Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 4881

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case Series
Year : 2022 | Month : March | Volume : 16 | Issue : 3 | Page : SR01 - SR03 Full Version

Clinical Presentation and Outcome of COVID-19 in Children: A Case Series

Published: March 1, 2022 | DOI:
Ritesh Kumar Agrawal, Meenakshi Pandey, Ashok Singh, Nirali Sanghvi, Kusumlata Yadav

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Heritage Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Heritage Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Heritage Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. 4. Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Heritage Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. 5. Postgraduate Trainee, Department of Paediatrics, Heritage Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Nirali Sanghvi,
703, NTS Flats, Hims Campus, Bhadwar, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.


The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an illness caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which affects children as well as adults. This case series pertains an observation on six patients, aged 10-17 years, who were admitted to the hospital and found to be COVID-19 positive on testing. All patients had history of contact with COVID-19 positive confirmed family members. Most common symptoms were fever (n=4), cough (n=2) and breathlessness (n=2). No patient had any pre-existing co-morbidity. Raised levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and D-dimer were present in 4 (66.6%) patients each and elevated serum ferritin levels were seen in 3 (50%) patients. Peribronchial cuffing was seen in chest X-ray of one patient. Supportive therapy along with antibiotics (azithromycin and doxycycline) was given to all children. Mean duration of hospital stay was 7.5 days. No patient required intensive care support. All patients recovered at discharge.


Clinical features, Coronavirus disease 2019, Paediatric patient, Pandemic

Multiple studies have suggested that children and young adults have milder form of the COVID-19 as compared to adults (1),(2). The clinical findings in children with COVID-19 are diverse; but fever with or without chills and cough are the most common reported symptoms (3),(4). Although severe cases of COVID-19 in children including hypotension and multisystem involvements and fatal cases have been reported, majority of the paediatric cases recover within one to two weeks of disease onset (4),(5). The recording of clinical profile and treatment outcome in pandemic is required. This may help in early recognition, appropriate and effective management of this new disease entity. Therefore, the present case series pertains to clinical profile and outcome of children, who presented at a tertiary-care centre of a teaching hospital.

Case Report

There were six cases of COVID-19, aged 10-17 years, who were admitted to a tertiary care centre of a teaching hospital during the period of July to November, 2020. There were three males and three females. Baseline characteristics of patients at admission are presented in (Table/Fig 1). All children had at least one family member infected with COVID-19. Categorisation of COVID-19 disease in to mild, moderate and severe was done as per Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India (6). The patients were tested for COVID-19 by quantitative real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method using nasopharyngeal swab.

Investigations and treatment profile of patients are shown in (Table/Fig 2). Elevated CRP and D-dimer levels were detected in four patients (66.6%) each, and elevated serum ferritin levels were seen in three (50%) patients. Microcytic hypochromic red blood cells were seen in the blood picture of one child.

Treatment in the form of azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) and doxycycline (2 mg/kg/day) were given to all patients, while ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) was given to three patients, each for five days. Prophylactic Enoxaparin (1 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously was given to three patients, one patient needed oxygen therapy at the rate of 2 L/ min for 48 hours. None of the cases required Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. All children were discharged from the hospital with stable general and medical condition. Mean duration of hospital stay was 7.5 days (range 6-9 days).


All six patients in this case series had contact with COVID-19 positive family members, which suggests that family-clustered onset of infection is common in paediatric age group. In this series, fever (66.6%), cough (33.3%) and breathlessness (33.3%) were the predominant symptoms, consistent with the adult patient’s symptomatology (7),(8),(9). In paediatric COVID-19 patients, Serrano O et al., reported fever in 43.5%, cough in 34.1% and difficulty in respiration in 15.9% of cases, which is similar to the observation of the present case series (10). Another systematic review by Patel NA found cough (48%), fever (47%) and sore throat/pharyngitis (28.6%) as predominant symptoms in their reports (11). In addition, upper respiratory symptoms/rhinorrhea/sneezing/nasal congestion (13.7%), vomiting/nausea (7.8%) and diarrhoea (10.1%) were the other symptoms.

