Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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On Sep 2018

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2023 | Month : November | Volume : 17 | Issue : 11 | Page : KC01 - KC04 Full Version

Understanding the Estranged Attitude of Medical Students while Attending Lectures at a Medical College in Eastern India: A Cross-sectional Study

Published: November 1, 2023 | DOI:
Sanghamitra Chakraborty, Phalguni Chakrabarti, Arpan Kumar Goswami, Partha Mandal

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India. 2. Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Deben Mahata Government Medical College, Purulia, West Bengal, India. 3. Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India. 4. Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Partha Mandal,
Circus Maidan, Nutanchati, Bankura-722101, West Bengal, India.


Introduction: Absenteeism among medical undergraduate students during lecture classes is a worldwide problem in medical education. Their disengaged attitude towards attending lectures is associated with poor grades in examinations and contributes to poor professional socialisation.

Aim: To identify the different factors responsible for absenteeism among medical undergraduate students during lecture classes and gather feedback that may help improve the content and delivery of these classes.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Bankura Sammilani Medical College, West Bengal, India. The study duration was six months, from October 2022 to March 2023. A total of 199 undergraduate medical students from phase-I voluntarily participated in the study out of a total of 200 students. A prevalidated questionnaire using the Likert scale was used as the study tool to determine the students’ perspectives on poor attendance. Additionally, a focused group discussion was held to obtain the students’ opinions on improving the presentation of lectures. The responses were recorded, and the Tastle and Wierman tests were conducted to derive a consensus opinion.

Results: Among the participants, 169 (84.9%) strongly agreed and 125 (62.8%) agreed that access to multiple websites and a preference for self-study were factors leading to skipping lectures, respectively. There was a strong agreement, with a consensus score of 0.52, that factors such as the inability of the mental capacity to match the chosen course, poor content, and monotonous presentation were important contributors to absenteeism. A significant correlation was observed between internal assessment scores and lecture attendance (p-value <0.01, r-value=0.4). Approximately 44% of participants believed that a chalk and talk approach followed by small group discussions was the best teaching method.

Conclusion: This cross-sectional survey identified multiple factors, such as access to various e-learning platforms, a preference for self/group study, and technical difficulties, as reasons for poor attendance in lecture classes. However, improvements in content, mode of presentation, and clinical relevance of topics may enhance students’ attitudes towards attending regular lectures and improve their performance.


Absenteeism, Performance, Professional, Undergraduates

Lecture classes have been regarded as the most convenient teaching method with the rational use of resources and addressing a large number of learners in a specified time in medical institutions too. With the advent of newer technology, there are various software programs that have made lectures more attractive and interactive through animations, videos, etc. (1). Attendance in lecture classes is not only to enhance scores in assessments but also improves professional socialisation (2),(3). The literature review defines “absenteeism” as “frequent absence from classes without any good reason” (4). Low attendance in lectures is also common in medical education. Previous surveys indicate that issues such as sickness, aversion to teaching methods, lack of motivation, conducive environment, and access to e-learning platforms are major factors contributing to absenteeism from routine lecture classes in institutions (5),(6),(7). In recent years, it has been observed that students are more focused on postgraduate entrance exams from the very beginning of their studies. As a result, they enroll themselves in various e-learning programs for entrance exam preparation and consider those online modules as a substitute for regular lecture classes. Medical education learners are well exposed to and have adapted to virtual teaching-learning platforms due to the technological revolution. Additionally, the unprecedented COVID-19 epoch and lockdown have significantly increased students’ inclination towards online learning platforms (8). Considering the above facts, it is important to recognise that poor attendance in lecture classes not only results in lower grades but also hinders professional socialisation and development. Therefore, absenteeism may be considered a serious issue in medical education. However, there is a lack of studies addressing factors such as content, mode of presentation, and clinical correlation of topics and their impact on improving attendance in lecture classes. The present study aimed to assess the perception of first-year medical undergraduates regarding the causes of absenteeism among medical students in a medical college in West Bengal, India.

Material and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry at Bankura Sammilani Medical College, West Bengal, India. The study duration was six months, from October 2022 to March 2023. The study was conducted after receiving permission from the Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) (Memo no: BSMC/IEC/3439 Dated 12/10/2022). The participants were students from the phase I MBBS students of the 2021-2022 batch.

