Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 79580

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2023 | Month : June | Volume : 17 | Issue : 6 | Page : ZC29 - ZC32 Full Version

Antimicrobial and Mechanical Properties of GIC Incorporated with Silver Vanadate Nanoparticles: An In-vitro Study


Published: June 1, 2023 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2023/62448.18074
Yalamanchili Pooja, Penmatsa Chaitanya, C Vinay, KS Uloopi, Rama Krishna Alla, Penmetsa Ahalya

1. Ex-Resident, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 3. Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 4. Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 5. Associate Professor, Department of Dental Materials, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. 6. Reader, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Penmatsa Chaitanya,
Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Vishnu Dental College, Vishnupur, Bhimavaram-534202, Andhra Pradesh, India.
E-mail: chaitanyap@vdc.edu.in

Abstract

Introduction: Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) is a widely used restorative material, but its antibacterial property is not sustained overtime. The addition of nanosized silver vanadate (AgVO3) is an attempt to enhance the antibacterial property of GIC without affecting its mechanical properties.

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial property, Flexural Strength (FS) and Surface Micro Hardness (SMH) of GIC added with silver vanadate (AgVO3) nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: This in-vitro study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, India from June 2020 to July 2021. The AgVO3 nanoparticles were proportionally added to Type II GIC (Group 1) powder at the concentrations of 0.5% (Group 2), 1.0% (Group 3) and 2.0% w/w (Group 4). A total of 56 specimens were prepared to evaluate the test parameters. Antimicrobial property was evaluated using disk diffusion method. FS was determined using a universal testing machine and SMH using Vicker’s Microhardness (VHN) tester. The obtained data was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey’s test and unpaired t-test.

Results: The GIC with AgVO3 nanoparticles exhibited higher antimicrobial property compared to unmodified GIC (Group 1). Group 4 exhibited highest antimicrobial property, followed by Group 3 and Group 2. Group 4 exhibited highest FS with a mean value of 26.90 MPa (p=0.002) and SMH with a mean value of 61.29 VHN (p=0.001) than Group 1.

Conclusion: Addition of 2.0% w/w AgVo3 nanoparticles to Type II GIC shown to have higher antibacterial property, and also displayed higher FS and SMH.

Keywords

Flexural strength, Glass ionomer cement, Microhardness, Nanosized

Restorative care in children and adolescents is constantly evolving. In the 1950s and early 1960s, silicate cement was the tooth-coloured restorative material available. It has beneficial properties attributed to the presence of fluoride in silicate cement powder. However, these cements were replaced with GIC over a period of time due to their high acidic nature, high solubility in oral fluids, poor mechanical properties, discolouration with time and no proper adhesive bond between the tooth and restoration (1).

The GIC is a widely used tooth coloured restorative material in paediatric dentistry as it chemically bonds to the hard tissues, leaches out fluoride ions and has anticariogenic property [1,2]. However, some properties of GIC limit its extensive use as a restorative material. It is shown to have weak mechanical and physical properties including low fracture strength and hardness, reduced wear resistance and opaqueness. In order to improve the mechanical, physical and chemical properties, GICs are subjected to many modifications since it’s introduction (1).

The use of nanotechnology has attracted significant attention in recent years in the field of dentistry. The use of nanosized particles in dental materials was found to improve the functional and structural properties; while optimising the clinical and aesthetic attributes of the material (2). The addition of silver, titanium dioxide (3) and gallocatechin-3-gallate nanoparticles (4) to GIC was shown to have improved antimicrobial properties with varying physical and mechanical properties.

Vanadium is one of the hardest metals and has good resistance to corrosion. Vanadium added to silver is proven to be biocompatible and antimicrobial, which is used in making implantable devices like cardioverter defibrillators, neurotransmitters, Artificial External Defibrillators (AEDs) and drug infusion devices in the medical field. Modification of vanadium oxide nanostructures with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has biomedical applications (5). The incorporation of AgVO3 in acrylic dentures promoted antimicrobial activity without altering mechanical properties (6). Its addition to endodontic sealers was found to have an increased antimicrobial effect without major changes in physico-chemical properties (7).

