Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 92954

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2023 | Month : June | Volume : 17 | Issue : 6 | Page : ED01 - ED03 Full Version

Granulomatous Appendicitis- A Rare Case Report


Published: June 1, 2023 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2023/60522.18077
Suyash Rastogi, Usha Muniyappa

1. Postgraduate Student, Department of Pathology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr Usha Muniyappa,
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, MS Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru-560054, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: usharavihitha@gmail.com

Abstract

In 1953, Meyerding and Bertram were the first individuals to report non-specific granulomatous inflammation in the appendix. Granulomatous appendicitis is a rare condition, accounting for less than 2% of cases. However, idiopathic granulomatous appendicitis is very rare, and diagnosis is usually made by excluding all other conditions. It is challenging to diagnose tuberculous appendicitis based on clinical findings, hence histopathological examination is required. Hereby, authors report a case of 26-year-old male who presented with pain abdomen in the Department of Surgery. On imaging, appendix was thickened, and acute appendicitis was considered as a probable diagnosis. On histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation suggestive of tuberculosis. The present case is presented for its rarity as appendicitis is considered as an abdominal emergency, so prompt management and diagnosis is required by excluding all other causes of granulomatous inflammation in appendix.

Keywords

Appendiceal granulomas, Appendix, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Case Report

A 26-year-old male presented to the outpatient department with intermittent pain abdomen and pain in scrotal region for two months. Pain was colicky in nature and associated with vomiting and fever. On examination, patient was febrile and showed marked tenderness in the right iliac fossa with all his vitals within normal limits. On his initial work-up pulse rate was 80 bpm, Blood Pressure (BP) 120/70 mmHg, SpO2 99% on room air, however his leukocyte counts and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) were raised to 14800 cells/cumm and 62 mm/hr, respectively. Computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis showed retrocaecal and thickened appendix with periappendiceal stranding of fat. Since, he was having pain in the scrotal region, high resolution ultrasound and doppler of scrotum was done which showed no significant abnormality (Table/Fig 1). Radiating pain to scrotum has many differential diagnoses in adult patients such as testicular torsion and infections (epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis). With history, physical examination and ultrasound, testicular torsion and infections were ruled out, since the pain was colicky in nature. Inflammatory bowel disease also was not considered as provisional clinical diagnosis, hence the probable diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made. Radiating pain to scrotum in case of acute appendicitis is a diagnostic feature. Patient was taken for surgery and underwent interval laproscopic appendicectomy under general anaesthesia. Consent was taken before surgery. In intraoperative period, retrocaecal appendix was seen with adhesions. Postoperative period was uneventful. The authors received appendicectomy specimen in in 10% buffered formalin with periappendiceal fat measuring 4 cm in length. On external surface, serosa appeared dull and congested (Table/Fig 2). On cut surface, lumen was identified and mucosa appeared hyperemic. Few fecaliths were also seen. Tissue sections were processed and the slides were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Histopathological examination of the appendix showed ulcerated appendiceal mucosa with hyperplastic lymphoid follicles in lamina propria. Multiple transmural granulomas with caseous necrosis were seen composed of epithelioid cells, langhans and foreign body giant cells surrounded by cuff of lymphocytes (Table/Fig 3),(Table/Fig 4),(Table/Fig 5). Based on histopathological findings, inflammatory bowel disease and Tuberculosis (TB) appendicitis was considered as differential diagnosis, however cryptitis, crypt abscess and basal plasmacytosis was not seen in the sections studied. Patient was examined for primary source of TB and advised for colonoscopy to rule out Crohn’s disease, however colonoscopy was unremarkable. Three consecutive early morning sputum samples were taken, which came out negative for acid fast bacilli. There was no family history of TB. Patient was started on standard anti-TB drugs, course similar to pulmonary TB.

Discussion

Granulomatous appendicitis is a very rare entity and poorly understood with range of occurrence of appendiceal granulomas from 0.1% to 2%. Granulomatous inflammation is a morphological pattern of chronic inflammation where immune system attempts to isolate foreign substances that it is otherwise not able to eliminate (1),(2). Epitheloid granulomas are usually associated with systemic granulomatous conditions and certain infections. These granulomas are known to occur in gastrointestinal tract. In under-developed countries, there is higher incidence of these granulomas which is often associated with TB (3). In extrapulmonary TB, appendicular TB has been considered as a rare form of TB, and it is usually seen secondary to infections elsewhere in the abdomen. Appendix is involved in about 1% of the case, however ileocaecum area is involved in over 40% of cases of abdominal TB (4),(5). Tubercular appendicitis is a rare manifestation, with occasional case reports in literature. It was first recognised by Corbin in 1873 (6),(7).

TB is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. India accounts for one-fifth of the global TB incident cases (8). Even though appendix is situated close to ileocaecal region, its involvement is rare. Primary TB of the appendix presenting as appendicular abscess is even rarer with incidence of 0.1-0.6% (9). In recent studies, Shah RC et al., reported 10 cases of tubercular appendicitis over a period of 10 years (10). In a study done by Gupta AK et al., on 2921 appendectomies specimens, only 2.3% (67) of cases were tubercular appendicitis (11). Some authors, including Scott and James, suggest that in their experience appendicular TB is practically always associated with the same infection in the caecum, whereas most observers are familiar with ileocecal or intestinal TB being frequently found with no involvement 2of the appendix suggesting that the latter is usually secondarily affected (4).