Inclusion criteria: Students who were selected through convenient sampling and who voluntarily participated were included in the study.

Exclusion criteria: Students who were unwilling to participate in the study were excluded from the study.

Sample size calculation: Since this was a qualitative study involving categorical variables, the sample size was determined using a table adapted from a study by Adam AM, with a 95% confidence interval and a margin of error of 0.05 (9).

Study Procedure

A pretested and validated questionnaire in Google Forms ( was given to the students after explaining the details about its various contents related to students’ opinions regarding their absenteeism from regular theory classes. All participants were briefed about the importance, background, and objectives of the study. They were assured of confidentiality during the collection of individual data, and anonymity would be maintained while collecting the data.

The questionnaire used in this study consisted of various aspects pertaining to different perspectives related to poor attendance in theory classes. Participants were asked to fill out the questionnaire on their own without revealing their answers to other students. The students’ own perceptions and views about improvement and feedback regarding the Biochemistry theory class were also recorded after having a focused group discussion.

The 11-item questionnaire was adopted from previous studies, modified, and validated by the principal investigator and co-investigator (10),(11). All the items were assessed using a Likert-type scale, with responses ranging from ‘Strongly disagree’, ‘Disagree’, ‘Neutral’, ‘Agree’, to ‘Strongly agree’, and with values ranging from 1 to 5 points. The questionnaire was validated through face validity, content validity (using CVR by Lawshe test, value=0.771), and reliability measurement by Cronbach’s alpha (0.812) after giving the questionnaire to a panel of 30 experts (12),(13). These 30 experts were faculties from different subjects.

The validated questionnaire was administered to 200 Phase-1 students, and 199 students voluntarily participated in the study. The methodology has been detailed in (Table/Fig 1). A closed questionnaire has been used to exclude bias. The outcome of the study was to identify factors related to absenteeism in lecture classes and to identify factors that may improve attendance in lecture classes according to the student’s perspective.

Statistical Analysis

The responses received from the participants were recorded and tabulated using Microsoft Excel, and appropriate statistical analysis was conducted. The consensus score among the Likert scale items of the 11-item questionnaire was derived using the calculation method defined by Tastle WJ and Wierman MJ (14).

The cumulative scores of formative assessments were also compiled and tabulated. Pearson’s correlation tests were performed to assess whether any association existed between poor attendance and performance in assessments. The chi-square test was conducted on the responses of the study questionnaire, and correlations were calculated using MedCalc version 20.0.


The present study enrolled approximately 199 students out of 200 as participants. Among the 199 student participants, 127 (63.8%) were male, and 72 (36.2%) were female. The students’ perceptions regarding poor attendance are detailed in (Table/Fig 2). Approximately 49.2% of the students opined that the way lectures are presented is not beneficial. Out of the 199 students who voluntarily participated in the study, 169 (85%) agreed that access to the internet provides lecture videos with better presentation or animation, and 125 (62.8%) preferred self/group studying over attending lectures. However, 81 (40.7%) student participants denied the fact that they can clear exams without attending theory classes. The Chi-square test was performed on the responses of the study questionnaire. The responses were grouped on an agree/disagree scale, excluding the neutral opinion in the statistical analysis, as various studies indicate that participants may falsely report via the neutral option due to cognitive effort, ambivalence, and social desirability (15).

Among the 199 responders, 95 students strongly agreed that the content of lectures was beneficial. A focused group discussion was conducted to evaluate the factors that may help facilitators improve the content and delivery of lecture classes. Among the 199 responders, 155 had a strong opinion that classes should be conducted using a chalk and talk method. The factors that may be helpful for the development of lecture classes, according to the students’ opinions, are detailed in (Table/Fig 2).

The consensus among the Likert scale items was calculated using the formula described by Tasle and Wierman, and (Table/Fig 3) describes the students’ consensus opinion about aversion factors to attending routine lecture classes. The students’ opinions on how class content can be improved were recorded during the focused group discussion, and the results are tabulated in (Table/Fig 4). There was a significant correlation between internal assessment scores and theory attendance percentage (p-value<0.01, r-value=0.4) (Table/Fig 5).