Considering its beneficial effects, this study was formulated to incorporate AgVO3 nanoparticles into Type II GIC to improve the antimicrobial property. The literature search did not reveal such efforts being done earlier, and also its influence on the mechanical properties of the cement. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and mechanical properties of GIC added with AgVO3 nanoparticles. The null hypothesis was that there will be no effect on antimicrobial property, FS, and SMH of GIC incorporated with AgVO3 nanoparticles.

Material and Methods

This in-vitro study was performed in the Department of Pedodontics at Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, India during the time period between June 2020 to July 2021. The study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee (IEVDC/19/PG01/PPD/IVT/39).

Sample size calculation: Considering the methodology and results of the study conducted by Jowkar Z et al., (2019) (8). Using G*Power 3.1.9.2 software for power analysis indicated that the authors required a total of 56 samples. The number of samples to evaluate antimicrobial property was 28, and 14 samples each to test FS and SMH.

Study Procedure

Preparation of samples: Incorporation of AgVO3 into resins in the earlier studies have shown that FS was decreased with increase in the concentration of AgVO3 nanoparticles with no change in SMH.

Also, as increase in percentage of AgVO3 cause agglomeration of nanoparticles, the maximum concentration of AgVO3 nanoparticles in the present study was limited to 2% (6). A 4 mg, 8 mg and 16 mg of AgVO3 nanoparticles (Nano Elements sub-branch of Sigma Aldrich, Germany) was added to 1.8 g of GIC (GC Type II cement, Tokyo, Japan) powder, to obtain 0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w concentration AgVO3 nanoparticles, respectively [6,9]. The modified GIC was manipulated following the manufacturer’s instructions and transferred into spherical glass moulds of 10 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness and rectangular glass moulds of 25x2x2 mm dimension, and covered with a thin glass slide on either side. After initial setting of four minutes, specimens were removed from the mould. Finishing and polishing was carried out using 400, 600, 1200 grit sand paper. The specimens were then stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours.

Antimicrobial property: The antimicrobial property was evaluated using disk diffusion in a direct contact method. Unmodified GIC (Type II GIC) served as a control group and considered as

Group 1: Twenty-eight spherical disks of GIC (10 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness),
Group 2: Seven samples of each concentration of AgVO3 nanoparticles were prepared and grouped as Group 2 (GIC with 0.5% w/w AgVO3),
Group 3: GIC with 1.0% w/w AgVO3 and
Group 4: GIC with 2.0% w/w AgVO3. The specimens were placed in a hot air oven at 60°C for one hour to remove moisture. The mutans strain obtained from lawn culture was stored in Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) and then transferred to the solidified agar petriplates by pour plate method. The disks were placed in petriplates, incubated at 37°C and examined for the zone of inhibition around the disks after 48 hours (Table/Fig 1). These zones were measured with digital Vernier callipers (Mitutoyo, absolute company) of 0.001 accuracy. Since addition of 2.0% w/w AgVO3 showed the highest antimicrobial efficiency, only this concentration was used to evaluate the FS and SMH (7),(10).

Flexural Strength (FS): The FS was measured using a 3-point bending test on a computerised universal testing machine (Instron 8801, United Kingdom) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. A total of 14 rectangular specimens measuring 25×2×2 mm dimension were prepared, 7 samples of GIC with 2.0% w/w AgVO3 nanoparticles (Group 4) and seven samples of unmodified GIC (Group 1). The test specimen was mounted, and the load was applied until the specimen fractured, and the FS was computed in units of Megapascal (MPa) (8).

Surface Micro-Hardness (SMH): The evaluation of SMH was done using Vickers’s micro-hardness tester (Daksh Quality Systems Pvt., Ltd., India) with a diamond indenter at 25 gm load for 15 seconds dwelling time. Fourteen spherical specimens of 10 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness, seven made of unmodified GIC (Group 1) and seven from 2.0% w/w AgVO3 nanoparticles (Group 4) were prepared to evaluate SMH. A total of five indentations were made at different points for each specimen, and the mean hardness values of these five indentations were measured as VHN (10).

