Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
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Dr. Arundhathi. S
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Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2023 | Month : February | Volume : 17 | Issue : 2 | Page : MC01 - MC04 Full Version

Audiological Assessment in Post COVID-19 Patients- A Cross-sectional Study

Published: February 1, 2023 | DOI:
Angela Grace Abraham, RB Namasivaya Navin, S Prabakaran, S Rajasekaran

1. Postgraduate, Department of ENT, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of ENT, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 3. Associate Professor, Department of ENT, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. 4. Head and Professor, Department of ENT, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. S Prabakaran,
3/286 Pachaiyappar Street, Periyar Salai, Palavakkam-600041, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.


Introduction: Hearing loss following a viral infection is a common entity. In recent studies, hearing loss has been seen among Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected patients, but its association is yet to be established.

Aim: To determine the presence of hearing loss and its type in patients after COVID-19 infection.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary health centre, Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, from October 2021 to April 2022. Total of 125 patients, who had a positive history of COVID-19 infection, were reviewed in the Otorhinolaryngology Department, one month after they were tested Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) positive. After obtaining proper clinical history and examination, Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) were done. Audiological report was assessed and analysed. Qualitative variables will be expressed in proportions and quantitative variables in Mean±SD/ Median (IQR), Chi- square test was applied.

Results: This study included 65 males (52%) and 60 females (48%), and the mean age was 38.44±10.9 years years. Among the 125 patients, 12 (9.6%) were diabetic, 14 (11.2%) were hypertensive, 5 (4%) had dyslipidaemia, 3 (2.4%) were hypothyroid, while remaining 91 patients (72.8%) had no co-morbidities. Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL) was found among 45 patients (34 with unilateral and 11 with bilateral involvement). Out of them, 2 (4.5%) (4.5%) were in the age group of 18-30 years, 19 (42.2%) in 31-45 years and 24 (53.3%) between 46-60 years age group. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hearing loss, 27 patients had mild sensorineural hearing loss, 12 patients with moderate, and 6 patients with moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss.

Conclusion: SNHL were found among patients who had COVID-19 infection, but due to the absence of a pre COVID-19 documented audiogram, it was difficult to conclude whether the hearing loss had occurred due to COVID-19, pre-existing hearing loss, or age-related. Further studies are required for proper understanding and correlation.


Coronavirus Disease 2019, Pure tone audiometry, Sensorineural hearing loss, Viral infections

Hearing is one of the sensory perceptions that can get affected due to various factors such as infective, inflammatory, traumatic, or neoplastic. Some may present as congenital or idiopathic. Viral infections is one such cause that is known to affect hearing. Viruses belonging to the Herpesviridae family (such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus), Paramyxoviridae (including measles virus, mumps virus, rubella virus), hepatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus have been known to affect the audiovestibular system. According to recent discoveries, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has been reported to cause hearing impairment among few populations (1).

Over the past two years, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been infecting populations worldwide. Initially it was considered an acute respiratory disease with symptoms such as fever, myalgia, cough, sore throat and dyspnoea, and later was found to affect the neurological system, cardiovascular system, and gastrointestinal system (2),(3). Unlike anosmia and dysgeusia which were the common symptoms experienced by certain people during the epidemic, hearing loss have also been reported in many cases. However, hearing loss related to (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still under discussion (3).

Hearing loss may be conductive, sensorineural, and mixed type. Conductive hearing loss in a viral infection occurs as a result of middle ear effusion. However, virally induced hearing loss most commonly presents as a sensorineural hearing loss. Mechanism of sensorineural hearing loss during viral infection remains unclear but certain theories have been postulated on either direct or indirect injury to the structures in the inner ear. An immune-mediated response can result in cytokine release, which further triggers an immune reaction, thereby damaging the inner ear structures. Ischaemic theory is another cause where there is a decrease in blood flow through the labyrinthine or cochlear artery leading to ischaemia and hearing loss (1),(2),(4). Umashankar A et al., defined sudden sensorineural hearing loss as a sensorineural hearing loss of 30 dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring over 72 hours. Unilateral presentation is seen more often but there are cases reported with bilateral involvement (5).

A recent meta-analysis reported a prevalence of 7.6% of hearing loss among patients with COVID-19 in association with audiovestibular symptoms (6). Age, gender, co-morbidities, smoking or alcohol consumption have been assessed to determine a correlation, but only few studies have found such an association (7),(8). Hence, this study aimed at assessing the hearing of post COVID-19 infected individuals, to evaluate the presence and type of hearing impairment and to find any association of hearing loss with age, gender or co-morbidities.

Material and Methods

Study design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, from October 2021 to April 2022. The Ethical Committee had approved the study vide letter number- IHEC – I/0014/ 21.