A meta-analysis done by Irfan O et al., which included 8455 children, showed that 13.1% cases were asymptomatic and 57.4% of patients needed hospitalisation (3). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (63.3%), cough (33.7%), nausea/vomiting (20.0%) and diarrhoea (19.6%). Other symptoms reported were dyspnoea, nasal symptoms, and rashes, Kawasaki like presentation, conjunctivitis, fatigue, abdominal pain and neurological features. The analysis also showed that 1359 patients were admitted in ICU, of which no death was reported in children categorised as non severe and 44 deaths were observed in severe cases. This study suggested that children predominantly contract mild form of illness but could be at risk of severe illness which can lead to mortality. Other studies also observed milder form of COVID-19 presentation in children; which is in accordance with our case series (12),(13). In the present study, fever resolved within 3-4 days of treatment. Mean duration of hospital stay was 7.5 days; while other authors reported length of hospital stay ranging between 11.6 to 13.6 days (11),(13).

Elevated CRP and D-dimer levels were detected in four patients (66.6%) each, and serum ferritin in three patients (50%). These findings were consistent with the observations of Irfan O et al., who showed raised CRP in 54.2% to 66.3%, D-dimer in 35.2% to 51.0% and serum ferritin in 46.7% to 61.7% of their cases (3). Thus, raised inflammatory markers are also found in paediatric COVID-19 patients. However, three children needed anticoagulation in the form of Enoxaparin while one required oxygen support. It was reported in previous studies that ICU admission of adult patients ranged from 22% to 27.4% and the mortality rate was between 20% to 62% (14),(15),(16),(17). Unlike adult population, only few children infected with COVID-19 required ventilatory support (16),(18). It may be because of the fact that children have less co-morbidity like diabetes mellitus, hypertension than adult population.

Recommended therapy with azithromycin and doxycycline were given to all patients, and no child was given corticosteroid. As per Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India guidelines, mild cases do not require any steroid therapy (6). As regard to radiological features, peribronchial cuffing was observed in chest X-ray. Similar results were found in a study done by Serrano O et al., (10). Authors studied 44 paediatric COVID-19 patients. About 90% of the chest X-ray showed abnormalities, peribronchial cuffing being the most common (86.3%) followed by ground glass opacities (50%). Consolidation was found in 18.1% of cases. Normal chest X-ray, pleural effusion, altered cardiomediastinal contour were least common features observed (19). However, study done by Irfan O et al., reported ground glass opacities as the most common radiological abnormality (27.4%) (3). At the early stage of disease, radiographic evidence of pneumonia is characteristic of COVID-19 disease. Therefore, close monitoring of COVID-19 infected asymptomatic children or children with mild symptoms is required.

Unlike adults, incidence of COVID-19 associated myocarditis or any other myocardial injury among children is very low (19),(20). In the present series, it was observed that disease was mild in nature. But there were only six patients, so the findings cannot be generalised. Therefore, it appears that observation on a larger number of children with COVID-19 positivity is required in order to find out their exact clinical presentation and outcome especially in hospitalised children. Further, detailed investigations such as markers of inflammatory response (CRP, serum ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase, Interleukin-6 and D- dimer) may be needed in children who present with moderate or severe disease.


Children presenting with fever, cough and breathlessness should be suspected for COVID-19 infection during the period of ongoing pandemic and considered for testing of Coronavirus infection with RT-PCR. Radiographic evidence of pneumonia should also be observed. Supportive care leads to adequate recovery. As such children are less prone to develop moderate/ severe form of the disease than adults due to lesser incidence of co-morbidities and better recovery rate. But due to emergence of multiple variants currently, we need to be vigilant about the effects and pathogenesis of these variants, its clinical course and outcome in paediatric patients.


Authors are thankful to Professor Om Prakash Mishra and Professor Raghavendra Narayan, Head of Department of Paediatrics, Heritage Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India for their valuable inputs in preparation of manuscript.


