Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 123831

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2023 | Month : November | Volume : 17 | Issue : 11 | Page : ZC06 - ZC09 Full Version

Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion in Dentate Subjects: An Anthropometric Analysis

Published: November 1, 2023 | DOI:
Enu Kamboj, Sandeep Garg, Nidhi Mangtani Kalra

1. Postgraduate Student, Department of Prosthodontics, MMCDSR, Ambala, Haryana, India. 2. Head, Department of Prosthodontics, MMCDSR, Ambala, Haryana, India. 3. Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, MMCDSR, Ambala, Haryana, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Sandeep Garg,
Head, Department of Prosthodontics, MMCDSR, MMDU, Ambala-133203, Haryana, India.


Introduction: In the field of prosthodontics, there lies a delicate balance between the preservation of supporting structures and the restoration of physiological function while providing complete denture prostheses to completely edentulous patients. A good prosthesis requires appropriate recording of the proper maxillo-mandibular relationship, including the vertical dimension of occlusion, which is a crucial step in complete denture fabrication. The reliability of anthropometric methods to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion has been widely discussed in the literature.

Aim: To evaluate the correlation of various facial measurements with the vertical dimension of occlusion in dentate subjects.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics at a Dental College in Ambala district of Haryana, India, from February 2021 to July 2023. A total of 100 subjects (50 females and 50 males) within the age range of 20-35 years were selected. Five facial parameters were selected to correlate with the vertical dimension of occlusion: the distance from glabella to subnasion, the distance from the outer canthus of one eye to the inner canthus of the other eye, the distance from the outer canthus to the rima oris, the distance from the outer canthus to the External Auditory Meatus (EAM) on the left side of the face, and the Interpupillary Distance (IPD). Facial measurements were recorded using a digital vernier calliper, while IPD was recorded using a PD ruler. Each measurement was made three times and recorded by a single operator. Once recorded, all the measurements were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Regression analysis was also conducted to formulate a regression equation for determining the vertical dimension of occlusion.

Results: The mean Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO) for males was 59.29±6.48 mm, and for females, it was 52.34±5.92 mm. The results showed a positive and significant (p-value<0.05) correlation between the vertical dimension of occlusion and facial measurements such as glabella to subnasion (p-value for males: 0.001, p-value for females: <0.001), outer canthus to inner canthus (p-value for males: 0.01, p-value for females: <0.001), outer canthus to rima oris (p-value for males: <0.001, p-value for females: <0.001), and outer canthus to EAM (p-value for males: 0.007, p-value for females: 0.001) in both males and females. However, there was no significant correlation between IPD and VDO (p-value for males: 0.296, p-value for females: 0.66) in both genders.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that facial measurements could be taken into consideration for determining the vertical dimension of occlusion in completely edentulous patients in conjunction with other reliable methods.


Craniofacial landmarks, Intercanthal distance, Interpupillary distance, Vertical jaw relation

Complete dentures should restore physiological function while still preserving the supporting structures (1). To achieve this goal, it becomes imperative to accurately record jaw relations, including the vertical dimension (2). According to the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (GPT), occlusal vertical dimension indicates the superior-inferior relationship of the maxilla and mandible when the teeth are occluded in maximum intercuspation, while the vertical dimension at rest is defined as the distance between two selected points when the mandible is in a physiologic rest position (3). Inaccurate recording of the vertical dimension can lead to an increase or decrease in lower facial height, Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction (TMJ) disorder, myofacial pain, trauma to the underlying tissues, muscle fatigue, and impaired phonetics (4).

Various pre-extraction and postextraction methods are used to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous patients. Pre-extraction methods include intraoral measurements, profile tracing, and cephalometric analysis. Pre-extraction records can be valuable, but the availability of pre-extraction records is not always possible. Postextraction methods include mandibular rest position, facial aesthetics and appearance, anthropometric measurements, existing dentures, phonetics, and swallowing methods (4). Physiological rest position and swallowing are the most commonly used methods but have often been criticised (1). The cephalometric method is an objective method that can be used but is 2D and static (1). Silverman MM reported that measuring the occlusal vertical dimension by the phonetic method can only be applied in Class-I relationship (5). Since postextraction methods have revealed controversies, no individual method is reliable, and a combination of methods is recommended (4).

