Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : February | Volume : 16 | Issue : 2 | Page : ZC53 - ZC57 Full Version

Mental Health Status of Dental Faculty, Students and their Parents during COVID-19 Pandemic in Southern India: A Cross-sectional Study

Published: February 1, 2022 | DOI:
KSV Ramesh, P Swetha, NVS G Sruthima, P Mohan Kumar, C Naresh Kumar, B Vivek, B Anusha

1. Professor, Department of Periodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 3. Professor, Department of Periodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 4. Reader, Department of Periodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 5. Reader, Department of Periodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 6. Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 7. Senior Lecturer, Department of Periodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. KSV Ramesh,
Flat No. 309, SLV Siva Sri Gowri Bhadra Enclave, 32nd Ward, Netaji Street,
Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.


Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an infectious and devastating disease that has created heightened levels of anxiety and fear among the general population. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) has also brought many changes in everyone’s lives including closing of schools, colleges/universities and social isolation in an unexplained manner. In these unprecedented times, lot of sway has been developed among teaching faculty, students and student’s parents in the medical profession including dental schools. However, the impact on students is likely to be noteworthy.

Aim: To assess the awareness, attitude, anxiety and perceived mental healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic among dental faculty, students and their parents in South India.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational questionnaire based study was carried out among 1000 dental faculty, students and student’s parents in South India between August 2020 to December 2020. A questionnaire with 20 items regarding awareness, attitude, anxiety and perceived mental healthcare was designed on Google forms and sent through e-mails and WhatsApp. Snowball sampling technique was used and 1000 self-selected dental faculty, students and student’s parents in South India were included in the study. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software v. 20.0 International Business Machines Corporation-United States of America (IBM-USA). Chi-square test was used to analyse the data. The p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The findings showed all the respondents were aware with positive attitude and awareness on this pandemic in regard to its spread and precautions to be taken. However, parents (59.2%) were more preoccupied with eliminate thoughts and more were anxious when compared to faculty (32.1%) and students (32.4%), whereas faculty were more concerned about family’s health and safety (49%) and financial status (54.5%) (p<0.001). All the respondents felt that getting engaged and sharing their worries would help them and mental health help requirement is greater in students (86.5%), student’s parents (81.4%) followed by faculty (71.5%) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: During this pandemic even though respondents were aware of the possible squeal of infection and preventive measures. The findings suggest a need to address the mental health worries of the people during these pandemics.


Attitude, Anxiety, Awareness, Coronavirus disease-2019, Faculty, Mental health

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an infectious disease caused by coronavirus. It first came to light on 31st December 2019 in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 infection usually spreads from person to person through droplets from nose or mouth when a person coughs, sneezes or speaks (1). World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30th January 2020, Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan (SPRP) was setup to protect the states (2). These plans were to limit the transmission, provide early healthcare and minimise social and economic impacts. It has become one of the central health crises of a generation and has left a great impact on people of all nations, races, and socio-economic groups (3).

COVID-19 has created heightened levels of anxiety and fear among the general population. Despite Indian government urging people and other stake holders of the society to avoid gatherings like religious ceremonies, family functions etc., the anxiety and health concerns in society are affecting common individuals to some extent (4). Till date limited data is available about this contagious disease (5),(6). This pandemic disease has brought in its wake closing of schools, colleges/universities and social isolation which have abruptly changed everyone’s daily life. Among many, education is one which has got affected in an unexplained manner. In these exceptional times, the medical profession, including dental schools, has established a great deal of clout among teaching faculty, students, and student’s parents. The impact on students, on the other hand, is likely to be enormous. Awareness and attitude of people in this situation has a great degree of influence on personal protection. A good mental health status is of major concern in the pandemic.

Though the pandemic has acclimatised humanity to new technology, it has had a significant influence on a number of issues, including mental health (7). There is a scarcity of study in the area of dentistry on the mental health of dental faculty, students, and their parents during the pandemic. There is yet to be a research that assesses the mental health of staff, students, and their parents.

One previous study showed that Healthcare Workers (HCWs) had a lack of knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19 (8). In the pre pandemic and early pandemic era there was less knowledge and awareness regarding transmission based precautions (9).

Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate awareness, attitude, anxiety and perceived mental healthcare during COVID-19 among dental faculty, students and their parents in South India.

Material and Methods

A cross-sectional, observational study was carried out among dental faculty, students and their parents in South India. The study protocol was approved by Institutional Ethical Committee (VDC/RP/2020/20), Vishnu Dental College, Andhra Pradesh for a period of August 2020 to December 2020.

A questionnaire was sent to dental faculty, dental students and student’s parents of 10 different institutes randomly. Dental faculty, dental students were informed to send the questionnaire to as many as possible to receive additional responses. Upon clicking the link the participants were asked to read and accept the informed consent and answer the questionnaire.

