Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2022 | Month : September | Volume : 16 | Issue : 9 | Page : DC07 - DC11 Full Version

Awareness and Practice Concerning Biomedical Waste Management with Special Reference to COVID-19 among Healthcare Providers at a Tertiary Care Centre in Karnataka, India

Published: September 1, 2022 | DOI:
BI Vedavati, Nazeema Tabaseera, MR Vathsalya, Rahul Attavar

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri, Karnataka, India. 2. Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri, Karnataka, India. 3. Tutor, Department of Microbiology, Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri, Karnataka, India. 4. Tutor, Department of Microbiology, Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. BI Vedavati,
Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences , Madikeri-571201, Karnataka, India.


Introduction: Growing healthcare facilities to provide better health for patients have contributed in increased generation of Biomedical Waste (BMW). Emergence of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has added to this burden. BMW carries a higher risk of infections, injuries and also environmental hazards. Effective management of BMW is a fundamental practice of healthcare providers in averting health and environmental hazards.

Aim: To know about the awareness and practice concerning BMW management among healthcare provider at tertiary care hospital.

Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted at district hospital attached to Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri, Karnataka, India, for seven months during July 2021 to January 2022. A total of 232 Healthcare Workers (HCWs) who were involved in patient caring participated in this study. Study included Questionnaires (30 questions) regarding awareness and practice of BMW management. The data was procured by structured self-administered questionnaire through Google forms.

Results: The study showed that majority of participants had good awareness and modest numbers of participants were practicing proper method of waste management. About 93.5% were aware of BMW management categories, 98.7% of participants knew regarding which coloured bags are used for collection. Study identified some gaps in awareness and practices. About 49.1% participants dispose used Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) during COVID-19 into proper bag, only 27.6% participants knew correctly regarding maximum time limit to store BMW.

Conclusion: Every healthcare provider must have proper knowledge and awareness of BMW management. It is necessary to contain transmission of infection and prevention of environmental hazards caused due to BMW. The study emphasises the need for regular monitoring and training requirement at all level to bridge the awareness gap. Proper BMW handling and disposal are components of infection control measures.


Novel corona virus disease 2019, Pandemic, Questionnaire, Waste handling

Biomedical Waste (BMW) is defined as the waste generated during any research activities concerning humans and animals, also in the manufacture or analysis of biologicals (1). According to World Health Organisation (WHO), about 85% of the hospital waste is non hazardous and the remaining hazardous, of the hazardous category, 10% are infective whereas 5% are non infective (2). BMW carries higher risk of infections, injuries and causes environmental hazards (3),(4). It is very essential to practice proper BMW management techniques in healthcare facility and also wherever it is generated (5).

BMW management and handling rules came into effect since 1998 (6),(7). These rules are essential for healthcare centres during segregation, disinfection, transient storage and waste disposal in an environmentally favourable manner. The waste should be meticulously managed at all step from generation to disposal (5). Every healthcare worker is required to have a proper working knowledge and must possess the capacity to direct others during waste collection and management (8). The world has woken to the truth of new pandemic; COVID-19 in December 2019. Since then the world is still fighting against COVID-19. During this pandemic, BMW generated from facilities treating COVID-19 demands greater emphasise as they can be potential bearers of COVID-19. Disposal of this recent category of BMW (COVID-19 waste) is of eminent public health relevance, if handled improperly (9). Recently, India produces an estimated daily 600 metric tons of BMW, as a consequence of COVID-19 this has increased by 10% (10). Increased quantity of BMW during COVID-19 outbreak, needs safe handling, treatment and disposal to stop unintentional spread of the virus in the community (9). Proper disinfection and disposal of COVID-19 waste is required in control of the infection and environmental hazards (11),(12).

COVID-19 pandemic has called into question the existing regulations and management practices of BMW management worldwide (9). BMW management rules have been amended timely, regularly with new guidelines for COVID-19 waste which was put forth by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi, Government of India on March 18, 2020 and further revised on April 19, 2020 (13). These specific guidelines apply to all personnel, who are involved in handling BMW during the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 suspected/confirmed patients and are compulsory to be followed in all the healthcare centres including laboratories, sample collection centres, quarantine centres, isolation wards and common BMW treatment and disposal facilities, on top of existing practices under BMW management rules 2016 (9),(11).