The reliability of anthropometric methods to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion has been widely discussed in the literature. Anthropometric measurements were first observed by Leonardo da Vinci, who provided simple ratios for drawing the face. They were later utilised by Wills, Ivy, and Goodfriend as a simple, cost-effective, and non invasive technique. Goodfriend suggested that the distance between the pupil of the eye and the corner of the mouth was closely related to the distance from subnasion to gnathion. This idea was popularised by Willis. Fenn HRB et al., later proposed the use of the angle from the eye to the angle of the mouth distance as a guide to correct the vertical dimension of occlusion (6). Chou TM et al., in their study, concluded that the eye-ear distance is reliable in predicting the vertical dimension of occlusion if measured from the subnasale to menton distance. The authors also proposed an equation for more accurate measurements (7). Delic Z et al., also recommended the eye-ear distance as a method to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion (8). These observations were confirmed by Abdul RM in Iraqi adults and by Alhajj MN et al., in Yemeni males and females (9),(10).

Many studies have been conducted in the past to assess the reliability of using anthropometric measurements to determine vertical dimensions in edentulous patients, with no definitive conclusion (1),(2),(7),(8),(9),(10). A clear understanding is required to find the correlation between facial measurements and the vertical dimension of occlusion. Therefore, the present study was planned to determine the consistency of various facial measurements and their relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion in dentate patients.

Material and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics at a Dental College in Ambala district of Haryana, India, from February 2021-July 2021. Ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee before commencing the study (Ethical number-1783, dated 22/01/2021). Patients and students aged between 20-35 years who reported to the Department and were willing to participate in the study were examined and included, considering the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Written consent was obtained from the participants.

Inclusion criteria:

• Subjects with full dentition (atleast 28 natural permanent teeth).
• Subjects with Class-I molar relationship.
• Subjects with a symmetrical face and straight profile.
• Subjects with no history of facial injury.

Exclusion criteria:

• Subjects who had undergone Orthodontic treatment.
• Subjects with neurological diseases pertaining to the eye, orbit, or any craniofacial deformity.

Sample size calculation: The sample size was calculated using G Power software (version 3.0.10). Based on the calculated effect size of 0.3 (6), 5% level of precision, 95% confidence level, and 90% power of the study, the minimum sample size required was 88, which was rounded up to 100. Therefore, a total of 100 dentate subjects, consisting of 50 males and 50 females, were included in the study.

Study Procedure

Once selected, the subjects were given an explanation about the aim and procedure of the study. The subjects were seated on the dental chair with proper head and back support. They were asked to look straight, and their head was adjusted so that the mandible was parallel to the floor. To record facial measurements, specific soft tissue points on the subject’s face were palpated and marked with an indelible pencil (Table/Fig 1).

1. Glabella (G): The highest prominent point between the eyebrows and above the nose.
2. Subnasion (S): The point of the angle between the septum of the nose and the surface of the upper lip in the midsagittal plane.
3. Menton (M): The lowest midpoint of the chin.
4. Outer canthus of the eye (O): The lateral corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids join.
5. Inner canthus of the eye (I): The medial corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids join.
5. Rima oris (R): The corner of the mouth.
7. Anterior most point of the External Auditory Meatus (EAM) (8).

The subjects were asked to lightly bite on their posterior teeth in occlusion, and measurements were made using a digital vernier calliper and a PD ruler (in the case of IPD). All measurements were recorded by a single operator, and each measurement was recorded three times to minimise errors. The following facial measurements were recorded (Table/Fig 2),(Table/Fig 3),(Table/Fig 4).