Sample size calculation: Kilic O et al., reported that 40% of the patients had hearing loss in right ear (9). Considering it as the prevalence, with 95% confidence interval, the allowable error of 9%, the sample size was calculated as,

n= Z2pq/ l2
n= (1.96)2×40×60/ (9)2 = 114

The sample size was 114. To account for a non response rate of 10% (11), 125 participants (250 ears) were included in this study.

Inclusion criteria: Patients who had COVID-19 infection, and had come for follow-up in the Department of General Medicine, one-month postinfection were asked to review in the Otorhinolaryngology Department for audiological assessment. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines (10), patients who were either asymptomatic or those who had the milder form of the illness were selected. A total of 125 patients were included, between the age group of 18-60 years.

Exclusion criteria:

1. Patients with pre-existing hearing loss based on the previous audiogram reportor those using hearing aids,
2. Patients with middle ear infections, tympanic membrane perforation that were identified by otoscopic examination,
3. Patients who are on long term ototoxic drugs, renal failure,
4. Industrial workers exposed to loud noise,
5. Patient who did not give consent for the study were excluded.


Patients were made aware about the purpose of the study and after obtaining informed consent, they were included in the study. Based on the proforma, a thorough history was procured along with a general and systemic examination. After a detailed otoscopic examination, serial tuning fork test was performed using a Gardiner Brown tuning fork followed by Pure tone audiometry (PTA). Pure tone thresholds were measured in both ears at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 Hz. Results from the audiometry testing were documented.


The collected data was entered in Microsoft excel and analysed with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 software version 21.0. Qualitative variables will be expressed in proportions and quantitative variables in Mean±SD/ Median (IQR). Chi-square test was applied to find the determinants of hearing loss, if observed. A p-value <0.05 was considered to be significant.


A total of 125 patients were selected for the study who were either asymptomatic or had a milder form of the illness. Among them, 65 were males (52%) and 60 were females (48%). There were 40 patients (32.0%) in the age group of 18-30 years, 53 patients (42.4%) in 31-45 years and 32 (25.6%) patients in 46-60 years age group. Among the 125 patients, 12 (9.6%) were diabetic, 14 (11.2%) were hypertensive, 5 (4%) had dyslipidaemia, 3 (2.4%) were hypothyroid, while remaining 91 patients (72.8%) had no co-morbidities (Table/Fig 1).

Among the 125 patients, 65 had history of hearing loss during the COVID-19 infection, of which 42 patients got relieved from the symptom after a few days. In this group, the hearing difficulty during COVID-19 infection had improved over time. Out of patients did not improve and the remaining 52 patients were completely cured. Other symptom such as aural fullness was seen among 4 patients, tinnitus in 1 patient and vertigo among 3 patients.

On an otoscopic examination, those who had ear cerumen was removed and tympanic membrane was visualised. Among them, 30 patients (24%) had a retracted tympanic membrane, while the remaining 95 (75%) had a normal tympanic membrane. Tuning fork test was done, where Rinne and Weber’s test was normal. For Absolute Bone Conduction test, 88 patients (70.4%) had normal, hearing while 37 patient (29.6%) had abnormal (Table/Fig 2).

Audiometric assessment with PTA was tested at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 Hz. Out of total, 45 45 patients (36%) showed SNHL of which 15 had the left ear affected and 19 having the right ear affected. Further 34 patients (27.2%) had unilateral SNHL, and 11 (8.8%) had bilateral. Remaining 80 patients (64%) have a normal PTA value. 27 (21.6%) had mild SNHL, 12 patients (9.6%) with moderate and 6 (4.8%) with moderately severe SNHL (Table/Fig 3). Impedance audiometry for all the candidates showed a type A tympanogram, indicating a normal eustachian tube function.

Total of 45 patients had SNHL, of which majority of the patients belonged to the age group of 46-60 years of age (53.3%) (p-value=0.001). No gender-based difference was there between those with/without SNHL. SNHL was present in 11 (24.5%) out of 12 diabetic patients, however 71 (88.6%) who had no co-morbidities were found to have normal hearing (p-value=0.001). Based on the severity of COVID-19 infection, 89 patients (71.2%) were asymptomatic, among them 78 (62.4%) had normal audiogram and 11 (8.8%) had sensorineural hearing loss. Out of 125, patients had mild COVID-19 infection, among them 2 (1.6%) had normal audiogram and 34 (27.2%) had SNHL (p-value=0.01) (Table/Fig 4).


Hearing loss can be associated with certain viral infections such as cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, herpes simplex virus, measles virus, varicella zoster virus, epstein bar virus, enterovirus, mumps virus, chikungunya virus, and human immune deficiency virus. COVID-19 infection was mainly identified as an acute respiratory disease, where the virus is transmitted through droplet infection spread to the oral, nasal, and eye mucous membrane. The incubation period is between 2- 14 days period. The virus colonises, and multiplies in the respiratory system, involving the nasopharynx, trachea, bronchi, and then lungs producing multiple symptoms. The virus then involves multiple organ systems of the body such as the gastrointestinal system, nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and renal system. Hearing loss following a COVID-19 infection may be conductive, or sudden sensorineural type, which is confirmed by audiological assessments.The cause of hearing loss may be due middle ear effusions or damage either at the level of peripheral or central auditory structures (5),(11).

