Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 48780

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2023 | Month : February | Volume : 17 | Issue : 2 | Page : FC07 - FC12 Full Version

Assessment of Socio-economic Status and Personality Traits on Academic Performance of Second Year MBBS Students: A Cross-sectional Study from a Teaching Hospital of Eastern India

Published: February 1, 2023 | DOI:
Sushobhan Pramanik, Akash Saha, Baisakhi Mallick

1. Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 2. House Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 3. Clinical Tutor/Demonstrator, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Dr. R Ahmed Dental College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Correspondence Address :
Sushobhan Pramanik,
16/H/4, Khanpur Road, Surya Kiran, P.O. Naktala, Kolkata-700047, West Bengal, India.


Introduction: The skill and quality of doctors largely depend on their academic performances. Examination scores of medical students can be impacted by their personality and Socio-economic Status (SES). Identification of the effects of different personality traits and socio-economic profile on the academic results of medical undergraduates can help to identify the vulnerable groups and consider possible support by counselling, financial aids and policy formulation.

Aim: To assess the correlation of personality traits and SES with the academic performances of undergraduate medical student based on the marks scored in the second professional Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) examination.

Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 10 months duration from May 2017 to February 2018 was done on 143 students of sixth semester (Part I) of MBBS course, in a Government Medical College of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Participants filled up the Big Five Inventory (BFI) questionnaire that evaluates dimensions like extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness, and the Kuppuswamy’s SES scale form which considers education of the head of family, occupation of head and monthly family income. The examination marks were collected from the student’s section of the institution. Demographic parameters of the population like age, gender and religion were considered. Data was tabulated in MS excel spreadsheet and a descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Any correlation of the study parameters with student’s academic performance was determined through statistical analysis using Spearman correlation coefficient and p≤0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Among the participants of the study (n=143), a mean age of 21.53 years was observed with male:female ratio of 2.04; about 87.41% of the students were Hindu while rest were Muslim. The results showed conscientiousness (r=0.1842) and neuroticism (r=0.1799) were correlated with total academic score as well as openness to pathology (r=0.1783) and forensic medicine (r=0.2362). Higher SES positively affected the results in microbiology (r=0.1698). Occupation of the head of the family was correlated positively with total marks (r=0.1677) and performances in microbiology (r=0.2256) and pathology (r=0.1919).

Conclusion: Conscientious behaviour, an attitude of openness and even neuroticism, can contribute to better grades. Higher occupation of the head of the family may also contribute positively. Appropriate counselling to nurture beneficial personality traits and adequate guidance by mentors may help students achieve better academically.


Bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery, Medical education, Personality test, Undergraduate

India needs a large number of competent doctors to provide adequate health services (1),(2),(3). The skill and quality of doctors largely depend on their academic performances during their undergraduate years, which can impact the quality of treatment served to the society (4). Therefore, the factors influencing the academic performances of medical undergraduates are of considerable importance. The personality profile can impact the academic performance of an individual. The BFI scoring method is a widely accepted psychological test (5),(6) that evaluates patient’s personality into five dimensions like extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness (7),(8),(9). The very few observations that have investigated the influence of personality traits on academic achievements of medical students, have cited that high extroversion showed poor academic performance (10), and students with a preference for personality dimension ‘Thinking’ (11) and ‘Conscientious Personality’ may secure higher academic achievements (12). However, these studies didn’t examine all the BFI dimensions together.

The Kuppuswamy scale is commonly used to measure SES (13). It classifies study populations into high, middle, and low SES, and is updated regularly for monetary inflation (14),(15). A number of studies on school children (16),(17) and non professional undergraduate students have observed a positive influence of higher SES on academic performances, however, there is a lack of studies that included medical undergraduates as research participants (18).

While there have been a few studies conducted in Indian context that aim to evaluate the predictors of examination scores in medical students, studies examining the correlation of BFI personality traits and the socio-economic parameters of Kuppuswamy’s (SES) scale to academic achievements are less (19),(20),(21). Identification of the effects of different personality traits and socio-economic profile on the academic results of medical undergraduates may help to assess the specific needs or disadvantages of individual students or vulnerable groups. This can help to consider possible support by counselling, financial aids and policy formulation.

Therefore, in the present study, it was aimed to assess the academic performances of second year medical students based on personality traits using BFI scoring method and SES using the updated Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale.