Zhu L, Wang J, Huang R, Liu L, Zhao H, Wu C, et al. Clinical characteristics of a case series of children with coronavirus disease 2019. Paediatr Pulmonol. 2020;55(6):1430-32. [crossref] [PubMed]
Eghbali A, Shokrollahi S, Mahdavi NS, Mahdavi SA, Dabbagh A. COVID-19 in paediatric patients: A case series. J Cell Mol Anesth. 2020;5(1):3.
Irfan O, Muttalib F, Tang K, Jiang L, Lassi ZS, Bhutta Z, et al. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of paediatric COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(5):440-48. [crossref] [PubMed]
Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, Marder EP, Raz KM, Burai Felix SE, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 Case Surveillance-United States. 2020;69(24):759-65. [crossref] [PubMed]
Liguoro I, Pilotto C, Bonanni M, Ferrari ME, Pusiol A, Nocerino A, et al. SARS-COV-2 infection in children and newborns: A systematic review. Eur J Paediatr. 2020;179(7):1029-46. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Directorate General of Health Services (EMR division). Revised guidelines on clinical management of COVID-19. Available from: on April 26, 20207.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Qiu Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical Study. Lancet. 2020;395(2):507-13. PMID: 32007143. [crossref]
Viner RM, Ward JL, Hudson LD, Ashe M, Patel SV, Hargreaves D, et al. Systematic review of reviews of symptoms and signs of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child. 2020 Doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-320972. [crossref] [PubMed]
Stokes EK, Zambrano LD, Anderson KN, Marder EP, Raz KM, El Burai Felix S, et al. Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Surveillance- United States, January 22-May 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(24):759-65. [crossref] [PubMed]
Serrano C, Alonso E, Andrés M, Buitrago NM, Pérez Vigara A, Parrón Pajares et al. Paediatric chest x-ray in covid-19 infection. Eur J Radiol. 2020;131:109236. [crossref] [PubMed]
Patel NA. Paediatric COVID-19: Systematic review of the literature. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020;41(5):102573. Doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102573. [crossref] [PubMed]
Swann OV, Holden KA, Turtle L, Pollock L, Fairfield CJ, Drake TM, et al. Clinical characteristics of children and young people admitted to hospital with covid-19 in United Kingdom: Prospective multicentre observational cohort study. BMJ. 2020;370:m3249. Doi:10.1136/bmj.m3249. [crossref] [PubMed]
Hoang A, Chorath K, Moreira A, Evans M, Burmeister-Morton F, Burmeister F, et al. COVID-19 in 7780 paediatric patients: A systematic review. E Clinical Medicine. 2020;24:100433. Doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020. [crossref] [PubMed]
Cummings MJ, Baldwin MR, Abrams D, Jacobson SD, Meyer BJ, Balough EM, et al. Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: A prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395:1763-70. [crossref]
Lewnard JA, Liu VX, Jackson ML, Schmidt MA, Jewell BL, Flores JP, et al. Incidence, clinical outcomes, and transmission dynamics of severe coronavirus disease 2019 in California and Washington: Prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369:m1923. [crossref] [PubMed]
Bhatraju PK, Ghassemieh BJ, Nichols M, Kim R, Jerome KR, Nalla AK, et al. COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the seattle region-case series. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(21):2012-22. [crossref] [PubMed]
Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, et al. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(7):934-43. [crossref] [PubMed]
Blumfield E, Levin TL. COVID-19 in Paediatric Patients: A Case Series from the Bronx, NY. Paediatr Radiol. 2020;50(10):1369-74. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(5):846-48. [crossref] [PubMed]
Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X. COVID19 and the cardiovascular system. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2020;17(5):259-60. [crossref] [PubMed]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/51443.16136

Date of Submission: Jul 21, 2021
Date of Peer Review: Oct 29, 2021
Date of Acceptance: Jan 10, 2022
Date of Publishing: Mar 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Jul 22, 2021
• Manual Googling: Jan 04, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Jan 08, 2022 (8%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)