Regular attendance is not only a prerequisite for medical students to appear for university examinations, but poor attendance can also disrupt the learning process, educational achievement, and professional socialisation (5). In the present study, 49.2% of the students agreed that the content of the lectures was poorly presented. A cross-sectional survey by Bati AH et al., on 663 students from medical, nursing, dental, and pharmacy programs reported sleeplessness as a reason for skipping classes. In present study, 56.7% of the participants strongly agreed that they could not attend early morning classes due to being late risers.

In a study by Tripura K et al., 25.5% agreed that the poor skills of the teachers were associated with students’ poor attendance in lecture classes (11). Previous studies on medical student absenteeism suggested that poor skills of lecturers, ineffective content presentation techniques, and a lack of adaptability to match the medical curriculum are reasons why students skip their regular classes (16). Present study also clearly indicated that 27.7% and 85% of the participants found the content of the lectures to be poor, and having access to multiple websites and the internet provided them with opportunities to download videos of better quality. A similar finding was noted by Bariya B et al., study, they suggested that 34% agreed that the content was delivered poorly (17). Approximately 32.7% of the study participants found a linguistic barrier to be a hindrance in understanding the class. A report by Gupta S et al., also suggested that linguistic barriers may induce academic-related stress (18). Students might avoid attending classes to avoid further stress.

The factors that the students identified as strong reasons for being absent from routine lecture classes include having access to multiple websites/internet with better presentation or animation, a preference for self/group studying, the inability of their mental capacity to match the chosen course, and monotonous lecture presentations. The consensus scores calculated by Tastle and Wierman for all these factors were above 0.5 (Table/Fig 3). Similarly, monotonous teaching, poor teacher skills, and ineffective content presentation have also been established as aversion factors for attending lecture classes in a survey conducted by Sharma SK et al., (19).

A significant correlation was observed between the internal assessment scores and theory attendance percentage of the learners (p-value<0.05, Pearson’s correlation coefficient ‘r’=0.4). These findings are in line with a study by Dhaliwal U, which suggested an association between higher attendance percentages and better grades (20).

A focused group discussion was conducted with the participants to gather feedback and suggestions for improving the content and presentation of the classes. Approximately 155 participants expressed a preference for chalk-talk over PowerPoint as the mode of presentation. This finding aligns with the report by Hamid DS, where medical students suggested that chalk-talks offer more opportunities for teacher-student interaction compared to PowerPoint lectures (21). Furthermore, approximately 5% and 15% of the participants suggested improvements in the content of the lectures and the skills of the teachers, respectively. Approximately 18% of the students suggested that clinical correlations of topics would be helpful for better understanding of the lecture classes.

Indian medical education has undergone a transformation from a subject-centred curriculum to Competency-Based Medical Education (CBME). The CBME curriculum in India emphasises the importance of Early Clinical Exposure (ECE) in medical education. However, interdisciplinary coordination and faculty training pose major challenges for implementing ECE (22).

Additionally, 19.1% of the participants suggested that correlating lecture topics with multiple-choice questions for postgraduate entrance examinations would aid in better understanding of the topics. The number and distribution of postgraduate courses in medical colleges are often lower than the number of undergraduates qualifying each year. This creates pressure on students, leading them to enroll in online platforms for postgraduate entrance exam coaching from their early years and thereby skipping regular classes.


The present study had several limitations. Firstly, it was a crosssectional single-centred study that only included first-year students, which may limit the generalisability of the findings. Additionally, factors such as stress related to being away from home and peer pressure may also be associated with skipping classes. However, the study did not assess stress using any specific scale.


Absenteeism was also observed in present study, and multiple reasons were attributed to poor attendance in lecture classes. However, this study is the first of its kind to evaluate the factors that could improve lecture class attendance from the students’ point of view. Furthermore, this study also highlighted that lecture classes with a chalk-talk mode of presentation and clinical correlation may attract students to attend. The significant statistical correlation of attendance percentage clearly indicates that regular attendance in lecture classes will undoubtedly improve grades in future exams and have a positive impact on the professional growth of medical undergraduates.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/65248.18654

Date of Submission: May 06, 2023
Date of Peer Review: Jul 27, 2023
Date of Acceptance: Sep 04, 2023
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2023

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: May 11, 2023
• Manual Googling: Aug 29, 2023
• iThenticate Software: Sep 01, 2023 (9%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin


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