Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018




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Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
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Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
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Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
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Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : September | Volume : 16 | Issue : 9 | Page : DC01 - DC06 Full Version

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards COVID-19 Vaccination among Medical Students in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India


Published: September 1, 2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/55780.16821
K Vanathy, Ramya Priyadarshini, Namrata K Bhosale, Srirangaraj Sreenivasan, Joshy M Easow

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Puducherry, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Puducherry, India. 3. Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology,Vinayaka Mission’s Medical College and Hospital, Keezhakasakudimedu, Karaikal, India. 4. Professor, Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Puducherry, India. 5. Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Puducherry, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Srirangaraj Sreenivasan,
I Floor, College Block, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India.
E-mail: rangaraj.sreenivasan@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination plays an important role in controlling the current pandemic. This may have an impact on other healthcare workers in understanding the importance of COVID-19 vaccination.

Aim: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards COVID-19 vaccination among medical students in a Tertiary care hospital, Southern India.

Materials and Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional questionnaire based study done in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. The study period was from April 2021 to September 2021. The study evaluated KAP on COVID-19 vaccination amongst medical students. After the content validity of the questionnaire, a google form was created and circulated among the I, II, III, IV-year students and interns, which was assessed by a scoring system for KAP. The results of the qualitative variables were tabulated as frequency and percentages. The statistical analysis was done using JASP software and the correlation between KAP was calculated using Spearman’s Correlation.

Results: A total of 400 participants were included in the study. Their mean±SD age was 20.3±1.3 years. The second- and third-year students actively participated in the study. Adequate knowledge was observed in 33% of the medical students, moderately adequate knowledge in 61% and minimum knowledge in 6%. Spearman’s correlation between KAP showed a significant p-value.

Conclusion: The majority of the medical students opined that their main source of information was social media. This indicates that social media campaigns had helped them gain adequate knowledge about vaccination. This knowledge might help them encourage their relatives and friends to get vaccinated against COVID-19, which will in turn help in breaking the chain of this pandemic.

Keywords

Coronavirus Disease-2019, India, Pandemic, Puducherry, Questionnaire

The current COVID-19 pandemic is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide especially in elderly and those with co-morbid conditions. COVID-19 also caused significant economic burden at the healthcare system. So, the safe and effective vaccine is in-need of the current situation. By the end of 2020, there are few vaccines which were undergoing all three vaccine trials and some vaccines were given emergency approval for vaccination. It is necessary to know about the knowledge and attitude of community towards such interventions (1). This helps us to understand the acceptance or denial of COVID-19 vaccination among general public and to know their view on such good practices (2). The vaccination also helps in providing herd immunity to large proportion of population. This is better than infection immunity since the mortality is a concern in such cases (3). For herd immunity to be effective atleast half of the population should have got vaccinated. But there are problems of vaccine hesitancy which results in very low acceptance rate of vaccination. In a study in China, it was found that only 25% of healthcare workers who are at risk group received the H1N1 vaccination during the pandemic (4). The development of vaccine for the mutant virus is challenging, time consuming and has to undergo various phases of potency, efficacy and safety for all the age groups and to the vulnerable population. For a successful immunisation program, the most important criteria is the acceptability of vaccine since most of the vaccines approved, had undergone clinical trials for less than a year and the complete published data on its long-term safety and efficacy are not available. Studies on KAP among medical students on COVID-19 vaccination are not available, hence this study was planned to evaluate the same (5).

But there are many antivaccine movements and false beliefs among the healthcare professionals about getting vaccination especially those with co-morbid conditions. Some of them are of the opinion that getting vaccinated will worsen their co-morbidities (6). The acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine depends on various socio-demographic characteristics like age, medical training, year of study. So, this study was undertaken to know the current KAP towards COVID-19 vaccination among the medical students who are budding doctors in the community. To best of our knowledge, this was the first survey study on current KAP towards COVID-19 vaccination among medical students from Southern India. This proposed study aimed at understanding the knowledge and perception of vaccination and also to know the impact of the attitude in this group which might get tied up with other group of population to follow the practice of vaccination. The result of this study might be used as a guide to focus on a valuable group to be deeply educated upon the importance of getting vaccinated.

Material and Methods

Present study was an observational cross-sectional questionnaire based study done in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology for a period of six months from April 2021 to September 2021. This study was designed to evaluate the KAP of COVID-19 vaccination among medical students in a tertiary care hospital. The study was carried out after getting approval from Institute Ethics Committee (MGMCRI/IRC/17/2021/04/IHEC/05).