Mittal VK et al., reported that tuberculous infection of the appendix might result not only from contiguity to a neighboring lesion due to the minimal contact of the luminal mucosa of the appendix with the intestinal contents but also by either the obvious hematogenous route from a distant focus, such as a pulmonary or bronchial lymph node, or by the infected contents of the intestinal tract (12).

Most of the cases of granulomatous appendicitis are idiopathic and remained unexplained; however, there are several causes which can be accounted for granulomatous inflammation in appendix. Recent studies suggested that majority of idiopathic appendiceal granulomas happens due to either infection with Yersinia (25%) or as a result of interval appendicectomy (55%). In our case, interval appendicectomy was performed which could have resulted in granulomatous inflammation of appendix. The other conditions which lead to this condition were explained by unusual causes, for example, foreign body, sarcoidosis, and infection (10%). However, only 5-10% were related to Crohn’s disease. These findings suggest that truly idiopathic appendiceal granulomas are indeed extremely rare (1),(14).

Symptoms of the disease are commonly non specific, hence presumptive diagnosis is really difficult to make. In our case report, patient was not having preoperative diagnosis of TB. Radiologic and laboratory findings of appendicular TB are often non specific, whereas histopathological examination shows caseating granuloma associated with lymphoid hyperplasia (4). In their practice, of 2.5 years, the authors reported one case of granulomatous appendicitis, which is similar to the studies done by Ambekar S and Bhatia M and Pal S et al., (15),(16).

Conclusion

Granulomatous appendicitis is a rare disease and an incidental finding. It is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen and seen more commonly in young adult males. It is advisable to carry out careful sampling and serial sectioning of the appendix, once appendiceal granulomas are histologically recognised. Systemic and infectious causes of granulomatous inflammation of the appendix must be excluded with appropriate investigations prior to a diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous appendicitis.

References

1.
Abdull Gaffar B. Granulomatous diseases and granulomas of the appendix. Int J Surg Pathol. 2010;18(1):14-20. [crossref][PubMed]
2.
Colucci N, Meyer J, Puppa G, Toso C. Granulomatous appendicitis: A perioperative challenge. BMJ Case Rep. 2020;13(10):e238955. [crossref][PubMed]
3.
Abedalqader T, Bakir M, AlJohani F, Altahan T, Amer SM, Almustanyir S. Acute abdomen secondary to granulomatous appendicitis: A rare case of complicated appendicitis. Cureus. 2022;14(3):e23247. [crossref][PubMed]
4.
Rabbani K, Narjis Y, Difaa A, Louzi A, Benelkhaiat R, Finech B. Tuberculous appendicitis. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(4):287-88. [crossref][PubMed]
5.
Rasheed S, Zinicola R, Watson D, Bajwa A, McDonald PJ. Intra-abdominal and gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Colorectal Dis. 2007;9(9):773-83. [crossref][PubMed]
6.
Sharath Chandra BJ, Girish TU, Thrishuli PB, Vinay HG. Primary tuberculosis of the appendix: A rare cause of a common disease. J Surg Tech Case Rep. 2013;5(1):32-34. [crossref][PubMed]
7.
Scott JR. Tuberculosis of the appendix. Ann Surg. 1917;66(6):648-53. [crossref][PubMed]
8.
Sathiyamoorthy R, Kalaivani M, Aggarwal P, Gupta SK. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lung India. 2020;37(1):45-52. [crossref][PubMed]
9.
Bobrow ML, Friedman S. Tuberculous appendicitis. Am J Surg. 1956;91(3):389-93. [crossref][PubMed]
10.
Shah RC, Mehta KN, Jalunhwala JM. Tuberculosis of the appendix. J Ind Med Assoc. 1967;49:138-40.
11.
Gupta AK, Gupta SC, Keswani NK, Singh PA, Tripathi AK, Krishna V. Pathology of tropical appendicitis. J Clin Pathol. 1989;42:1169-72. [crossref][PubMed]
12.
Mittal VK, Khanna SK, Gupta NM, Aikat M. Isolated tuberculosis of appendix. Am Surg. 1975;41(3):172-74.
13.
Najafizadeh-Sari S, Mehdizadeh H, Bagheri-Baghdasht MS, Manoochehry S. Suppurative appendicitis presenting acute scrotal pain: A rare condition may confuse surgeons. J Surg Case Rep. 2017;2017(10):rjx215. [crossref][PubMed]
14.
Otsuka R, Shinoto K, Okazaki Y, Sato K, Hirano A, Isozaki T, et al. Crohn’s disease presenting as granulomatous appendicitis. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2019;13(3):398-402.[crossref][PubMed]
15.
Ambekar S, Bhatia M. Appendicular tuberculosis: A less encountered clinical entity. BMJ Case Rep. 2021;14(2):e237718. [crossref][PubMed]
16.
Pal S, Bose K, Chowdhury M, Sikder M. Tuberculous appendicitis: A rare case report. Chrismed J Health Res. 2016;3:144-46.[crossref]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/60522.18077

Date of Submission: Oct 02, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Dec 14, 2022
Date of Acceptance: Mar 16, 2023
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2023

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Dec 13, 2022
• Manual Googling: Feb 21, 2023
• iThenticate Software: Mar 15, 2023 (18%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

EMENDATIONS: 9

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com