Hence, the present study was conducted to know about awareness and practice concerning BMW management, among healthcare provider at tertiary care centre with special reference to waste generated during diagnosis and treatment of suspected and positive COVID-19 patients.

Material and Methods

The present cross-sectional study was conducted at district hospital attached to Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri, Karnataka, India, for seven months duration from July 2021 to January 2022 after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) clearance (Ref: KOIMS/IEC/05/2021-22). A total of 232 HCWs participated in this study.

Inclusion criteria: HCWs who volunteered and gave consent to participate in the study including Doctors, medical students, Interns, Nurses and Paramedical staff of the hospital who were involved in caring patients during COVID-19 pandemic.

Exclusion criteria: HCWs who were not involved in COVID-19 patient care or those who were not willing to participate in the study.

Sample size: A total of 232 voluntary participants were included, study included closed ended Questionnaires (30 questions) regarding awareness and practice of BMW management. The questionnaire were prepared in English from standard guidelines of BMW management and also from guidelines for handling, treatment and disposal of waste generated during treatment/diagnosis/quarantine of COVID-19 patients by CPCB (2),(13) after which it were reviewed and approved by the head of the department. The objectives of the study were explained clearly to the participants before data collection. The data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire through Google Forms. For every correct/yes answer, the score was taken one and for every incorrect/no, the score was taken as zero. Details of various socio-demographic variables of study participants like age, sex, type of work, etc were collected.

Statistical Analysis

The data collected was tabulated, coded and analysed using Microsoft excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20 for windows. Descriptive statistics used.


Among 232 participants, 106 (45.7%) were males 126 (54.3%) were females. The age, gender and occupation distribution is shown in (Table/Fig 1).

All participants had heard about biomedical waste. 184 (79.3%) participants had heard about BMW Rule/act 1998, 229 (98.7%) participants knew about which coloured bags are used for collection, 217 (93.5%) were aware of BMW categories and 194 (83.6%) were aware about health hazards associated with BMW, 203 (87.5%) respondents agreed that BMW transmits disease. About 213 (91.8%) respondents felt that regular educational program is needed for BMW waste management, 223 (96.1%) participants felt that BMW management should be compulsorily made a part of undergraduate curriculum, 189 (81.5%) participants knew that our institution has tie up with common biomedical waste management facility. Only 126 (54.3%) participants had training in BMW management. About 225 (97%) participants were aware about the need of double layered bags for collecting waste from COVID-19 isolation wards, 221 (95.3%) respondents were aware that it was mandatory to label bags/containers for collecting BMW from COVID-19 wards as ‘COVID-19 waste’ (Table/Fig 2).

Among the participants 205 (88.4%) had been maintaining BMW records, 207 (89.2%) respondents were segregating BMW according to different categories at work place, 223 (96.1%) respondents use personal protective measures while handling BMW, 218 (94%) respondents agreed that they have proper storage facility for collecting BMW at work place. About 171 (73.7%) respondents were maintaining records of injuries related to BMW, 206 (88.8%) respondents dispose waste sharps in white container, 186 (80.2%) respondents dispose general waste in black plastic bag, 216 (93.1%) of respondents daily disinfect the surface of containers/trolleys/bins used in storage of COVID-19 waste using 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. About 114 (49.1%) respondents disposed used PPEs such as Nitrile gloves, face shield, HazMat suit, plastic coverall, splash proof aprons, goggles used during COVID-19 pandemic into red bag, 136 (58.6%) respondents dispose masks (including three ply mask, N-95 mask etc), non plastic coverall, shoe cover, disposable lining gown, head cover/cap used during treatment of COVID-19 patient into yellow bag. About 168 (72.4%) of respondents disposed faecal matter from COVID-19 confirmed patients, who were unable to use toilets, the diapers were treated as biomedical waste and was disposed in yellow bags, 166 (71.6%) respondents dispose BMW generated from COVID-19 quarantine centres/camps in yellow colour bag. Only 64 (27.6 %) of participants had correctly responded that 48 hours is the maximum time limit that BMW could be stored. 148 (63.8%) respondents had been disposing gauze, cotton pads and other items contaminated with blood into yellow plastic bag (Table/Fig 3).