Inclusion criteria: The students who gave consent for the study and voluntarily participated in the study.

Exclusion criteria: The students who do not give consent for the study.

Sample size calculation: Considering of 95% confidence, 80% of power and 10% of relative precision with assumption of 50% of knowledge in target population, the sample size calculated was as 400.

Formation of questionnaire: The questionnaire was framed in English language and the content validity was confirmed by Senior Professors from various departments. The number of questions under each section were knowledge= 17, Attitude= 7 and Practice= 6. The questions were mostly close ended except two questions from knowledge (Q.No.8,9) and one from attitude (Q.No.21) which has both open and closed ended questions. After making the corrections suggested during validation, a google form was created which had participant’s consent form that gave detailed information of the study. This helped the students for their voluntary participation in the study. The students who gave consent were included in the study. It was followed by general information of the participants. The study participants included I, II, III, IV-year medical students and Interns. A pilot study was done with 30 participants to assess the clarity of questionnaire and no significant modifications were required. Reliability analysis was done from the pilot study by calculating Cronbach's alpha score which was around 0.87. After the reliability analysis score was satisfactory, the predesigned validated questionnaire was sent via WhatsApp to all the medical students. The google forms were disseminated to individual students through their class representative via their batch WhatsApp group. The form contained the questions to assess their KAP regarding the COVID-19 vaccination. There was no time restriction on answering the questionnaire but the number of google form responses per participant was restricted to one. The participants were sent reminders once a week via WhatsApp for four weeks. At the end of the google form, the principle investigator’s contact details were mentioned in case of any queries.

Knowledge was assessed by using yes or no type of questions. Knowledge questionnaire was based on the current knowledge about available vaccines in India and their indications, contraindications, dosage, side-effects, etc. Each correct answer was scored with one point and an aggregate score was calculated from 0-15. Higher scores indicated better knowledge of the students. Attitude questions included the acceptance of minor side-effects of vaccine, recommendation to others, hindrance factors for vaccination. The responses were recorded in five-point Likert type scale ranging from 1 to 5 with 1= Strongly disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Neutral, 4=Agree, 5= Strongly agree. The participants responses were noted at the end of the study and the excel sheet was downloaded which contained information and responses of all participants.

Statistical Analysis

The results of qualitative variables were tabulated as frequency and percentages. The statistical analysis was done using JASP software version 0.8.6. The p-value was determined for individual questions in the questionnaire using Chi-square test. The correlation between KAP was calculated using Spearman’s Correlation. Adequacy of knowledge was determined based on the significant p-value (<0.001 and <0.05). The cut-off taken for grading knowledge is >75% for adequate, 50-75% for moderate and <50% as inadequate knowledge. For attitude >50% as positive and <50% as negative attitude, for practice ≥66.7% is taken as good, 33.3-66.7 as fair and <33.3% as poor practice.

Results

A total of 400 participants were included in the study after excluding those who did not consent to be a part of the study. The mean±SD age of the study participants was 20.3±1.3 years with minimum age of 17 and maximum age 25. Majority of them were females n=219 (54.8%) while males were n=181 (45.2%). The second-year n=122 (30.5%) and third year n=247 (61.8%) students actively participated in the study compared to other phases. Most of them belonged to Pondicherry [n=253(63.2%)] followed by other states n=130 (Table/Fig 1).

Knowledge on COVID-19 vaccination

Among the 17 knowledge related questions to the students, it was observed that most of the students answered 11 questions correctly which indicated an adequate knowledge on vaccination. There was a significant difference in p-value in knowledge between the students, p<0.05 was noticed in questions- 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12,13, and 14 (Table/Fig 2). (Table/Fig 3), (Table/Fig 4), (Table/Fig 5) shows the level of KAP among medical students.

Attitude and Practice on COVID-19 Vaccination

Overall, 7 questions were asked on attitude and there was a positive attitude among students to 5 questions which was actually a strength to vaccination campaign. This positive attitude had led to good practices among the students. Here too there was a significant difference in p-value between students. This was observed with questions- 18, and 20 (Table/Fig 2).

Level of Knowledge and attitude

(Table/Fig 6) shows a significant correlation between KAP among medical students using Spearman’s Correlation.