The primary objective of study is to assess any correlation between the marks scored by medical undergraduate students in the subjects {Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology and Forensic and State Medicine (FSM), and the grand total} of the second professional MBBS examination, and their personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) using BFI Scoring method. The secondary objective of the study was to assess any correlation between the marks scored in the subjects (Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology and FSM, and the grand total) of the second professional MBBS examination, and the parameters of SES (education of the head of family, occupation of head, monthly family income and total SES score) using the updated Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale.

Material and Methods

This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology at Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India (tertiary care government hospital) from May 2017 to February 2018. Before commencing the study, prior written permission of the Institutional Ethics Committee was taken (ref: CNMC/8, date: 25/04/2017).

Inclusion criteria: All students of sixth semester (Part I) of MBBS course, who have recently passed the second Professional MBBS examination and voluntarily submitted duly signed informed consent forms were enrolled in the project.

Exclusion criteria: Any student who did not consent to the study, did not complete the given forms or did not submit any of the forms were excluded from the study.

Sample size calculation: Sample size of 123 subjects were calculated using the formula

n={(Zα+Zβ)/C}2+3 (α=0.05, β=0.2, r=0.25)

Considering a predicted medium effect size, C=0.5×ln (1+r/1-r) and Z=standard normal deviate) (22). Considering a 20% drop out rate, a final sample consisting of 147 undergraduate students studying in 6th semester (Part I) of MBBS course was enrolled, of which 143 students (96 male and 47 female participants) completed the study. Subject recruitment was done by convenience sampling method.

Study Procedure

The students were provided the BFI questionnaire and updated Kuppuswamy’s SES scale form in English and Bengali. The Bengali translation of the form was provided after backward and forward translation. They were provided one hour to fill up the same carefully and as accurately as possible. The English BFI questionnaire had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s α>0.8) in terms of reliability and adequate convergent validity coefficient (r>0.70), whereas the Bengali version of the questionnaire had similarly acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s α>0.7) and validity (convergent validity coefficient r>0.7) scores.

The BFI questionnaire employed 44 questions with five discreet graded responses on a Likert scale, where each question suggested a particular personality feature (e.g., handles stress well/is generally trusting etc.,). Score for each response ranged from 1 (Disagree strongly) to 5 (agree strongly) (23). The big five factors are: extraversion that denotes sociable, enthusiastic, energetic nature; agreeableness for qualities like trust, compliance, modesty; conscientiousness for order, dutifulness and self-discipline; neuroticism that signifies anxiety, irritability and impulsiveness; and finally, openness that suggest curious, imaginative and artistic qualities (24).

In accordance with the standardised scoring instructions, the minimum and maximum scores possible for each item is as follows: extraversion (8-40), agreeableness (9-45), conscientiousness (9-45), 8neuroticism (8-40) and openness (10-50). Higher scores indicate stronger presence of the respective personality trait in the individual. The academic performance of the students is based on their subject marks in pharmacology, pathology, microbiology and FSM. The minimum and maximum scores possible for all subject is 0 and 150 except FSM for which the same is 0 and 100, with the maximum aggregate score of 550. The SES of the students is determined on the basis of their Kuppuswamy SES Scale score which scores student’s SES on the criteria of education of head (score 1-7), occupation of head (score 1-10) and monthly family income (score 1-10). The monthly family income is revised depending on the Consumer Price Index numbers for Industrial Workers- (CPI-IW) value (25). The CPI-IW is compiled by the Labour Bureau of India that measures the changes in the price level of a fixed basket of consumer goods and services bought by average working class family, and give an idea of prevailing inflation. The total composite SES scale score ranged from 3-29. The marks of the second professional MBBS examination were collected from the student’s section of the institution.

Statistical Analysis

The archiving of data and statistical analysis was done in the Department of Pharmacology. Data was tabulated in MS excel spreadsheet and GraphPad Prism version 6.0 software was used for statistical analysis. In the present study, descriptive statistical analysis was performed to calculate the means along with their corresponding standard deviations (sd). To assess any correlation between academic performance and the different BFI traits or SES parameters, Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated. Spearman Correlation co-efficient was preferred in the present study as parameters like Kuppuswamy SES score presented data in ordinal scale; also, many of the data sets didn’t follow normal distribution hence non parametric tests were appropriate. In all the statistical analysis, p≤0.05 was taken to be statistically significant.


