Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : March | Volume : 16 | Issue : 3 | Page : KC01 - KC04 Full Version

Effect of Kinesio Taping in Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy: A Longitudinal Study


Published: March 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/46811.16115
Kopal Pajnee, Sheetal Kalra, Joginder Yadav

1. Research Scholar, Department of Physiotherapy, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India. 2. Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India. 3. Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Kopal Pajnee,
N-21, First Floor, Rajouri Garden, Delhi, India.
E-mail: kopalsportsphysio@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: Cervical radiculopathy is the clinical condition when a nerve root in the cervical spine becomes inflamed or damaged due to compression because of various reasons resulting in a change in neurological function. Kinesio taping is a treatment method used by physical therapists to improve symptoms associated with musculoskeletal disorders. It can be stretched to 140% of its original length before being applied to the skin. It subsequently provides a constant pulling (shear) force to the skin, unlike traditional athletic tape.

Aim: To study the effect of kinesio taping on pain, neck disability and physical function of upper limb in cervical radiculopathy.

Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was carried out at SGT Hospital Gurugram, Haryana, India, between February 2018 to August 2018. Fifty subjects, aged 18-50 years with positive response for the 4 test item cluster described by Wainner RS et al., were included in the study and were given manual therapy treatment, cervical stabilisation exercises and kinesio taping. There were three sessions per week for a total of four weeks. Neck Disability Index (NDI), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire were the outcome measures. The readings were noted at pre-level (0 week), mid-levels (at 2 weeks weeks) and at post-levels (at 4 weeks weeks). Comparison of different values was done using paired t-test. Level of significance was taken at p-value <0.05.

Results: The mean age of patients was 48.1±11.9 years. The NDI scores at 0 weeks, at 2 weeks, at 4 weeks were 46.00±4.96, 30.48±4.56, 14.84±3.94, respectively. The DASH scores at 0 weeks, at 2 weeks, at 4 weeks were 59.52±7.55, 34.49±8.70, 0.74±0.69, respectively. The NPRS scores at 0 weeks, at 2 weeks, at 4 weeks were 8.72±0.7, 5.10±1.07, 0.74±0.69. All the variables showed significant improvement between different intervals.

Conclusion: Kinesio taping method along with manual therapy treatment, cervical stabilisation exercises was effective in treating patients with cervical radiculopathy.

Keywords

Cervical stabilisation exercises, Disability of the arm, Manual therapy, Neck disability index, Numeric pain rating scale, Shoulder and hand questionnaire

Cervical radiculopathy is a musculoskeletal disorder which causes radiating pain with or without motor or sensory changes and can be aggravated by different postures or movements of neck. Compression of the nerve root or inflammation is frequently caused by herniation of the cervical disc or by spondylotic abnormalities such as bone spurs (1). The symptoms of cervical radiculopathy vary depending on which nerve root is affected. Arm discomfort is the most prevalent cause for individuals to seek medical attention, even if they may go through several phases of neck pain. Shivering, discomfort, weakness, and numbness in the upper extremity are common complaints patients report, resulting in functional limitations (2). It constitutes 5-36% of all the radiculopathies and affects both the sexes equally with affliction most common in fourth to fifth decades of life (3). The cervical C5 and C6 nerve roots are the most often affected, and are often the result of disc herniation or spondylosis in the C5-C6 or C6-C7 discs. It has been estimated that there is an increased prevalence rate for cervical radiculopathy in the fifth century for the population as a whole (203 per 1 lakh) (4).

The natural course of cervical radiculopathy is difficult to outline. A favourable course of six months has been mentioned in different literature, with full recovery taking between 24 and 36 months. There is less evidence on prognosis; however certain factors such as recovery time more than 6 months, increased pain scores, psychosocial factors, radicular signs, sickness leaves and factors related to surgery have been found to be in relation with bad outcomes (5). Cervical radiculopathy patients often exhibit painful muscle spasms and neck motions during physical examinations. The most frequent neurologic finding also involves the triceps, which is the most widespread. This is due to decreased tendon reflexes from deep tissues. Information regarding cervical myotomes and dermatomes is helpful in diagnosis, but referred pain may be also found outside dermatomal borders (6).

