Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 117460

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2023 | Month : November | Volume : 17 | Issue : 11 | Page : OD04 - OD06 Full Version

Ceftriaxone-Induced Acute Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: A Rare Case Report

Published: November 1, 2023 | DOI:
Smriti Samiskshya Nayak, Nihar Ranjan Mohanty

1. Senior Resident, Department of Medicine, SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, KIMS Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Nihar Ranjan Mohanty,
Plot 28, Road 2, Lane 1, Jagannath Vihar, Baramunda, Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha, India.


Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP), also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a pulmonary disorder characterised by an inflammatory response of the alveoli and small airways due to exposure to a variety of antigens. HP can manifest as acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on the mode of onset and its duration. A broad spectrum of antigens, derived from fungi, bacteria, mycobacteria, birds, chemical sources, and certain drugs such as cyclophosphamide and sulfonamides, has been associated with the development of HP. However, HP developed by Ceftriaxone is an extremely rare occurrence. Here, the authors presented a case of a 26-year-old male who experienced the onset of HP immediately following the administration of injectable Ceftriaxone. He developed a sudden onset of breathlessness and cough, necessitating Mechanical Ventilation (MV) and steroid support. Radiological imaging indicated pneumonitis, and the symptoms gradually resolved after discontinuing Ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone-induced acute HP represents an unusual clinical presentation. In the present case report, the authors highlighted the possibility of Ceftriaxone as a potential cause of HP, given its capacity for rapid reversal upon its timely removal.


Alveolitis, Corticosteroid, Pneumonia

Case Report

A 26-year-old male presented to the casualty with a sudden onset of breathlessness. There was no medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, tuberculosis, or any other chronic illness. Upon examination, his pulse rate was 110 beats/min, blood pressure was 100/60 mmHg, respiratory rate was 26 breaths/minute, and oxygen saturation was 94% with ambient air. Auscultation of the chest revealed bilateral (B/L) crepitations. Consequently, he was admitted with a provisional diagnosis of pneumonia and was prescribed Intravenous (IV) Injection Ceftriaxone (1 gm IV twice daily) along with Injection Azithromycin (500 mg IV once daily). However, during his hospitalisation, the patient experienced a recurrence of cough and shortness of breath following the administration of Injection Ceftriaxone. He started producing a profuse amount of mucoid sputum, occasionally tinged with blood. Upon re-examination, his pulse rate had increased to 124 beats/min, blood pressure was 110/60 mmHg, body temperature was 36.8ºC, respiratory rate was 36 breaths/minute, and widespread crepitations were detected bilaterally all over his chest. Oxygen saturation decreased to 76% with ambient air, and he developed acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The patient was shifted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and put on non invasive ventilation.

The chest X-ray, on the day of symptom development, showed patchy non-homogeneous opacities in the middle and lower zones of the right lung and the upper, middle, and lower zones of the left lung (Table/Fig 1). The following day, a High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) scan of the thorax displayed a large area of ground glass opacity in the bilateral lower lobes and a small area of ground glass opacity in the bilateral upper lobes of the lungs, suggestive of pneumonitis (Table/Fig 2)a,b. Both the Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography reports were normal.

Laboratory tests revealed a white blood cell count of 10,840/μL (78% neutrophils, 14% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) level of 12.3 mg/L, and serum procalcitonin level of 0.7 ng/mL. Nevertheless, there was no peripheral blood eosinophilia, and the Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC) was 130/cumm. Sputum microscopy, differential count, and culture reports were all normal. Unfortunately, auto-antibody screening and Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) analysis were not performed due to the unavailability of the respective facilities at that time. Furthermore, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test was negative.

Further inquiry discovered that the patient had received treatment for acute gastroenteritis at a local hospital two days prior to presenting at the hospital. Shortly after receiving intravenous antibiotics, specifically Ceftriaxone at the local hospital, the patient developed a sudden onset of breathlessness, leading to the referral to our hospital. Ceftriaxone was promptly discontinued, and the patient was treated with injection hydrocortisone. Subsequently, the symptoms gradually improved the following day, and the patient was weaned off the ventilator accordingly. After three days of hospitalisation, the patient’s condition improved, and he was discharged. A follow-up X-ray was planned; however, it could not be done as the patient did not give consent for the same. On the follow-up visit after seven days, the patient was doing well.


A rare case of ceftriaxone-induced HP was reported. Chest X-ray and HRCT of the thorax revealed diffuse ground glass opacities in both lungs. Other possible causes considered were healthcare-associated pneumonia, infectious bronchiolitis, and pulmonary embolism. Infectious etiologies were ruled out by a normal leukocyte count, serum procalcitonin level, sputum microscopy, and culture. COVID-19 pneumonia was ruled out by a negative RT-PCR test. Cardiovascular causes were dismissed based on normal ECG and echocardiographic findings. Furthermore, the symptoms subsided after discontinuing ceftriaxone and administering steroid treatment.

