Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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Saraswati Dental College
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On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2023 | Month : September | Volume : 17 | Issue : 9 | Page : RE01 - RE04 Full Version

The Management of Lateral Epicondylitis: A Narrative Review

Published: September 1, 2023 | DOI:
Saran Malisorn

1. Head, Department of Orthopaedics, Naresuan University, Muang, Phitsanulok, Thailand.

Correspondence Address :
Saran Malisorn,
Head, Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University Hospital, Phitsanuloke-65000, Thailand.


Lateral epicondylitis, commonly known as Tennis Elbow, affects approximately 1-3% of the population. Despite the absence of histological evidence of inflammation in the affected tissue, the term “epicondylitis” implies inflammation. The Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB) muscle is primarily affected, and the condition is attributed to excessive use of this muscle. Non surgical treatment options, such as rest, physiotherapy, cortisone injection, platelet-based therapies, and restricted movements, are recommended. Surgical intervention is suggested for cases involving physical impairment or chronic pain. This review aims to provide healthcare professionals with an understanding of the condition, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment planning options.


Elbow tendinitis, Enthesopathy, Tendinopathy, Tennis elbow

Lateral epicondylitis, commonly known as tennis elbow, was first reported by Runge in 1873, and the term “tennis elbow” was coined in the same year (1),(2). It is now understood that lateral epicondylitis is a degenerative disorder that originates from the lateral epicondyle of the upper arm bone, gradually extending into the joint. While terms like epicondylitis and tendinitis are used to characterise the tennis elbow, studies suggest that this condition is not characterised by inflammation but rather by a form of tendinitis caused by a process called Angiofibroblastic Degeneration, involving fibrous cell response and blood vessels (3). Although the condition has been associated with tennis, only 5-10% of patients develop it due to the sport (4). Degenerative symptoms of the elbow ligaments are also common among non sports individuals. Lateral epicondylitis affects both males and females equally, typically occurring in the dominant arm, as seen in tennis players, other sports enthusiasts, and individuals engaged in heavy labour activities (3). The development of lateral epicondylitis involves microlesions at the ends of the muscles connecting the elbow and wrist, often affecting the ECRB and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL) muscles (Table/Fig 1).


Previously, epicondylitis was believed to be an inflammatory condition. However, thorough examinations following surgery in several patients revealed gray tissue with oedema characteristics, indicating a degenerative condition rather than inflammation. This type of disorder occurs in patients with degenerative ligaments, and pain can occur in the lateral, middle, or posterior regions. Microscopic examinations conducted by Bunata RE et al., Nirschl RP, and Potter HG et al., showed normal and fragmented tissues with collagen fibre structure, fibroblasts, and granulation tissue formation that contribute to the repair process of worn parts (3),(5),(6). Tissue changes, such as angiofibroblastic hyperplasia and the formation of thin gray tissue as replacement granulation tissue, are observed.

However, early stages of epicondylitis may exhibit symptoms resembling inflammation (3),(6),(7). Nirschl RP categorised secondary lesions as minor tendon soreness. In the case of lateral epicondylitis, there are four stages- inflammation (which can heal without pathological changes), angiofibroblastic degeneration, tendon transformation and tissue remodeling, and finally, changes in the fascia and the presence of calcium substances in the muscles (8).


Basic diagnosis is carried out by collecting information, patient history, and treatment history. The main symptoms reported by patients include pain in the lateral bone of the upper arm and the back of the forearm, which hampers their ability to play sports or engage in labour-intensive activities in daily life (8).

Physical Examination

Palpation begins by identifying the points on the lateral bone button and the tip of the elbow. The tender area is located on the lateral bone button at the ECRB, which leads to inflammation of the outer elbow ligaments. It is important to differentiate symptoms caused by Radial Tunnel Syndrome and to assess the head of the radial bone by pressing down on the lower area of the ECRB. To evaluate muscle appearance and normality, the hands are turned upside down and the elbows are extended. Cozen’s test, also known as the antifriction wrist surge test, is performed by setting the elbow at a 90° angle and asking the patient to perform the prescribed movement. A positive test result is indicated by pain in the lateral bone button area and the Extensor Digitorum Communis and ECRB muscles (9).

Another test, known as Mill’s test, involves the patient straightening their arms, bending their wrists, and extending their elbows. The lateral epicondyle button is palpated with one hand while the other hand holds the patient’s hand in an upside-down position, fully flexing their wrist and straightening their elbow. A positive test result is indicated by pain in the lateral bone button area (9).