In this study, 143 students submitted completed study questionnaires and were considered for the final analysis. There were 96 male and 47 female participants, the male: female sex ratio being 2.04. About 125 participants (87.41%) were Hindu by religion while 18 students (12.59%) were Muslim. The mean age of the participants was 21.53 years with standard deviation of 0.9224.

The general statistics of BFI personality trait scores, academic performances and SES of the students are represented in (Table/Fig 1).

While evaluating the relationship between the academic performances with the SES (Table/Fig 2), it was observed that the education of head of the family had no significant relationship with either the individual subject scores or total marks of the students (r=0.0852, p=0.3116). However, occupation of the head of the family of the respective students had positive correlation with the marks obtained in pathology (r=0.1919, p=0.0217) and aggregate (r=0.1677, p=0.0453), and significant association was noticed with the marks obtained in microbiology (r=0.2256, p=0.0067). However, there was no relationship with marks obtained in pharmacology (r=0.0738, p=0.381) and FSM (r=0.1314, p=0.1179) by the students. There was no significant relationship between monthly family income of the pupils with either the individual subject or total marks obtained (r=0.04831, p=0.5667). Finally, it was observed that only the scores in microbiology had significant correlation with the Kuppuswamy total scores (r=0.1698, p=0.0426). When the total SES was considered, it had no relationship with either the other subjects or the aggregate performance (r=0.08926, p=0.2891).

On analysing the different BFI parameters with academic performances (Table/Fig 3), it was observed that extraversion personality trait score had no significant relationship with either the individual subject or total marks of the students (r=0.06955, p=0.4091). Once again, there was no significant correlation found between agreeableness and any of the academic performances that were considered in this study. However, conscientiousness had significant positive correlation with marks obtained by the students in Pharmacology (r=0.1805, p=0.031) and Pathology (r=0.1841, p=0.0277) as well as the total marks (r=0.1842, p=0.0276). It even had a very highly significant positive correlation with FSM scores (r=0.2806, p=0.0007). Microbiology was the only subject where the scores didn’t have any relation with the above-mentioned personality trait. It was also observed that Neuroticism had positive correlation with marks obtained by the students in pathology (r=0.1932, p=0.0208), Microbiology (r=0.2003, p=0.0165) as well as the total marks (r=0.1799, p=0.0315), except Pharmacology (r=0.1491, p=0.0755) and FSM (r=0.1214, p=0.1485), where no correlation was found. Openness was positively correlated with marks obtained by the students in Pathology (r=0.1783, p=0.0332). It had even highly significant correlation with the FSM scores (r=0.2362, p=0.0045). However, no significant correlation was observed with pharmacology (r=0.1001, p=0.2344), microbiology (r=0.1038, p=0.2175) or the total marks (r=0.1489, p=0.0759) obtained.


Several scientific studies have observed that, the personality profile of the students play an important role in their academic performances (26). They can even affect the future career or speciality choices made by the individuals after completing their graduation in modern medicine (27). The five-factor model considered in BFI personality test is a universally acclaimed effective method to analyse the personality profiles of individuals (28),(29),(30). While BFI traits like neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness has been found related to academic results studies, that considered all the five dimensions of BFI in medical students of India were rare (11),(12),(31). Similarly, many studies observed strong effects of SES of students on their academic achievements (16),(17),(18). While the updated Kuppuswami SES scale is a widely accepted tool to evaluate the socio-economic characteristics of individuals (32); studies on Indian medical students evaluating the different parameters of Kuppuswamis SES on exam scores were found to be lacking. The current project was undertaken to address these issues. As there are limited works where both the BFI personality profile and SES scores have been analysed simultaneously with respect to the academic scores of Indian medical students, the findings of the present study can provide valuable insights in this context.

In 1997, a study conducted on 785 medical students of five Flemish Universities of Belgium observed that out of the five personality traits, conscientiousness is a significant predictor of good final scores and the students who fare low in that dimension are less likely to be successful at examinations (33). Conscientious people are generally organised, efficient and dutiful. They try to do any given task with discipline and dedication, aiming for achievement of distinction (34). Hence, students manifesting high degree of this personality trait are generally dutiful and hardworking, leading to commensurate reflection in their academic grades. Similarly, another cross-sectional study conducted on 600 medical students of King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia revealed that conscientious personality has highly significant association with high Grade Point Average (GPA) (12). Observations of both these studies are comparable with the results of the present study.