Statistical Analysis

The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA as the data sets were normally distributed between the groups. An unpaired t-test was used to compare the data between the two groups for FS and SMH. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Antimicrobial property: The mean values of inhibition zones (mm) between the groups are given in (Table/Fig 2). The modified groups exhibited higher antimicrobial activity compared to the unmodified group. Group 4 (2.0% w/w AgVO3) exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity (27.70±1.14 mm) followed by Group 3 (24.39±0.75 mm) and Group 2 (20.50±1.33 mm). Group 1 (unmodified GIC) exhibited the least antimicrobial property with a mean zone of inhibition of 15.98±1.11 mm. One-way ANOVA showed a significant difference (p=0.001) between the groups (Table/Fig 2). On pair-wise comparison, a highly significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in the formation of inhibition zones (mm) between all the groups (Table/Fig 3).

Flexural Strength (FS): GIC added with 2.0% w/w AgVO3 nanoparticles (Group 4) exhibited higher FS with a mean of 47.72±10.12 MPa than the unmodified GIC (Group 1). A statistically significant difference (p=0.002) in mean FS was observed between the two groups (Table/Fig 4).

Surface Microhardness (SMH): GIC added with 2.0% w/w AgVO3 nanoparticles (Group 4) exhibited higher SMH with a mean of 61.29±2.59 VHN than the unmodified GIC (Group 1), and showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.001) in SMH between the two groups (Table/Fig 5).

Discussion

In the current study, it was observed that GIC incorporated with AgVO3 nanoparticles exhibited higher antimicrobial property and increased mechanical properties compared to conventional GIC. Ionomer cements are known to have anticariogenic activity due to the release of fluoride ions. However, the occurrence of secondary caries has been reported due to their poor physical properties. Further, the fluoride release property is not sustained over time and not potent enough to inhibit bacteria (1).

Hence, various additives were proposed to enhance the antibacterial property of GICs. Understanding the effect of antibacterial additives on the physical and mechanical properties of GICs is critical. Not all additives to glass ionomer powder have resulted in the desired effects. Addition of theobromine (11), polymers (2-methacryloxytroponones, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), sodium fusiadate, triclosan, furanone, poly quaternary ammonium salts) [3,12], metals (Zinc, strontium, bioglass) (12), natural products (propolis (13), Salvadora persica (miswak) (14), trialpha (13), curcuma (15), chitosan (16)), chlorhexidine and its derivatives (CHX acetate, CHX gluconate, CHX hydrochloride) (17) were found to improve antibacterial activities of GICs.

Nano-materials involve the use of 1-100 nm size particles (18). The use of such nanosized particles is found to have beneficial effects on the properties of dental materials due to the increase in surface area and surface energy, along with better particle distribution. Inclusion of TiO2, ZnO, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the GIC was shown to improve mechanical properties along with anticariogenic properties. The addition of stainless-steel nano-powder to GIC showed improved mechanical properties (19). Although addition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to GIC exhibited improved antimicrobial properties, agglomeration of silver nanoparticles was a common problem. To overcome this, silver vanadate (AgVO3) nanoparticles were developed. AgVO3 functions as a carrier of AgNPs and reduces the loss of AgNPs from leaching (6). AgVO3 also promotes a high dispersion of silver nanoparticles providing a large surface area to pathogenic microorganisms and thus showing a greater effect and higher duration of antimicrobial action (20).

It was evident from this study that antimicrobial activity was directly proportional to the amount of AgVO3 nanoparticles added. GIC with 2.0% w/w of AgVO3 nanoparticles showed the highest antimicrobial activity followed by 1.0% w/w AgVO3 and the lowest with 0.5%. Since the modified GIC samples with AgVO3 showed the higher antibacterial property, it is affirmative to mention that, both fluoride release and silver must have contributed to antimicrobial activity (19). The release of fluoride ions inhibits plaque formation and inhibits metabolism and microbial growth (21). The other possible reasons include structural damage to bacteria by oxygen free radicals produced by silver, replication of bacterial DNA by active silver ions and other phosphorus contains compounds (22). Direct contact with the higher concentration of silver particles may cause lysis of the cell wall (23).