Information regarding cervical myotomes and dermatomes is helpful in diagnosis, but referred pain may be also found outside dermatomal borders (6). Due to less number of high-quality studies, unfortunately, the definitive efficacy of different treatments for cervical radiculopathy is still unclear. However, it can be generally claimed that most patients benefit from conservative therapies including training, exercise, physical modalities, manipulation, cervical traction, cervical collar, and drug treatments such as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs treatment (7).

Kinesio taping is used in sports injuries and musculoskeletal disorders. This technique was first introduced by Japan based therapist Kase and in present time this technique is very useful in pain treatment (8). This tape due to its elasticity can be elongated up to 140% of the original length which is approximately the normal stretch capability of skin, for treating musculature-related conditions. Kinesio tape when applied over the injured skin or different parts of the muscle increases the muscle strength, spasm is relieved, improves pain, blood circulation and lymph reflux decreases edema, and also stabilises joints which in turn increase range of motion (9).

The aim of the study was to examine the impact of brachial plexus kinesio taping on the pain, neck disability and physical function of upper limb in cervical radiculopathy by Neck Disability Index (NDI), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire.

Material and Methods

This longitudinal study was conducted at SGT Hospital Gurugram, Haryana, India. The study was approved by the Ethical Research Committee, (Ref. No. SGTU/FMHS/D./96). The study was conducted between February 2018 to August 2018 and the duration of protocol for each subject was four weeks.

Inclusion criteria

• Age group between 18-50 years
• Pain, paraesthesia , numbness less than three months in the upper limb with cervical or periscapular discomfort.
• Positive response for the 4 Wainner RS et al., test’s item cluster:
- Ipsilateral cervical Spurling,
- Upper Limb Tension Tests (ULTTs),
- Neck Distraction,
- Spurling tests range (ROM) less than 60° (10).
• Six diagnostic questions for cervical radiculopathy, which comprise the following questions:

1. Which are the most annoying symptoms: Pain in neck or arm, tingling, loss of feeling or numbness.
2. Where are the symptoms most troublesome: Either in neck, scapula, shoulder, arm above or below elbow or hand or up to Fingers.
3. Behaviour of symptoms- Variable, Constant or Intermittent.
4. Complete limb numbness.
5. Are the symptoms not letting you to sleep?
6. Does the movement of neck increasing or decreasing the radiating pain in arm, complaints of pain radiating to upper extremity that was provoked or exacerbated by cervical range of motion, paraesthesia in dermatomal pattern (11).

Exclusion criteria

The exclusion criteria was untreated discomfort, people who have had cervical operations, rheumatism, cancer, cord myelitis, and vertebrobasilar disease are all possible causes of cervical instability, previous reactions to kinesio taping, respiratory diseases prior surgery to cervicothoracic spine, osteoporosis (12).

Procedure

Fifty subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria were taken for the study. All the subjects were explained the objective of the research and were requested to sign the consent form if they wanted to participate in the study. The subjects of the study were given physiotherapy treatment which included cervical stabilisation exercises, manual therapy and application of kinesio tape. All participants received three sessions over the next four weeks The duration of the therapy session was for 30-60 minutes. The outcome variables were taken at pre (before the start of the study, at 0 week), mid (2 weeks) and post (4 weeks) levels.

Manual therapy protocol: Each session of treatment included manual therapy methods. Based on the biomechanical examination physical therapist choose the manual therapy techniques. Rotations, lateral glides in neutral, posteroanterior glides, posteroinferior medial glides, anterosuperior anterior glides, and anterosuperior anterior glides were all authorised by the physical therapists. According to Maitland and co-workers, each technique was done for 10-30 second repetitions with a force grade of 3-4. Static manual cervical traction was given for five minutes after the mobilisation treatments were completed (13).