The WHO declared that COVID-19 is the sixth public health emergency of international concern (11). The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis and it has various impacts on environment, economy and society (9). An increase of BMW generation during the emergence of COVID-19 through used PPE such as gloves, air-purifying respirators, N-95 masks, goggles, face shield, surgical mask, safety gowns or suits and shoe covers, high-flow nasal cannulas and plastic syringes with needles (11). In the beginning of the pandemic, PPE was used primarily by HCW only, but as this pandemic continued, PPE is being frequently used by general population (14). This large quantity of wastes must be managed by a safe and proper method (15).

Exposure to emissions of highly toxic gases during incineration of BMW also can cause adverse impacts on human health and environment (9). If improperly managed, BMW has the capability to be hazardous, toxic and possibly even lethal because of its high potential for diseases transmission, injury and environmental degradation (16). Appropriate waste management techniques must be understood, implemented by each Healthcare Professional (HCP) (15).

In present study all participants had heard about BMW, 92.2% of respondents were aware that the present hospital generates BMW and 79.3% respondents heard about BMW Rule/act 1998. Study done by Haque S et al., reported that 82% of the study participants heard about BMW and only one fourth of the participants knew about BMW rules 1998 formulated by govt of India (15),(17). Study by Alshahrani NZ et al., found that 56.9% heard about the rules/act for biomedical waste management in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (18). The fundamental purpose BMW management guidelines are to improve the overall BMW management of healthcare facilities (19).

In present study 54.3% respondents had training in BMW management, 49.1% of the respondents opined that any plastic bag can be used for BMW disposal, 98.7% knew about which coloured bags are used for BMW collection, 93.5% of respondents were aware of BMW management categories, 98.3% respondents were aware about BMW management disposal policy there in present hospital and 95.7% were aware about guidelines provided for colour coding at work area. Study conducted by Abrol A et al., reported 80% of study participants had training in BMW management and 83.3 % had opined that any plastic bag can be used for BMW disposal (5). However, study by Haque S et al., reported only 60.8% participants were able to correctly answer the questions on colour coding (15), whereas study by Jalal SM et al., reported 69.1% participants always follow colour coding of containers (11). Colour coding is to identify different types of waste easily (20). Study conducted by Madhukumar S and Ramesh G reported 47.5% study subjects had adequate knowledge about categories and the treatment of BMW correctly (21). Study by Narang RS et al., reported 82.5% of dentists, 12.5% of auxiliary staff knew that there was a waste management policy in the hospital (4).

In present study, 87.5% respondents were aware that BMW transmits diseases and 83.6% of them were aware about health hazards associated with BMW. Study conducted by Bhagawati G et al., reported awareness regarding health hazards due to improper BMW management was 60.10% (22). Study conducted by Narang RS et al., reported that all the dentists were well informed regarding the various health hazards brought about by improper BMW management and 45% auxiliary staff had knowledge about this subject (4). Inappropriate segregation and disposal of BMW and combining it with municipal waste can cause unwanted risk to waste handlers and general public to infectious and fatal diseases (4).

In present study 81.5% knew that our institution has tie up with common BMW management facility, 91.8% respondents felt that regular educational programs are needed for BMW waste management. About 96.1% felt that BMW management should compulsory be made part of undergraduate curriculum. Study done by Abrol A et al., reported 91.7% responded that institute have tie up with CBMWTF (5). Study by Jalal SM et al., reported 70.8% of participants agreed that an upgrade in knowledge on BMW management is mandatory (11). Study by Haque S et al., reported 95.8% of participants agreed regular training should be given to upgrade existing knowledge (15). Study by Abrol A et al., reported 58.3% participants felt that BMW management should be a compulsory part of under graduate curriculum (5).

In present study 73.7% respondents had been maintaining record of injuries related to BMW and 88.4% of them had been maintaining BMW records at work place. Study conducted by Jalal SM et al., reported 70.7% participants maintain BMW records, which was similar to present study findings (11). Mandatory reporting of injuries involving BMW to concerned authorities will help in taking appropriate measures (15).