Drug-induced interstitial lung disease has a wide range of presentations, ranging from benign infiltrates to acute respiratory distress syndrome (1). One such pattern is HP, a pulmonary disease characterised by an inflammatory response of the alveoli and small airways due to exposure to various antigens. HP is also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis. It is a lymphocytic allergic response in the lungs that occurs from exposure to airborne organic antigens like occupational dust, microorganisms, etc. Additionally, it also includes drug-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis (2). The presentation of HP can be categorised as acute, subacute, or chronic based on the duration of symptoms (3). In the acute form, there is an immune complex-mediated activation of the complement cascade and alveolar macrophages, leading to cytokine production and maturation of Cluster of Differentiation 8 (CD8) cells into cytotoxic cells (2). Drug-induced HP occurs due to the immune response of our body against a pharmacological agent (4). Diagnosing drug-induced HP is challenging, as other potential causes must be ruled out (1). Drugs that have been reported to induce HP include cyclophosphamides, sulfonamides, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sirolimus, ticlopidine, interferon-alpha, ampicillin, bupropion, cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, etc. (5),(6),(7),(8),(9) (Table/Fig 3).

Cephalosporins are one of the most widely used antibiotics in recent years, and their adverse reactions are well studied. However, there are very few reports of cephalosporin-induced HP (10),(11). In the present case study (case-1), HP is caused by Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin. A similar case has been reported in South Korea, where a patient developed HP following the administration of cephalosporins with identical R1 side chains (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime). The patient’s condition improved after discontinuation of the drugs (case-2) (4). Another case study from the USA (case-3) reported Ceftriaxone-induced HP, presenting as acute respiratory failure, which also improved upon drug discontinuation (12). These cases highlight the importance of recognising cephalosporins as potential triggers of HP (Table/Fig 4), even though such occurrences are rare.

Diagnosis of HP is difficult due to nonspecific symptoms, variable radiological and BAL findings (2). Therefore, it is essential to rule out other potential causes. One key indicator for diagnosis is the improvement of symptoms upon removal of the causative agent. Other common presentations of drug-induced HP include fever, cough, dyspnoea, and rash (12).

Similar to other hypersensitivity reactions, the management of drug-induced HP includes life-supporting measures, identifying and ceasing the causative pharmacological agent, and in severe cases, corticosteroid treatment (12). Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for improving outcomes in these cases.


Hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of cephalosporins are indeed common. However, Ceftriaxone-induced HP is a rare presentation. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of such a likely presentation, even in the absence of hallmark symptoms like rash and eosinophilia. Thus, HP should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients with a similar presentation, as early diagnosis and prompt management can cure the condition and significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.


Matsuno O. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease: Mechanisms and best diagnostic approaches. Respir Res. 2012;13(1):39. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]. [crossref][PubMed]
Patel AM, Ryu JH, Reed CE. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Current concepts and future questions. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(5):661-70. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]. [crossref][PubMed]
Selman M, Pardo A, King TE. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Insights in diagnosis and pathobiology. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186(4):314-24. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]. [crossref][PubMed]
Lee SH, Kim MH, Lee K, Jo EJ, Park HK. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by cephalosporins with identical R1 side chains. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2015;7(5):518-22. Doi: 10.4168/aair.2015.7.5.518. Epub 2014 Nov 25. PMID: 25749765; PMCID: PMC4509666. [crossref][PubMed]
Mark GJ, Lehimgar-Z A, Ragsdale BD. Cyclophosphamide pneumonitis. Thorax. 1978;33(1):89-93. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]. [crossref][PubMed]
Fujimori K, Yokoyama A, Kurita Y, Uno K, Saijo N. Paclitaxel-induced cell-mediated hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Diagnosis using leukocyte migration test, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. Oncology. 1998;55(4):340-44. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] [crossref][PubMed]
Tohyama M, Tamaki Y, Toyama M, Ishimine T, Miyazato A, Nakamoto A, et al. A case of loxoprofen-induced pneumonitis pathologically resembling hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2002;40(2):123-28. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
Ben-Noun L. Drug-induced respiratory disorders: Incidence, prevention and management. Drug Safety. 2000;23(2):143-64. Doi: 10.2165/00002018-200023020-00005. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar].[crossref][PubMed]
Distefano G, Fanzone L, Palermo M, Tiralongo F, Cosentino S, Inì C, et al. HRCT patterns of drug-induced interstitial lung diseases: A review. Diagnostics (Basel). 2020;10(4):244. Doi: 10.3390/diagnostics10040244. PMID: 32331402; PMCID: PMC7236658. [crossref][PubMed]
Suzuki K, Inagaki T, Adachi S, Matsuura T, Yamamoto T. A case of ceftazidime- induced pneumonitis. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1993;31(4):512-16.
Suzuki K, Yamamoto K, Kishimoto A, Hayakawa T, Yamamoto T. A case of ceftizoxime-induced pneumonitis. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1985;23(11):1357-61. [PubMed] [Google Scholar].
Komal B, Catalya S, Ansari J, Heliniski J, Sen S, Ezer M. Rare presentation of ceftriaxone-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Journal of Medical Cases. North America, 2018;9(6):157-59.[crossref]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/66817.18701

Date of Submission: Aug 02, 2023
Date of Peer Review: Sep 11, 2023
Date of Acceptance: Oct 10, 2023
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2023

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Aug 03, 2023
• Manual Googling: Sep 27, 2023
• iThenticate Software: Oct 07, 2023 (11%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin


JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)