighted the importance of dexamethasone as an adjunct drug along with standard treatment protocol of ICMR, in treating patients with COVID-19 with severe symptoms of infection. The treatment of patients with dexamethasone helped in reducing the different blood markers such as ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/52669.16025

Date of Submission: Oct 01, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Nov 06, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Dec 20, 2021
Date of Publishing: Feb 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Oct 04, 2021
• Manual Googling: Dec 18, 2021
• iThenticate Software: Jan 18, 2022 (4%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

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