Additional supplementary tests include X-ray imaging, which is useful for ruling out other disorders such as osteoarthritis, osteochondritis dissecans, and intra-articular free bodies. However, X-ray images typically show normal results in most patients, with calcium substances in the lateral bone button area (Table/Fig 2) found in only about 22% of patients [8,10]. Pomerance J, examined X-ray images of the elbow in 272 patients with lateral epicondylitis, and only 7% of the patients showed calcium on the lateral side of the elbow button (11). Therefore, the necessity and usefulness of X-ray examinations in the initial stages of lateral epicondylitis are controversial, as the results may vary depending on the examiner.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly common for evaluating and treating epicondylitis. Li X et al., used MRI to evaluate patients with chronic lateral elbow ligament pain and found that 50% of patients showed increased T2-characteristic visual effects (a photogenic characteristic of MRI indicating a pathological condition, about the cause of the disease) at the adhesion point of the Extensor Digitorum Communis (EDC) and ECRB tendon attachment site (12). Van Kollenburg JA et al., also found signs of increased T2-characteristic images at the EDC and ECRB (13). These changes were observed in the lateral bone button area as well. In a study involving 24 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, surgical treatment targeting specific areas characterised by MRI, including the ECRB muscle attachment site and the lateral epicondyle, resulted in improved symptoms. The authors concluded that MRI can help guide appropriate treatment or surgical intervention for patients with tennis elbow.

Differential Diagnosis

There are several conditions that can occur separately or in association with lateral epicondylitis. The most common condition is Radial Tunnel Syndrome. Other differential diagnoses include neck muscle pain, shoulder ligament pain, and joint abnormalities such as joint lining inflammation and intra-articular free bodies.

To differentiate tennis elbow from other conditions, it is important to consider the following factors. The location of pain: Tennis elbow specifically affects the outer part of the elbow, while other conditions may cause pain in different locations of the elbow or forearm. Tennis elbow is commonly associated with repetitive activities involving the forearm and wrist, such as tennis, golf, painting, or certain occupational activities. A history of repeated motions increases the likelihood of tennis elbow. Diagnostic imaging, such as X-rays or other imaging tests, may be used to rule out other potential causes of elbow pain, such as fractures or arthritis (14).

Non Surgical Treatment

Patients with lateral epicondylitis commonly experience painful symptoms. For individuals engaged in sports or activities involving movement around the elbow, appropriate treatment can enhance training and prevent elbow injuries. Sports such as tennis, golf, racket sports, badminton, swimming, weightlifting, and manual tasks that require frequent hand and arm use, like printing, are associated with elbow pain. Pain relief is crucial, and Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), cryotherapy, ultrasound, and laser therapy are potential options for alleviating pain caused by lateral epicondylitis, which is considered a degenerative process. A comparison between ultrasound treatment and placebo demonstrated no statistical difference in their effectiveness (14). Wearing an elbow brace can limit the expansion of the extensor muscle near the torso, reducing strain on the affected area. Biomechanical evidence supports the effectiveness of this approach (15). However, the splint method may not be very effective as it can cause pain when the patient resumes the same activity, except during the initial inflammatory stage (15).

In cases where oral therapy and physiotherapy have not improved the pain, corticosteroid injections are preferred. These injections administered near the bone button of the elbow, should be used cautiously as repeated administration may lead to side-effects such as cell death, tissue atrophy, and tendon injuries (Table/Fig 3) (16). Acute pain can be effectively managed with corticosteroid injections (17). However, the long-term effects of locally injectable corticosteroids are comparable to medium-term effects (17).

Butolinum toxin administration has been proposed as a novel treatment to promote tissue recovery in a stress-free environment. It temporarily paralyzes the extensor muscles by inhibiting acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that affects bodily functions (18). Studies have reported mixed results, with one indicating reduced pain after 16 weeks compared to a placebo (18), while another showed no significant differences (19). Butolinum toxin treatment has limitations and may cause muscle enlargement in the fingers and wrists.

After treatment, patients can engage in exercises to stretch and improve the range of motion of the wrists and elbows. Muscle spasm exercises involve briefly tensing a part of a muscle at full strength, while movement exercises help in muscle development. If there is no pain, the next stage of muscle development can be initiated using elbow knuckles to control muscle expansion. Patients can gradually return to athletic training or strenuous work if they can exercise without experiencing pain.

Shock wave therapy is another treatment option. However, studies have shown mixed results, with one study suggesting better effects with shorter follow-up durations (20),(21), while a literature review indicated relatively small benefits (22).

