Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 17732

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2023 | Month : January | Volume : 17 | Issue : 1 | Page : OD01 - OD02 Full Version

Purple Glove Syndrome- A Catastrophic Complication of Phenytoin Injection


Published: January 1, 2023 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2023/57244.17214
Vivek Lahane, Ruchita Kabra, Amol Andhale, Sourya Acharya, Sunil Kumar

1. Junior Resident, Department of Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 2. Junior Resident, Department of Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 3. Senior Resident, Department of Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 4. Professor and Head, Department of Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India. 5. Professor, Department of Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Ruchita Kabra,
Junior Resident, Department of Medicine, Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
E-mail: ruchitapkabra@gmail.com

Abstract

Purple Glove Syndrome (PGS) is a rare complication of intravenous phenytoin administration, which is illustrated by delayed soft tissue injury of the skin conterminous to the point or distal to the site of intravenous phenytoin infusion. The clinical features of PGS include pain, oedema, and bluish discolouration over the extremity. The present case report describes about a 60-year-old male, who presented to the Emergency Department with the chief complaints of generalised tonic clonic seizures, lasting for 10 minutes, for which he was managed with inj. phenytoin sodium. The computed tomography scan of brain revealed right-sided subdural haematoma. After 24 hours of hospital stay, the patient started complaining of severe pain in the arm and forearm. There was purple-bluish discolouration around the intravenous site, peripheral oedema and pain. The various risk factors linked to PGS, include old age and large and multiple doses of phenytoin.

Keywords

Peripheral oedema, Subdural haematoma, Tonic clonic seizures

Case Report

A 60-year-old male came to the Emergency Department, with generalised tonic-clonic seizures 15 minutes back, lasting for approximately 10 minutes, and associated with up rolling of eyes along with frothing from mouth and loss of consciousness. In the Emergency Department, the patient was stuporous with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)- E3V4M6. He was immediately treated with intravenous (i.v.) lorazepam 5 mg, followed by i.v. 1 gram of phenytoin sodium dissolved in 100 mL of sterile saline which was administered into the right forearm over 30 minutes. The seizures stopped after receiving the drug and he was admitted to the Medicine Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for monitoring. A Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the head was done to rule out the organic cause of seizure, which revealed subdural haematoma in the right side of the brain (Table/Fig 1).

On examination, the pulse rate of 90 beats per minute, blood pressure was 110/60 mmHg, and saturation was 98% in room air. Both tone and reflexes of her upper and lower limbs were normal and muscle power of grade 5 with bilateral plantar flexors. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Patient also had polydactyly on right hand near the proximal phalanges of index finger.

The initial laboratory results revealed that haemoglobin was 10.4 g/dL, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) was 98.3 fL, White Blood Cell (WBC) count was 9000 cells/μL, platelet count was 2.12×109/L, serum urea was 60, serum sodium was 126 mmol/L, serum potassium was 3.8 mmol/L, serum creatinine was 33 mg/dL, and normal liver function tests. Blood sugar level were within normal range.

During first four hours following admission, the patient had lethargy, malaise. Then, he started complaining of severe pain in the right hand and forearm. On examination, it revealed bluish discolouration of the distal aspects of index, middle and ring fingers of right hand (Table/Fig 2). The peripheral pulses were feeble on palpation. Duplex ultrasound of the right upper limb was done and showed normal flow. Purple glove syndrome was suspected.

The patient was given intramuscular diclofenac injection for relief of pain. The arm was elevated and gentle dry heat was given. The bluish discoloration showed improvement on the 3rd day. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 10. Operative management for subdural haematoma was planned and was discharged via a thorn hole. On post-treatment examination, the patient was in an excellent condition. The patient was released on oral levetiracetam 500 mg twice day. On follow-up, he was doing well. In the present case, extravasation of phenytoin injection was suspected to be the culprit for development of purple glove syndrome. Then patient was discharged on day 7.