The pathophysiology of hearing loss in COVID-19 infection is still under investigation, however, certain theories have been postulated by various authors. According to Umashankar A et al., damage in the hearing physiology can be explained in three ways (5). Due to the viral infection sequelae, the auditory center in the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 41,42) gets affected. There could be a thrombus or an embolus formation caused due to changes in the microvascular structures in the inner ear thereby suppressing the blood flow to the inner ear. Another reason could be due to multiorgan involvement or can occur as a direct peripheral injury to the sensory cells of the cochlear (2),(5). Chern A et al., reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with bilateral sudden SNHL, aural fullness and vertigo. She was later diagnosed as COVID-19 RT-PCR positive. On Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan, bilateral intralabyrinthine hemorrhage was seen and this could possibly explain the COVID-19 associated coagulopathy or direct viral insult of the cochlear nerve or labyrinth (12). Middle ear effusion is also commonly seen during a viral infection due to the ascending infection from the nasopharynx and resulting in a conductive hearing loss. As SARS-Cov-2 virus infects and multiplies within the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal mucosa, this can commonly result in a middle ear infection thereby explaining the cause of a conductive hearing loss during COVID-19 infection (1),(2),(4),(13).

Assessment of a post COVID-19 patient requires detailed history taking and a clear-cut examination. An otoscopic evaluation must be done before performing an audiometric testing. Tests such as Pure tone audiometry, and otoacoustic emission tests can be done which are feasible, convenient, and sensitive. Audiometry must be assessed by an audiologist in a soundproof room which will be helpful to rule out any hearing loss. PTA measured frequencies up to 8000 Hz. Conductive and sensorineural hearing loss with its decibel can be detected. Otoacoustic Emission (OAE) which is more sensitive to sensorineural hearing loss identifies the outer and inner hair cell functioning.To assess the middle ear functions, impedance audiometry is done (14),(15),(16).

The current study aimed to assess the association between COVID-19 infection and hearing loss. As per the results obtained, 45 patients presented had SNHL (11 with bilateral, 19 with right and 15 with left SNHL). Out of the 32 patients in the age group of 46-60 years, 24 patients were found to have SNHL. From the 31-45 years age group, 19 patients had SNHL. A greater number of patients in the age group of 45-60 years had SNHL, compared with the other age groups. Few patients who had no complaints of hearing loss were found to have mild SNHL. All the patients in the study had mild symptoms of COVID-19 infection or were asymptomatic. But the majority among the mildly symptomatic group showed hearing loss.

In a case series published by Dharmarajan S et al., 53 out of 100 COVID-19 positive patients had SNHL and the study asserted that high-frequency hearing loss and referred OAE were seen in the midst of a momentous number of patients who were COVID-19 positive (17). However, in a study conducted by Durgut O et al., the authors stated that they could not perceive the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on hearing thresholds among the 20 patients affected with mild COVID-19 disease (18). Yet, from our study, it can be concluded that there is a possibility of SNHL associated with COVID-19 infection. Since the patients were not tested before or during the time of infection, hearing status prior to COVID-19 remains unclear. However, postinfection, we can assess whether hearing loss is persistent compared to other symptoms of COVID-19 such as anosmia or dysgeusia, which usually tends to settle once the infection has subsided. It cannot be substantiated that this hearing loss is due to COVID-19, as we are unaware of the patient’s previous hearing thresholds. Since sensorineural hearing loss was seen more among patients in the 46-60 years age group, that indicates age may be associated with the hearing loss along with COVID-19 infection. However, more and detailed studies are needed to draw such conclusions.


If the audiological report prior and during the COVID-19 infection was available, that would have provided a clear idea whether the hearing loss has occurred due to the infection.Also, if follow-up audiometric testing were done, we could have found whether the hearing loss was reversible or irreversible. The drawback of this study is that only a COVID-19 audiological assessment could have been obtained without knowing the initial hearing status of the patient.


Association between COVID-19 and hearing loss requires a detailed evaluation which should include the previous hearing assessment of a patient, during the infection and postinfection follow-up. In the current study, sensorineural hearing loss was seen among 36% of the study population, whereas majority of them had mild symptoms during the active infection and belonged to 46-60 years of age group. Since we have only the post COVID-19 PTA report, we cannot justify that there is a 100% correlation between these two but can conclude that there may be an association along with the age factor.


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DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2022/58007.17391

Date of Submission: May 25, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jun 21, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Jul 21, 2022
Date of Publishing: Feb 01, 2023

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

• Plagiarism X-checker: May 31, 2022
• Manual Googling: Jul 16, 2022
• iThenticate Software: Jul 19, 2022 (8%)

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