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is a liquid or bloody fluid containing a high concentration of blood platelets obtained through centrifugation, which separates platelets from the patient’s blood. PRP has been utilised for its potential benefits, including reducing inflammation, promoting new blood vessel formation, reducing fibrosis, enhancing collagen synthesis, and improving tissue conditioning (23). However, there has been some debate regarding the use of PRP in certain statistical studies. Arirachakaran A et al., conducted evidence-based research comparing the topical administration of PRP to corticosteroid administration for treating lateral epicondylitis. The study followed a group of 374 patients who were randomly assigned to receive either PRP or corticosteroids, and the results showed that the PRP group experienced less pain and achieved better recovery compared to the other group during the two-year follow-up (24).

Surgical Treatment

Surgical treatment is recommended for patients who have undergone proper rehabilitation for atleast nine months but continue to experience persistent pain that cannot be managed. Surgery may be considered when non surgical treatments have been administered three or more times without success or when the treatment limitations hinder the patient’s daily activities.

One commonly used open surgery technique, described and published by surgeon Nirschl RP based in Virginia, involves identifying and removing the degenerative tendon and cutting off that part, which may include the adhesion points of the EDC and the ECRB (25),(26), as shown in (Table/Fig 4). In 1979, Nirshl et al., (5) published an operative technique for the treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis, which involved excision of all visibly damaged parts in the area of the insertion of the ECRB muscle. The authors reported an improvement in 97.7% of the patients after surgery. The surgical incisions have become smaller, approximately 1.5 to 3 centimeters, and now only penetrate the side of the bone button instead of the top section (27). After surgery, the elbow is immobilised with a splint for seven days, followed by muscle spasm and elbow movement exercises. After three weeks, a splint is used in conjunction with controlled muscle movement. The splint should be worn for several months, including during daily activities. Gradual return to normal sports activities can begin around eight weeks post-surgery. Dunn JH et al., reported excellent results in 84% of the cases using this “small open surgery” technique on 92 patients. Their notable achievement was the long-term follow-up of atleast 10 years, which demonstrated the long-lasting effectiveness of their surgical techniques (27).

Complications of the Techniques

Like any surgical procedure, open surgery for lateral epicondylitis carries a risk of infection. This risk can be minimised by following strict sterile techniques, administering antibiotics before and after surgery, and maintaining cleanliness and dryness at the surgical site. During surgery, there is a risk of damaging the nerves in the area, which can lead to numbness, weakness, or loss of sensation in the affected arm or hand. The surgical incision will result in a noticeable scar, which may limit mobility in the affected joint. Proper wound closure and adherence to post-surgical care instructions can help minimise scarring. Pain is a common occurrence during and after surgery, but appropriate pain medication can be prescribed to manage discomfort.

Future Perspectives

Ongoing research is focused on developing new treatment options that aim to minimise pain and improve function through interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other non invasive approaches. In severe cases, surgical intervention may still be necessary, but advancements in minimally invasive procedures have led to improved outcomes and reduced recovery times. Additionally, emphasising prevention techniques, such as proper technique and equipment selection for activities that strain the elbow joint, can help reduce the incidence of lateral epicondylitis. With ongoing research and advancements in treatment options, the future of lateral epicondylitis looks promising (25).


Management of lateral epicondylitis involves a combination of non surgical and surgical approaches, depending on the severity of the condition. Non surgical treatment options include rest, NSAIDs, physical therapy, and activity modification. Additional treatments such as braces, corticosteroid injections, PRP treatment, and shockwave therapy may also be utilised. When non surgical treatments fail to alleviate symptoms, surgery may be considered. The most appropriate approach should be determined by the treating physician after a thorough evaluation of the patient’s condition. Early intervention is crucial in preventing the progression of lateral epicondylitis and its associated complications.


Runge F. Zur Ge^nese and behandlung des schreibekrampfes. (On the etiology and treatment of writer’s cramp). Berliner Klin Wchnschr. 1873;10:245-48.
Major HP. Lawn-tennis elbow. BMJ. 1883;2:557.
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Lenoir H, Mares O, Carlier Y. Management of lateral epicondylitis. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2019;105(8S):S241-46. [crossref][PubMed]
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Cohen M, da Rocha Motta Filho G. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. Rev Bras Ortop. 2015;47(4):414-20. Doi: 10.1016/S2255-4971(15)30121-X. PMID: 27047843; PMCID: PMC4799438. [crossref]
Jobe FW, Ciccotti MG. Lateral and medial epicondylitis of the elbow. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1994;2(1):01-08. [crossref][PubMed]
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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/64598.18341

Date of Submission: Apr 09, 2023
Date of Peer Review: Jun 06, 2023
Date of Acceptance: Aug 02, 2023
Date of Publishing: Sep 01, 2023

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? No
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Apr 13, 2023
• Manual Googling: Jun 23, 2023
• iThenticate Software: Jul 29, 2023 (8%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin


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