Using Google forms, an online questionnaire with 20 items containing the following four sections relating to awareness (5 items), attitude (5 items), anxiety (7 items) and perceived mental healthcare (3 items) was developed by a statistician with an experience of seven years based on the study done by Roy D et al., (10). Face validity was evaluated by including few respondents. A total of 180 subjects were considered for pilot study. The content validity was tested by using Content Validity Index (CVI with score >3.5) and the expert panel were asked to assess various aspects including relevance, clarity, simplicity, ease of understanding, time taken, confusion among items, opinion on language and the length of the questionnaire. The panel was also provided with an opportunity to provide free-text comments. The data gathered from CVI, free-text comments and subsequent qualitative analysis helped in some meaningful additions and subtractions to items in the questionnaire for three questions.

Sample size calculation: After receiving the forms, Cronbach’s alpha value was determined to be 0.86 indicating that the variables were adequate to correlate and to proceed. Sample size was calculated based on the findings of pilot study considering 95% confidence level, 3% margin of error and 63.5% of awareness. Upon this, sample size was calculated as 1000 participants and were included in the study.

Study Procedure

Potential participants, accessing the questionnaire, were informed about the following: the purpose of the survey no known risks of participation data confidentiality and overall eligibility criterion of participants were faculty, dental students and their parents being capable of understanding the questionnaire.

The respondents were allowed to choose more than one option from the given choices according to their understanding. The link of the questionnaire (Google form) was sent through e-mails, WhatsApp of the investigators as it requires much less time and effort, and supports cost minimisation. Each person was free to select whether or not to take part in the survey.

Dental faculty and students from 10 teaching institutes from different states of South India participated in the study. Student’s parents with internet access able to understand English and willing to give informed consent were included. All the data was collected from the sent Google forms were subjected to statistical analysis.

Statistical Analysis

As this study has adopted a snowball sampling technique, via self-selection form, the response rate cannot be computed. In general, the survey was closed when a total of 1000 completed responses were received. All the obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software v. 20.0 (IBM-USA). Chi-square test was used to analyse the data. The p-value <0.05 was considered statically significant. For easy understanding and evaluation results were categorised under 4 sections i.e., awareness, attitude, anxiety and perceived mental healthcare.


Demographic details: Out of the 1000 participants, 728 (72.8%) participants were of age 18-24 years, 195 (19.5%) participants of age 25-44 years, 75 (7.5%) participants of age 45-64 years, 2 (0.2%) participants of age above 64 years, among which 327 (32.7%) were males and 673 (67.3%) were females. Dental teaching faculty (16.5%), dental students (80.8%), student’s parents (2.7%) were included in the study (Table/Fig 1).


Out of the total participants, 98.8% of faculty, 97.2% students, and 70.3% student’s parents answered that the virus spreads through multiple modes like hand shaking, sneezing, coughing; also 91.5% of faculty, 94.6% of students, 77.7% of parents were aware that the virus infection is highly contagious (p=0.757). Among the faculty, 49% have opined that individuals with systemic diseases are more prone for COVID-19, whereas greater number of students (43.5%) felt that older individuals are more prone and 44.4% of parents regarded that the middle age groups are more prone to COVID-19. However, most participants, 84.8% of faculty, 81% of students, 85.1% of parents acknowledged that isolating a person with symptoms stops the spread of the infection and 58.7% of faculty, 54.3% of students, 59.2% of parents regarded spending 20 seconds or more in washing hands helps in preventing of COVID-19 infection (Table/Fig 2).


Most of the participants agreed that primary contacts with COVID-19 infection should be isolated for 14 days faculty (95.7%), students (90.2%), students parents (77.7%) and also faculty (97%), students (95.2%), parents (85.1%) believed that social distancing is essential to stop the virus from spreading. However 92.6% parents, 93.3% faculty and 85.3% students considered a person having fever and cough should be in isolation and in quarantine. Also 95.1% faculty, 92.9% students and all parents regarded traveling across or within the country as unsafe. All the respondents almost equally felt that they were not able to participate actively in their daily routine when compared to before the COVID-19 outbreak (p=0.005) (Table/Fig 3).


Parents (59.2%) were more pre-occupied about this COVID-19 pandemic more than faculty (32.1%) and students (32.4%) which made them worried all day. Total 58.1% of faculty were more apprehensive and worried about contacting the coronavirus (p<0.001), whereas 49% and 54.5% of faculty were worried about their family’s health (p=0.006) safety and financial status, respectively (p<0.001) when compared to students and student’s parents. However, 44.4% of students and 29.6% of student’s parents were worried about contacting the coronavirus on everyday basis and 43.4% of students, 11.1% of student’s parents were worried about their family’s health and safety during the ongoing pandemic over the last few weeks (Table/Fig 4).

Perceived Mental Healthcare

In the present study, 18.7% of faculty, 27.6% students and 22.3% student’s parents responders felt that doing something they were good at improved their mental health status (p<0.001). About 53.3% of dental faculty, 65.2% students and 59.2% of student’s parents felt that it would be nice to talk about their worries (p=0.004). About 71.5% of faculty, 86.5% students and 81.4% of student’s parents thought it would be necessary to get mental health help when anyone gets panicked in this pandemic situation (p<0.001) (Table/Fig 5).


Humans often get infected with viruses which are transmissible and infectious (1). The earlier outbreaks such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2003 and 2015 were similar to the recent coronavirus outbreak that was first reported in December 2019 (11).