Cervical stabilisation exercises: For the stabilisation exercise, the bracing technique of cervical area along with deep neck flexors activation was performed. The exercises consists of bracing technique in neuro-development stages in different positions such as prone, supine, quadrupedal bipedal for the cervical spine (14). For deep neck flexors activation exercise in supine lying, a sphygmomanometer was used, in which the cuff was placed suboccipitally. From a starting point of 20 mmHg, subjects were prompted via feedback to achieve a goal of 30 mmHg by gradually increasing the pressure by 5 mmHg in 2 mm increments. They were then taught to move their heads in the same way they would say “yes” in order to confirm their answer. The patient’s ability to maintain a steady pressure for 10 seconds was determined. For each new goal level, the muscular contraction time was increased to 10 seconds. Individual had to perform at least 10 repetitions before they progressed to next target (15). In the rest of other exercises in prone, quadrapedal and bipedal position, It was held for 10 seconds at every position, with 10 repeats for each participant. Exercises for range of motion of the extremities were performed while the spine was kept in certain postures of stability. Repetitions were gradually increased from 8-12 for all exercises.

Isometric exercises: Isometric exercises of cervical area was done directly obliquely, toward right side and then left, forward and then backward directly while stable spine is maintained with elastic therabands performing 10 repetitions in each direction with hold time of 6-10 seconds in each repetition.

Scapulothoracic muscle activities: The scapulothoracic muscle activities for the muscles that influence scapular alignment, which are linked to neck discomfort, were included of the stabilisation exercise. For the scapulothoracic stabilisation exercise, students learned how to use a thoracic bracing method that combines postural alignment with minimum multifidus muscle activation and scapular rotation. During the workouts, the patients were instructed to maintain their stances and contractions. There were a variety of exercises used, including the scapular adduction and external rotation, bilateral shoulder extension, eccentric scapular contraction, the Brügger’s exercise, forward punch, and dynamic embrace. A 200 cm long precut portion of theraband with moderate or medium tension was used by the participants to begin their workouts. A total of ten repetitions were performed, each with a holding period of between six and 10 seconds. They moved on to the next colour of resistive band in the green-to-blue sequence after completing 15 repetitions with no obvious signs of discomfort or weariness (14).

Kinesio Taping

Kinesio Tex Gold FP measuring 5 cm×5 m was used for the study. All participants received a kinesio tape allergy test immediately after the initial assessment. This test consisted of pasting a little piece (1×1 cm) of kinesio tape on forearm volar surface. The findings such as redness or any skin changes would be seen in 15 minutes which is considered positive. The patients who found positive to allergic reaction was instructed to uncover it immediately and therefore were not included in the study (16).

For kinesio tape application, method of brachial plexus application was chosen. The occiput of the skull was used as first reference point and the tape was upto just beyond the farthest distal location of discomfort or paresthesia. The teres minor and major origin insertion points were roughly reached by making a Y cut at the proximal end of the tape. Torn at the base of a Y incision, the paper backing was slid over the insertion site of the teres minor and major roughly 2 inches away. The patient then flexed his shoulder horizontally and rotated his neck to the opposite side of the injury, resulting in shoulder flexion. The upper tail was placed along the upper trapezius to the occiput of the head using very mild to light tension (15-25% of available). It was put along the teres minor and major to the axillary border of the scapula. After that, the patient flexed their wrists and elbows while keeping their shoulders horizontally flexed as instructed. The strip was then placed to the afflicted region with just a little amount of (15-25%) strain. If possible, cut a hole in the centre of the tape right above olecranon process and continue down forearm and dorsal surface of hand to avoid placing pressure on the olecranon bursa at the elbow. The patient simply has to apply the brachial plexus nerve strip as far down the arm as the radiating discomfort is felt (17).