Discussion

The Purple Glove Syndrome (PGS) is an uncommon phenytoin i.v. complication characterised by delayed soft tissue injury of the skin close to the intravenous phenytoin infusion site (1),(2). The PGS can occur with or without i.v. phenytoin extravasation (3). Pain, oedema, and purple-blue staining of skin tissue next to the i.v. phenytoin infusion site are all symptoms of PGS (3). In terms of clinical development, PGS has three stages. A dark purple-bluish discolouration of the skin arises at the site of i.v. phenytoin infusion during the first stage, which occurs within 2-12 hours following infusion of i.v. phenytoin (1). Oedema develops in the second stage, which takes place over the next 12-16 hours, and the dark purplebluish colouring around the infusion site progresses (3),(4). Healing occurs during the later phases of PGS, when oedema disappears and skin tissue discolouration fades. The PGS has been reported as agonising throughout its progression (2). The likely prevalence of PGS following i.v. administration of phenytoin varies from 1.7-7% (5). Advanced age, arterial circulation, and the arrangement of the i.v. cannula are all predisposing factors for the syndrome. PGS occurs when phenytoin crystallises with blood and subsequently extravasates into the interstitial space (6). The other plausible theory is that phenytoin leaks into the soft tissue through the disrupted endothelial-intercellular junctions and causes PGS (6). Cases that are not severe usually heal with conservative management like elevation, dry heat application. Severe cases with compartment syndrome, require fasciotomy (4). The present case highlighted a catastrophic sequel of i.v. phenytoin organisation. The pharmacoeconomic study of fosphenytoin and phenytoin focused on the trade-off between fosphenytoin’s higher initial costs and the higher treatment costs owing to PGS with phenytoin. True prospective incidence data, which were required for the present pharmacoeconomic study, had not been gathered. According to some reports, PGS risk is higher in women and the elderly. Peripheral vascular disease, illnesses that impair vascular and dermal integrity, the use of i.v. catheters smaller than 20 G, and phenytoin infusions at doses greater than 25 mg/mL are additional risk factors (7),(8). The old age group, female gender, usage of a 22 G cannula to give phenytoin, as well as the rate of infusion, were all risk factors, in the index patient. Phenytoin should be administered into a free-flowing infusion line, through a large bore i.v. catheter inserted into a big vein of the forearm, at a rate of no more than 50 mg/min, in a concentration of 10 mg/mL (9). Dextrose solutions and lactated ringers solutions cannot be used with i.v. phenytoin due to the possibility of precipitation, and it should be diluted in 0.9% normal saline solution. The infusion should be stopped right away, and the i.v. catheter should be removed, if there is any indication of venous irritation, such as pain, oedema, or erythema (7). The treatment is conservative (limb elevation, physiotherapy, pain management, patient reassurance) and should aim to reduce the extent of soft tissue injury (10). Blood pressure readings or venipuncture should not be performed on the affected arm. Nitroglycerine patch and intravenous heparin administration are two medical therapy strategies for PGS. The anaesthesiologist’s role in this case can be either pain management or a conclusive surgical procedure like a fasciotomy or amputation. The PGS hurts a lot because of ischaemia and tissue damage. The pain can be reduced using a low dosage of local anaesthetic, by preferentially blocking the A and B fibres (11),(12). By blocking the brachial plexus with a local anaesthetic like ropivacaine, this can also be accomplished. Fentanyl is used to increase the local anaesthetic effect through central opioid receptor mediated analgesia and peripheral fentanyl uptake into the systemic circulation (13),(14).

Conclusion

Purple glove syndrome is a unique phenytoin intravenous (i.v.) complication which involves delayed soft tissue loss around the intravenous phenytoin infusion site. Careful handling of such drugs can prevent further more complications. Early diagnosis of such condition, can lead to early treatment.

References

1.
Hanna DR. Purple glove syndrome. A complication of intravenous phenytoin. J Neurosci Nurs. 1992;24(6): 340-45. [crossref] [PubMed]
2.
Chokshi R, Openshaw J, Mehta NN, Mohler E., 3 rd Purple glove syndrome following intravenous phenytoin administration. Vasc Med. 2007;12(1):29-31. [crossref] [PubMed]
3.
O’Brien TJ, Cascino GD, So EL, Hanna DR. Incidence and clinical consequence of the purple glove syndrome in patients receiving intravenous phenytoin. Neurology. 1998;51(4):1034-39. [crossref] [PubMed]
4.
Edwards JJ, Bosek V. Extravasation injury of the upper extremity by intravenous phenytoin. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(3):672-73. [crossref] [PubMed]
5.
Burneo JG, Anandan JV, Barkley GL. A prospective study of the incidence of the purple glove syndrome. Epilepsia. 2001;42(9):1156-59. [crossref] [PubMed]
6.
Yoshikawa H, Abe T, Oda Y. Purple glove syndrome caused by oral administration of phenytoin. J Child Neurol. 2000;15(11):762. [crossref] [PubMed]
7.
Snelson C, Dieckman B. Recognizing and managing purple glove syndrome. Crit Care Nurse. 2000;20(3):54-61. [crossref] [PubMed]
8.
Spengler RF, Arrowsmith JB, Kilarski DJ, Buchanan C, Von Behren L, Graham DR. Severe soft-tissue injury following intravenous infusion of phenytoin. Patient and drug administration risk factors. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(6):1329-33. [crossref] [PubMed]
9.
Joint Formulary Committee British National Formulary. London, British Medical association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1999.
10.
Righini M, Angellillo-Scherrer A, Gueddi S, Le Gal G, Bounameaux H. Management of severe ischemia of the hand following intra-arterial injection. Thromb Haemost. 2005;94(1):219-21. [crossref] [PubMed]
11.
Strickartz GR. Neural physiology and local anesthesia action. In: Cousins MJ, Bridenbaugh PO, editors. Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott. 1998:35-54.
12.
Uma B, Kochhar A. An anaesthesiologist’s encounter with purple glove syndrome. Indian J Anaesth. 2016;60(3):199-01. [crossref] [PubMed]
13.
Chokshi R, Openshaw J, Mehta NN, Mohler III E. Purple glove syndrome following intravenous phenytoin administration. Vasc Med. 2007;12(1):29-31. [crossref] [PubMed]
14.
Del Nogal GP, Rodaniche A, Saragadam SD. Purple glove syndrome: Recognizing a rare complication of intravenous phenytoin. Cureus. 2022;14(4):e23958.

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/57244.17214

Date of Submission: Apr 21, 2022
Date of Peer Review: May 25, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Oct 19, 2022
Date of Publishing: Jan 01, 2023

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Apr 23, 2022
• Manual Googling: May 23, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Sep 27, 2022 (20%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com