A study conducted on 249 medical students in Iran revealed neuroticism had a direct negative effect on self-efficacy and hence, academic performance. Moreover, openness was found to have a positive effect on academic performance (35). Similar results were found by another study conducted on 70 medical students in Belgaum, India (31); as well as another cross-sectional observation on 122 medical students in Malaysia, that concluded neuroticism negatively affects and openness positively affects the academic results (36). However, in current study, neuroticism was observed to be positively correlated with total marks achieved and also marks secured in individual subjects like pathology and microbiology. Neurotic persons are generally described to be moody, emotional, and susceptible to the feelings of stress, anxiety, guilt, envy, fear and worry. While such traits may lead to depression and negative performance at work as found by other studies, such emotions may also drive a person to work harder, and push the limits during trying times. This may be responsible for the positive correlation of neuroticism with the academic performance of the participants. Regarding openness, in the current project it was positively correlated with marks scored in subjects like pathology and forensic medicine, which is comparable with the findings of similar studies discussed above (31),(35),(36). Individuals with high level of openness have a curious nature, and appreciate unusual ideas and art. They are more imaginative and adventurous. Thus, it may be implied that student with an open bent of mind can find interest and pleasure in pathology and particularly FSM, leading to improved grades in these subjects.

There is a dearth of studies that analyse the influence of Kuppuswamy’s SES scale score directly on the academic performance of medical students in India. Among available literature, there was one study on 100 First Year MBBS students of ESIC Medical College, Faridabad, India which noted that students with lower Kuppuswamy’s SES score had significantly lower self-concept scores (37). Another study conducted on 1,262 medical undergraduates of The University of California, USA, that revealed students with socio-economic disadvantage had lower academic performances (38). There are other studies which were conducted on mainly adolescent or secondary and higher secondary school students that reported similar observations; where higher SES of the family was related to better self-esteem, and/or higher academic achievements and aspirations (17),(39),(40).

On the contrary, there are a few observations that could not find any significant relationship between SES and academic performances. For example: A prospective survey of 172 sixth-year medical students at the Paris-Sud Faculty of Medicine found no association between parental SES and students’ success in the National Ranking Exam (NRE) (41). Another study conducted on the 691 undergraduate students at the University of Suleyman Demirel, Turkey reported that the variables related to the family like family income or parent’s educational status are not strong predicators for the student’s academic achievement (18).

In comparison to the above-mentioned observations, the current study observed that overall SES of the students did not have any significant relationship with their final aggregate marks. Regarding the individual criteria for evaluating the total SES score, only occupation of the head of the family was noted to have significant positive correlation with the marks secured in subjects like pathology and microbiology, as well as total marks. This may suggest that parents, who are also professionals or highly qualified in their respective occupational fields, may be providing better support and opportunities to their wards and may be also better oriented and involved towards their candidate’s performances. They may also be better equipped financially and psychologically to provide tutelage to their children in their pursuit of the MBBS degree. Practical significance of the present study lies in the fact that, using the present study tools, important personality and socio-economic factors can be identified at an early stage in fresh medical undergraduate students; and appropriate measures like psychological counselling, one-on-one mentoring and financial aids can be provided to vulnerable students. Consistent results of such intervention may also aid in relevant policy formulation at administrative levels, which will be beneficial for future medical undergraduates.

Looking forward, further research specially into the effect of neuroticism and parent’s occupational status on the academic performances of students may help substantiate the findings of the present study, as well as explore the different options to improve the situation.


There are some limitations of present study which include the inability to accommodate participants from all four professional MBBS years as well as different medical institutions, due to time and resource constraints. There can be several other variables that may affect the academic performances of medical students like medical conditions, housing environment, peer groups, hobbies and so forth; considering all of which was beyond the scope of the project. Further investigations to address these issues may yield valuable insight into the other predictors of academic performances.


The present study concludes that conscientious behaviour does help in better academic performance, and an attitude of openness also contributes to the better grades. Neuroticism though is considered in negative light as far as personality traits are concerned, may also sometimes benefit the academic achievements, as evident from the present study. Though the SES of the family has no major impact on overall grades, students from higher socio-economic background may have an advantage in subjects like microbiology; while the occupation of the parents may have a positive impact on the results of second professional MBBS examination.