The pre (at 0 week), mid (at 2 week) and post (at 4 week) measurement of the variables NDI (10), NPRS (11) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire (13) were compared.

Statistical Analysis

Data was analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Paired t-test was used and p-value <0.05 was set as the level of significance.

Results

Out of 50 subjects who participated, 23 were males (46%) and 27 were females (54%). The mean age of the subjects was 48.1±11.9 years (Table/Fig 1).

Paired t-test was used to analyse the comparison of different values at pre (0 week), mid (2 weeks) and post (4 weeks). The result of the study showed significant difference between all the variables at all the intervals (Table/Fig 2).

Discussion

The aim of the research was to observe the efficacy of kinesio taping for brachial plexus as a viable treatment option along with manual therapy and cervical stabilisation for patients with cervical radiculopathy. The results of the study revealed significant differences for all the measured variables showing its efficacy as a treatment method for patients with cervical radiculopathy.

The mechanism thought for relieving pain after the kinesiotape application is through the sensory pathways activation in the nervous system, therefore rising afferent feedback which is predicted to decrease the input coming through nerve fibres which conducts nociception which is due to the gate control theory. Another theory is that application of such types of tape raises the skin which directly decreases pressure over the subcutaneous nociceptors (18). Patients with meralgesica paraesthetica had less discomfort, better quality of life, and a smaller region of numbness and suffering after eight treatments with kinesio taping, according to a research by Kalichman L et al., (19). While another study conducted by Nadia A et al., reported that kinesio taping combined with neural mobilisation treatment showed significant improvement in pain, sciatic nerve mobility and functional disability after a treatment program of six sessions in patients with lumbar radiculopathy (16). Pain relief can consequently decrease disability levels (20). This helps to explain why the functional impairment in this research has improved so much. Ali MF et al., observed that kinesio taping in conjunction with therapy exercises was useful and had a greater impact on relieving neck discomfort, head posture, and reducing the restriction of function in patients with mechanical neck dysfunction compared to therapeutic exercises alone after one week but no difference was found after six weeks (21).

Celenay ST et al., observed that in patients with mechanical neck discomfort, it was discovered that manual treatment and cervical stability exercises combined were more helpful than stabilisation exercises (14). Isometric exercises increase the intramuscular coordination by enhancing motor unit activation, synchronisation and/or firing rate within a given muscle. The isometric contraction generates high tension in the muscle than concentric contraction (22). Neuromuscular control and afferent input caused by mobilisation applications may stimulate neural inhibitory systems at different levels in the spinal cord and activate descending inhibitory pathways from the midbrain to reduce joint stress (14).

In the gate control hypothesis of pain, activation of large-diameter, low-threshold mechanoreceptors may result in inhibition at the spinal cord level, resulting in analgesia. To govern motivational states, the descending neurons produce serotonin and nor adrenaline via activation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (23). Neck pain reductions have a good effect on functional activity and a decrease in the neck functional disability index (24).

Limitation(s)

The placebo effect was not compared by including sham taping. As the study was of shorter duration, it cannot be said that the improvements can be maintained in long term and whether there were any recurrences of the symptoms. Since multimodal approach of treatment was used, so it is suggested that future studies may investigate the isolated interventions with proven effective methods of treatment.

Conclusion

It was concluded that, with addition of kinesio taping along with manual therapy treatment and neck stability exercises, the discomfort was reduced and improvement of functionality of neck and functions of upper limb in patients having cervical radiculopathy were achieved. Therefore, it can be incorporated along with standard treatment in the management of the patients but more clinical trials are needed to establish its effectiveness against other treatment.

References

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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/46811.16115

Date of Submission: Feb 09, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Mar 18, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Aug 06, 2021
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Feb 10, 2021
• Manual Googling: Aug 05, 2021
• iThenticate Software: Feb 25, 2022 (10%)

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