In present study 96.1% respondents use personal protective measures while handling BMW, 89.2% respondents segregate BMW according to different categories at work place, 80.2% respondents dispose general waste into black plastic bag, 63.8% respondents dispose gauze, cotton and other articles contaminated with blood into yellow plastic bag and 88.8% respondents dispose waste sharps in white container. Study done by Jalal SM et al., found that 43.8% healthcare professionals strongly believed that PPE must be used during handling of BMW (11). Study by Abrol A et al., reported 91.7% respondents segregate BMW according to different categories and 75% respondents dispose waste sharps in white container (5). Study by Bhagawati G et al., overall response regarding the practice of disposal of non-sharp waste was 68.27% and that of sharps was 86% (22). The mixing of infectious and non infectious waste is caused due to improper handling or segregation at the site of origin (23). All HCWs should have proper knowledge, positive attitude towards waste management and practice the same.

In present study 94% respondents answered that they had proper storage facility for collecting BMW at work place. Only 27.6% respondents were aware of the fact that 48 hours is maximum time limit for which BMW can be stored. Study conducted by Haque S et al., 31.7% participants had complete knowledge about storage of BMW prior to disposal (15). There must be appropriate facilities for short-term storage of the waste on site using sealed containers, located in secured areas allowing only authorized personnel to enter. Waste generated by COVID-19 patients is disposed on a daily basis as per guidelines (20).

In present study 97% were aware about the need of double layered bags for collecting waste from COVID-19 isolation wards. To prevent leakage from primary containers, a secondary container is mandatory while handling waste and such practices are essential during the pandemic (20). About 95.3% respondents were aware that it was mandatory to label bags/containers of BMW during COVID-19 pandemic as ‘COVID-19 waste’. 93.1% of participants disinfect the surface of containers/trolleys/bins used in storage of COVID-19 waste, daily using 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. To avoid possible transmission of the SARS cov-2 virus disinfectants should be used on outer and inner surfaces of containers/bins/trolleys used for storage (20).

49.1% participants disposed used PPEs such as HazMat suit, splash proof aprons, goggles, nitrile gloves, face shield, plastic coverall used during COVID-19 pandemic into red bag, 58.6% participants disposed masks (three ply mask or N-95 mask), disposable lining gown, shoe cover, head cover/cap, non-plastic coverall used during treatment of COVID-19 patient into yellow bag. 72.4% participants disposed faecal matter from COVID-19 confirmed patient, who were unable to use toilets into yellow bags. 71.6% respondents disposed BMW generated from COVID-19 quarantine centres/camps in yellow colour bag. Extra care during segregation must be taken as errors made here can put waste handlers at risk.

In light of the COVID-19 pandemic in India, the CPCB, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate had released a set of guidelines regarding management of waste generated during treatment/diagnosis/quarantine of COVID-19 patients (13). These guidelines has suggested the use of double layered bags, labelling of containers as “COVID-19 waste,” timely disinfection of containers, in addition to the existing practices of BMW Management Rules, 2016 (23). Effective knowledge and practice regarding management of COVID-19 waste is necessary to curb the pandemic spread (12).


Since present study was based on structured self-administered questionnaire every aspects of awareness and practice of BMW management could not be evaluated Also as it was an online platform and questionnaires were self-administered which lead to lack of accountability of the response due to absence of an interviewer.


The magnitude of BMW generation has escalated due to COVID-19 pandemic. Effective management of BMW is necessary to control the pandemic spread, insufficient awareness about BMW management amid healthcare workers poses deleterious impact on waste handling and disposal. The present study provides valuable information about awareness and practice concerning BMW management during a critical period of the pandemic. The study’s findings highlight the necessity of training programs such as small group discussions, workshops and symposia to be conducted regularly and it must be made mandatory for all HCWs to attend at all levels.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/56635.16847

Date of Submission: Mar 25, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Apr 22, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Jun 17, 2022
Date of Publishing: Sep 01, 2022

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: Apr 01, 2022
• Manual Googling: Jun 16, 2022
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