This study was supported and awarded by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) under Short Term Studentship (STS) program for research by medical undergraduates.


Potnuru B. Aggregate availability of doctors in India: 2014-2030. Indian J Public Health [Internet]. 2017(cited 2022 Nov 11);61(3):182-87. Available from:;year=2017;volume=61;issue=3;spage=182;epage=187;aulast=Potnuru. [crossref] [PubMed]
World Health Organisation. Regional Office for South-East Asia. The decade for health workforce strengthening in the SEA region 2015-2024: Mid-term review of progress, 2020. appswhoint. [Internet]. [cited 2022 Nov 11]. Available from:
Karan A, Negandhi H, Nair R, Sharma A, Tiwari R, Zodpey S. Size, composition and distribution of human resource for health in India: New estimates using National Sample Survey and Registry data. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2019;9(4):e025979. (cited 2022 Feb 2). Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
Carr SE, Celenza A, Puddey IB, Lake F. Relationships between academic performance of medical students and their workplace performance as junior doctors. BMC Med Educ [Internet]. 2014 (cited 2022 Nov 11);14(1):157. Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
Zell E, Lesick TL. Big five personality traits and performance: A quantitative synthesis of 50+ meta-analyses. J Pers. 2022;90(4):559-73. [crossref] [PubMed]
Mammadov S. Big five personality traits and academic performance: A meta-analysis. J Pers. 2022;90(2):222-55. [crossref] [PubMed]
John OP, Naumann LP, Soto CJ. Paradigm shift to the integrative big-five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In: John OP, Robins RW, Pervin LA, editors. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2008. Pp. 114-58.
John OP, Srivastava S. The big five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In: Pervin LA, John O, editors. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 1999. Pp. 102-38.
John O, Donahue E, Kentle R. The big five inventory-Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: University of California. Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research. 1991. [crossref]
Nayak RD. Relationship of extroversion dimension with academic performance of medical students. IJIP. 2016;3(2):01-39. [crossref]
Kim S. A Study on the relationship between personality, study satisfaction and academic achievement of medical students. Korean J Med Educ. [Internet]. 1999;11(2):271-84. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref]
Al-Naim AF, Al-Rashed AS, Aleem AM, Khan AS, Ali SI, Bogam RR. Personality traits and academic performance of medical students in Al–ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Int J Sci Res [Internet]. 2016;5(4):425-27. (cited 2022 Feb 2). Available from:
Kuppuswamy B. Manual of Socioeconomic Status (Urban). 1st ed. Delhi: Mansayan; 1981. Pp. 66-72.
Sharma R. Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale-revision for 2011 and formula for real-time updating. Indian J Pediatr. 2012;79 (7):961-62. [crossref] [PubMed]
Sharma R. Revised Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale: Explained and Updated. Indian Pediatr. 2017;54:867-70. [crossref] [PubMed]
Ahmar F, Anwar E. Socio economic status and its relation to academic achievement of higher secondary school students. IOSR J Humanit Soc Sci. [Internet]. 2013;13(6):13-20. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref]
Singh P, Choudhary G. Impact of socioeconomic status on academic-achievement of school students: An investigation. Int J Appl Res. [Internet]. 2015;1(4):266-72. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from:
Tomul E, Polat G. The effects of socioeconomic characteristics of students on their academic achievement in higher education. Am J Educ Res. [Internet]. 2013;1(10):449-55. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref]
Das A, Bhattacharya S, Chakraborty A. Seven factors affecting medical undergraduate students’ performance in academics: A study using Ron Fry questionnaire in Eastern India. J Adv Med Educ Prof [Internet]. 2020;8(4):158-64. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from:
Sharma MS, Tripathi SK. Correlates of academic performance of adolescents: Perspectives of personality characteristics. IOSR J Humanit Soc Sci. [Internet]. 2010;4(13):62-69. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from:
Roy S, Chadalawada J. Predictors of academic performance of medical undergraduate students of microbiology class in Kolkata. Int J Med Public Health [Internet]. 2014;4(4):392. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref]
Hulley SB, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Grady D, Newman TB. Designing clinical research: An epidemiologic approach. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013. Appendix 6C, 79p.