1. Subnasion (Sn)-Menton (M) distance.
2. Glabella (G)-Subnasion (Sn) distance.
3. Outer canthus (O)-Inner canthus (I) distance.
4. Outer canthus (O)-Rima oris (R) distance.
5. Outer canthus (O)-EAM distance.
6. Interpupillary Distance (IPD).

Once recorded, all measurements were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis to determine any association between the vertical dimension of occlusion (subnasion-menton distance) and other facial measurements (6),(10),(11).

Statistical Analysis

For statistical evaluation, the data were tabulated and analysed using the statistical software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 21.0, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated, and the level of statistical significance was set at a p-value less than 0.05.


The mean Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO) for males was 59.29±6.48 mm, and for females, it was 52.34±5.92 mm. The results for various craniofacial measurements for both male and female patients are presented in (Table/Fig 5).

Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the vertical dimension of occlusion and all other craniofacial measurements, except for IPD (Table/Fig 6). The outer canthus to Rima Oris (O-R) distance showed the strongest correlation with the vertical dimension of occlusion (Sn-M), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.691 in females (p-value <0.001) and 0.620 in males (p-value <0.001).

In regression analysis, VDO was found to be significant with all craniofacial measurements, except for IPD (p-value=0.66 in females, p=0.296 in males) (Table/Fig 7). Regression equations were derived for each significant parameter and are provided in (Table/Fig 8). The vertical dimension of occlusion can be determined from facial measurements using these regression equations.


Despite advancements in materials and techniques, there is still no single method available for dentists to assess the vertical dimension of occlusion. Clinical judgement plays a crucial role in determining this important component of complete denture construction. With this in mind, the present study aimed to identify any correlation between vertical dimensions of occlusion and various anthropometric facial measurements. In the present study, the mean value of the vertical dimension of occlusion (subnasion to menton) was 59.29±6.48 mm for males and 52.34±5.92 mm for females. The mean value of the vertical dimension of occlusion was found to be greater in males compared to females. Ladda R et al., also reported similar findings in their study on the Indian population, where the vertical dimension of occlusion was greater in males (61.4 mm+4.2) than in females (56.7+3) (11).

A strong positive correlation was found between the outer canthus to rima oris distance and the vertical dimension of occlusion in both males and females (p-value<0.05). Similar findings were reported by Majeed MI et al., who conducted a study on the Pakistani population and suggested that the outer canthus to rima oris distance could be used to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous patients (12). Positive correlations were also found between the glabella to subnasion distance and the outer canthus to inner canthus distance, and the vertical dimension of occlusion in both males and females (p-value<0.05). These findings are consistent with a study by Brar A et al., who investigated six different facial measurements and concluded that the vertical dimension of occlusion had a strong positive correlation with the glabella to subnasion distance (1). McGee GF also conducted a similar study using three facial measurements and found that all three measurements, including the distance from the centre of the pupil to the stomion, glabella to subnasion, and from one corner of the mouth to the other, were equal to each other and corresponded to the vertical dimension of occlusion and remained constant through ones life (13).

Regarding the outer canthus to EAM distance, a positive correlation was found between this facial measurement and the vertical dimension of occlusion in both males and females (p-value<0.05). These results align with Nagpal A et al., who suggested that the outer canthus to ear distance could be used to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion in patients without pre-extraction records (14). Similar results were achieved by Chou TM et al., and Delic Z et al., (7),(8). On regression analysis, a significant regression equation was found with the outer canthus to EAM distance. For males, the equation was 19.469+0.533 (O-EAM), while for females, the equation was 13.981+0.539 (O-EAM).

Regarding IPD, no significant correlation was found between this parameter and the vertical dimension of occlusion in both males and females (p-value>0.05). These results are consistent with Majeed MI et al., who conducted a study on 300 dentate subjects and recommended against using IPD to measure the vertical dimension of occlusion in the Pakistani population (12).