Epidemics and pandemics emerge periodically. The SARS-CoV-2 contains positive-sense single stranded Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), and genetically closes to bat coronavirus. Family of these viruses is known for developing human sickness including common cold to more severe diseases such as severe MERS (12).

COVID-19 is an example of a pandemic that began in China and quickly spread across borders, infecting individuals all over the world and posing a number of issues. WHO reported that more than 80% of COVID-19 patients showed mild symptoms and recovered without any medical intervention, approximately 20% of infected cases had a severe illness such as shortness of breath, septic shock and multiorgan failure, and it has been reported that an estimated 2% of cases can be fatal with increased risk in elderly and with underlying chronic diseases (13). As prevention is better than cure; regular hand washing with soap, using face masks, isolating confirmed and suspected cases are the best prevention methods (14).

Lack of knowledge of the issue frequently leads to an uncaring attitude, which can have a significant impact on the ability to meet these obstacles. As a result, there is an increase in anxiety and a stressful environment. The impact of this pandemic is severe, and it has had a negative impact on the mental health of a particular demographic. People’s conduct has been impacted by the fear and worry associated with the epidemic (10). Hence, this study was attempted to evaluate the awareness, attitude, anxiety and perceived mental healthcare needs during COVID-19 in the community. It is very important to provide health awareness for effective prevention of disease spread and for good mental health (10).

In the present study, results indicated that almost all the respondents equally had a good level of awareness and adequate knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and also on clinical symptoms and its preventive measures. It was possibly due to the media platforms emphasising more on the clinical symptoms and preventive measures (15). A recent study on the coronavirus pandemic disease outbreaks has stated, high levels of COVID-19 awareness was seen among general population and healthcare professionals due to varied reasons (10). However, parents followed by faculty, students showed a favourable attitude toward combating the COVID-19 epidemic by agreeing to avoid travel (100%), adopting appropriate hygiene measures like hand washing (59.2%), and self-quarantining (92.6%) of those with symptoms. Almost majority of the people polled said that social isolation was the most effective way to combat the pandemic. An earlier study by Modi PD et al., showed similar results where 52.5% of the responders aware of the proper oral hygiene measures as compared to our study with 59.5% awareness (8). This lack in complete awareness among the various respondents proves that there is a need for COVID-19 infection control strategies with ongoing educational interventions and training programmes among all healthcare professionals (8).

In the present study, more than faculty and students, parents were more pre occupied in thinking about the disease which could be due to lockdown imposed. Faculty was more worried about contacting coronavirus infection, family’s health and safety and their financial status than the students and parents. This could be due to rules imposed by the government to the doctors including dentists to attend the COVID-19 screening camps due to lack of man power, though after training would have made them invariably apprehensive and more anxious in few states of South India (16). Later students were more anxious than parents in contacting the infection, family’s health and financial status as they were prime supporters to them in every possible manner.

Interestingly parents were more concerned, annoyed or irritable and worried followed by students and faculty about how new normal life is going to be in different aspects like student’s education, family health and financial status. Moreover, there were fewer opportunities to vent out their stress as they are made to stay at home due to lockdown situation. Many participants felt the need to talk about their worries with someone related to COVID-19 pandemic. This is important to provide necessary information to support family guiding strategies for parents (17).

About 70-80% of the total responders felt a need for mental health help among which dental students (86.5%) and students’ parents (81.4%) were having greater anxiety and need of mental health help. These results were similar to an earlier study where they have evaluated the necessity for mental health help among general population and healthcare professionals which suggested a similar percent of responders opting for a need for mental health help (16). However, to the best of the knowledge available there were no anxiety related surveys conducted in students parents. Considering the risk of the spread of COVID-19 infection it would be of great benefit that an online mental health consultation would be helpful to parents (18).

The present study’s findings suggest that faculty and students were aware about taking precautionary measures. Faculty, parents and students had concern about their family’s health, safety and financial status and would have helped in alleviating the anxiety levels. However, all these measures are dependent on the severity and the stage of the outbreak. Facts suggest that public awareness is critical in combating pandemics. Therefore, assessing parent’s knowledge and attitude towards pandemic plays a crucial role (19).

Previous studies done on pandemic diseases recommend that knowledge and attitudes towards infectious diseases are connected with level of anxiety, emotion among the individuals (Table/Fig 6) (10),(16),(17),(20),(21),(22),(23),(24).


The study was limited to the teaching faculty, students and their parents without including the general population. Another limitation was participants with smartphones with e-mail IDs only were able to take the survey. Importantly questionnaire was self-reported and chances of bias would be more.


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of healthcare workers including faculty, students, and their parents, were aware of the risk of infection and had a favourable attitude towards prevention. However, there is a significant discrepancy in anxiety and mental healthcare needs between the groups, with faculty being more anxious and students and their parents requiring more mental healthcare.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/49029.16035

Date of Submission: Feb 05, 2021
Date of Peer Review: May 14, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Jan 24, 2022
Date of Publishing: Feb 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Feb 16, 2021
• Manual Googling: Jan 21, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Jan 31, 2022 (11%)

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