Fetzer Institute. Self-report measures for love and compassion research: Personality [Internet]. Fetzer. org. [cited 2022 Nov 11]. Available from:
Srivastava S. Measuring the big five personality domains [Internet]. Personality and social dynamics lab: [cited 2022 Nov 11]. Available from:
Kuppuswamy scale update [Internet]. Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale update. [cited 2022 Nov 11]. Available from:
Poropat AE. A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychol Bull [Internet]. 2009;135(2):322-38. Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
Maron BA, Fein S, Maron BJ, Hillel AT, El Baghdadi MM, Rodenhauser P. Ability of prospective assessment of personality profiles to predict the practice specialty of medical students. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) [Internet]. 2007;20(1):22-26. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
McCrae RR. Cross-cultural research on the five-factor model of personality. Online Readings Psychol Cult [Internet]. 2002;4(4):01. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref]
Cobb-Clark D, Schurer S. The stability of big-five personality traits [Internet]. Bonn: IZA; 2011 Aug [cited 2022 Nov 11]. Available from: [crossref]
Grice JW. Five-factor model of personality [Internet]. Cambridge, ON, Canada: Encyclopedia Britannica Publications; 2019 [cited 2022 Nov 11]. Available from:
Bhagat V, Nayak RD. Neuroticism and academic performance of medical students. Ijhssi [Internet]. 2014;3(1):51-55. (cited 2022 Nov 12). Available from:
Sharma R, Saini NK. A critical appraisal of kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale in the present scenario. J Family Med Prim Care [Internet]. 2014;3(1):03-04. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
Lievens F, Coetsier P, De Fruyt F, De Maeseneer J. Medical students’ personality characteristics and academic performance: A five-factor model perspective: Medical students’ personality characteristics. Med Educ [Internet]. 2002;36(11):1050-56. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
Thompson ER. Development and validation of an international English big-five mini-markers. Pers Individ Dif [Internet]. 2008;45(6):542-48. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref]
Hayat AA, Kohoulat N, Amini M, Faghihi SAA. The predictive role of personality traits on academic performance of medical students: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Med J Islam Repub Iran [Internet]. 2020;34:77. (cited 2022 Nov 11). Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
Bhagat V, Shetty CK, Husain R, Mat KC, Simbak NB, Aung MMT, et al. The relationship between big five personality traits and academic performance in medical students. Res J Pharm Technol [Internet]. 2019;12(9):4189. (cited 2022 Nov 12). Available from: [crossref]
Agarwal S, Kahlon N, Agarwal P, Dixit S. Relationship between student’s family socio-economic status, gap year/years after schooling and self-concept: A cross-sectional study among medical students . Int J Physiol. 2017;5(1):21. Available from:’s_Family_Socio-economic_Status_Gap_Yearyears_after_Schooling_and_Self-concept_A_Cross-Sectional_Study_among_Medical_Students. [crossref]
Jerant A, Sciolla AF, Henderson MC, Griffin E, Talamantes E, Fancher T, et al. Medical student socioeconomic disadvantage, self-designated disadvantage, and subsequent academic performance. J Health Care Poor Underserved [Internet]. 2019;30(4):1419-32. (cited 2022 Nov 12). Available from: [crossref] [PubMed]
John Jacob M, Ravindranadan DV. Self-esteem, academic and career aspirations on the basis of Socio-economic status of adolescents. Int J Ind Psychol [Internet]. 2018;6(4):75-84. (cited 2022 Nov 12). Available from:
Ahmar F, Anwar E. Socio economic status and its relation to academic achievement of higher secondary school students. IOSR J Humanit Soc Sci [Internet]. 2013;13(6):13-20. (cited 2022 Nov 12). Available from: https://www. [crossref]
Bouchghoul H, Teboul JL, Senat MV, Vigoureux S. Does socioeconomic status have any influence on success at the national ranking exam? A prospective survey. BMC Med Educ [Internet]. 2020;20(1):402. (cited 2022 Nov 12). Available from:[crossref] [PubMed]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/59727.17517

Date of Submission: Aug 18, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Oct 25, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Dec 24, 2022
Date of Publishing: Feb 01, 2023

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Aug 26, 2022
• Manual Googling: Oct 11, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Dec 22, 2022 (18%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)