The subjects selected for the study represented only a portion of North India, so the findings cannot be generalised to the entire population. Future studies could focus on involving multiple centres from different parts of the country to provide more comprehensive results. Additionally, since the present study was conducted on dentate subjects to determine the relationship and linear regression equation, further studies are required to cross-verify the results of these linear equations when fabricating dentures for completely edentulous patients.


Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that craniofacial measurements such as glabella to subnasion, outer canthus to inner canthus, outer canthus to rima oris, and outer canthus to EAM can be used to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion. These measurements showed significant correlations (p<0.05) in both males and females. Regression equations, as depicted in (Table/Fig 7), have been provided, which can be used to calculate the vertical dimension in the population under consideration. Since no significant correlation was found between the vertical dimensions of occlusion and interpupillary distance in both males and females, it is not recommended to use interpupillary distance as a measure of the vertical dimension.


Brar A, Mattoo KA, Singh Y, Singh M, Khurana PR, Singh M. Clinical reliability of different facial measurements in determining vertical dimension of occlusion in dentulous and edentulous subjects. Int J Prosthodont Endod. 2014;4(3):68-77. [crossref]
Majeed MI, Haralur SB, Khan MF, Al Ahmari MA, Al Shahrani NF, Shaik S. An anthropometric study of cranio-facial measurements and their correlation with vertical dimension of occlusion among Saudi Arabian subpopulations. Open Access Maced J Sci. 2018;6(4):680-84. [crossref][PubMed]
The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. J Prosthet Dent. 2005;94(1):10-92. [crossref][PubMed]
Alhajj MN, Khalifa N, Abduo J, Amran AG, Ismail IA. Determination of occlusal vertical dimension for complete dentures patients: An updated review. J Oral Rehab. 2017;44(11):896-907. [crossref][PubMed]
Silverman MM. The speaking method in measuring vertical dimension. 1952. J Prosthet Dent. 2001;85(5):427-31. [crossref][PubMed]
Fenn HRB, Liddelow KP, Gimson AP Clinical dental prosthesis. Ed.1 Staples press, London. 1953. Pp. 191.
Chuo TM, Moore DJ, Young L, Gloros AG. A diagnostic craniometric method for determining occlusal vertical dimension. J Prosthet Dent. 1994;7(6):568-74. [crossref][PubMed]
Delic Z, Simunovic-Soskic M, Perinic-Grzic R, Vukovojac S, Rajic´ Z, Kuna T, et. al. Evaluation of craniometric methods for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion. Coll Antropol. 2000;24(Suppl 1):31-5.
Abdul RM. Facial measurement method for determining occlusal vertical dimension. J Tech. 2007;20:13-17.
Alhajj MN, Khalifa N, Amran A. Eye-rimaoris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students. Eur J Dent. 2016;10(1):29-33. [crossref][PubMed]
Ladda R, Bhandari AJ, Kasat VO, Angadi GS. A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurements of fingers. Indian J Dent Res. 2013;24(3):316-20. [crossref][PubMed]
Majeed MI, Afzal M, Kashif M. Determination of occlusal vertical dimension in a section of Pakistani population using craniofacial measurements. J Uni Med Dent Sci. 2015;6(1):01-05.
McGee GF. Use of facial measurements in determining vertical dimension. J Am Dent Assoc. 1947;35(5):342-50. [crossref][PubMed]
Nagpal A, Parkash H, Bhargava A, Chittaranjan B. Reliability of different facial measurements for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous using accepted facial dimensions recorded from dentulous subjects. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2013;14(3):233-42.[crossref][PubMed]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/65242.18657

Date of Submission: May 05, 2023
Date of Peer Review: Jul 07, 2023
Date of Acceptance: Sep 08, 2023
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2023

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: May 03, 2023
• Manual Googling: Jul 22, 2023
• iThenticate Software: Sep 06, 2023 (18%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin


JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)