Discussion

In the current scenario of pandemic, social media campaign on COVID-19 vaccination had played an important role in creating awareness among the public about the importance of vaccination. In present study, there was no significant difference in knowledge level between the medical students in question numbers 3 and 10 stated in (Table/Fig 2) because of successful social media vaccination campaign. This shows an adequate knowledge of medical students on mass vaccination against COVID-19. This basic knowledge helps the future doctors in encouraging their peers and relatives for vaccination.

On the other hand, there was a significant difference in p-value (<0.05) between the junior (1st, 2nd year) and senior students (3rd, 4th and final year) for question numbers 1,2,4,8,11,12,13,14. These questions are based on scientific evidence about vaccination. So, there is a knowledge gap since the social media vaccination campaign does not cover the scientific part and it requires deep knowledge and understanding of the subject. This was very well understood from their answers at different levels.

The main source of information in present study was social media (49.75%) and newspaper (14.75%). This explains the social media campaigns had reached the students very well and this trust will help in gaining adequate knowledge about vaccination. There are similar studies which shows social media (67%) and television (56%) as an important source of information (7). Present study showed that the level of knowledge is adequate in 33% of the medical students.

In present study, only 32.25% of students were eager to get vaccinated. Despite, low willingness to get vaccinated, the students were accepting of minor side-effects of the vaccines. This positive attitude was due to the adequate knowledge about vaccination. This will lead to a good practice of increasing the eagerness in getting vaccine among the students. The acceptance of vaccine was found to be 71% in the survey done globally which included 19 countries (8), when compared to survey done in China (91%) (9), France (76%) (10). Saudi Arabia (64%) (11), United States (57%) (12). Present study showed 72.75% of medical students will recommend the vaccine to family and friends in contrast to a study by Sabria Al-Marshoudi S et al., where 59.3% of Omanians will recommend vaccination to peer groups (7).

There are few doubts and barriers among students in getting vaccination on account of serious adverse effects. Nearly 34% of them had inhibition for getting vaccination due to this concerns. In a survey conducted in China, 47% of the people wanted to delay vaccination until the safety is confirmed (9), 34% were not sure of getting vaccinated related to safety concern among US adults (12) and nearly 55% of people in Europe were hesitant to get vaccinated due to doubtful side effects of vaccine (13). The other concerns about vaccine are choice of vaccine and the vaccine efficacy which was commonly seen in other studies too [14,15]. The main reason for these concerns were due to several myths about vaccines like development of autism, infertility etc. Knowing the reason for vaccine hesitancy will help us in getting rid of their wrong perception and helping them to voluntarily accept the vaccine. More knowledge on vaccine safety will increase the vaccine acceptance among the medical students.

Most of the students (63.5%) have not visited the vaccination site. However, senior students and interns have had the opportunity to do rotation duty in vaccination sites (36%). This explains the significant difference among the medical students of different years of study.This study was a first of its kind study from Southern India assessing the various attributes of KAP regarding COVID-19 vaccination among medical students.

Limitation(s)

Though the sample size was adequate, authors were not able to cover medical students on a large scale from the medical colleges all over Pondicherry. In future, if we are able to collaborate with other medical institutes in our state, then we will have state- wise idea about the KAP of medical students towards vaccination.

Conclusion

In this current pandemic only 32.25% of the medical students were eager to get vaccination. The vaccine hesitancy to multiple barriers has to be removed and the future doctors should be given more information about the importance of COVID-19 vaccines and increase their compliance towards it. This will help them in creating awareness among the public which may increase the public acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination, which may in turn break the chain of COVID-19 transmission.

References

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WHO. WHO SAGE Values Framework for the Allocation and Prioritization of COVID-19 Vaccination. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2020. [(accessed on 12 March 2021)].
2.
Mannan DKA, Farhana KM. Knowledge, attitude and acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine: A global cross-sectional study. Int Res J Bus Soc Sci. 2020;6:01-23. [crossref]
3.
Gypsyamber B, Dowdy D. What is herd immunity and how can we achieve it with COVID-19? In: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Expert Insights. 2020 [cited 26 Apr 2020] pp.1-5.
4.
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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/55780.16821

Date of Submission: Mar 01, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Apr 18, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Jul 08, 2022
Date of Publishing: Sep 01, 2022

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Mar 08, 2022
• Manual Googling: Jun 28, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Jul 04, 2022 (6%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

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