Many modifications in the composition of GIC powder have been done, to improve its mechanical properties. The use of dispersed components such as titanium oxide and zirconium oxide in glass powder, ‘miracle mix’ produced by adding silver alloy powder to GIC, ‘cermet ionomer’ produced by sintering metal and glass powder in GIC are some of the modifications (1). However, not all modifications of GIC produced beneficial results. Inclusion of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5), ytterbium fluoride (YbF3) and Barium Sulfate (BaSO4) to GIC have shown to reduce the mechanical properties of GIC, while Bioactive Glass (BAG) have shown to improve the mechanical properties of GIC (1). Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) further had enhanced physical and mechanical properties (24). No alteration in the mechanical properties of GIC was observed on addition of fillers like hydroxyapatite and zirconia powder, zinc [22,23].

The GIC powder particles’ size, density and entrapped voids could influence the mechanical properties of the cement. Smaller size filler particles occupy more of the empty spaces between glass ionomer particles resulting in higher mechanical properties (1),(25). However, a reduction in the mechanical properties of the cement was observed due to the addition of a higher concentration of nanoparticles. It could be due to improper wetting of the matrix and filler bond, overcrowding of filler particles as well as a high powder/liquid ratio leading to a dry mix (19). The samples with a higher concentration of AgVO3 in the current study displayed higher FS and SMH along with greater antibacterial activity. Greater packing of particles within the set cement matrix may justify the improvement of the FS. Also, during the gelation state, AgVO3 nanoparticles along with the unreacted glass particles could occupy the voids in polymer matrix and thus enhance the mechanical properties (26).

The SMH is the resistance of a material to indentation or penetration. In the earlier study conducted by Castro de DT et al., it was observed that there was no change in SMH of resins observed on addition of AgVO3 nanoparticles in varying concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10) (9). However, FS decreased with addition of greater than 1% of AgVO3. The lower concentration of AgVO3 in acrylic resins may be ideal to obtain the mechanical properties, but not to promote antimicrobial activity. The addition of higher concentrations of AgVO3 was shown to enhance antimicrobial activity, maintaining the same values of SMH (9). Other studies stated that addition of 0.1% and 0.2% (w/w) Silver nanoparticles (8) and 3% (w/w) TiO2 nanoparticles (10) to GIC showed a significant increase in the surface hardness.

In the current study, similar to FS, GIC added with 2.0% w/w AgVO3 showed the highest SMH (61VHN) than Type II GIC Group 1 (49VHN). Both the SMH and FS are based on the duration of the setting, which depends on the formation of base/polyacid complexes that block the cross-reactions between cationic ions and polyacrylic chains. The improved microhardness can lead to increased FS, thus improving the mechanical properties of the GIC (26).

Limitation(s)

The proportionate adding of AgVO3 nanoparticles to the GIC powder, handling of GIC, and the preparation of the samples were done under normal room conditions which could be one of the limitations of the present study.

Conclusion

Type II GIC added with AgVO3 nanoparticles exhibited superior antibacterial and mechanical properties compared to unmodified one. Samples with 2.0% w/w AgVO3 displayed higher antibacterial activity, FS and SMH compared to the other concentrations studied. GIC with sustained antibacterial activity and improved mechanical and physical properties is desirable in paediatric restorative dental practice. The addition of AgVO3 nanoparticles resulted in improved properties of GIC. However, before its clinical use, such a modification should be tested in-vitro for biocompatibility and other physical and mechanical properties.

References

1.
Moshaverinia A, Schricker S. A review of powder modifications in conventional glass-ionomer dental cements. J Mater Chem. 2011;21:1319-28. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/C0JM02309D. [crossref]
2.
Najeeb S, Khurshid Z, Zafar MS, Khan AS, Zohaib S, Martí JM, et al. Modifications in glass ionomer cements: Nano-sized fillers and bioactive nanoceramics. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(7):1134. [crossref][PubMed]
3.
El-Negoly SA, El-Fallal AA, El-Sherbiny IM. A new modification for improving shear bond strength and other mechanical properties of conventional glass-ionomer restorative materials. J Adhes Dent. 2014;1(1):41-47.
4.
Hu J, Du X, Huang C, Fu D, Ouyang X, Wang Y. Antibacterial and physical properties of EGCG-containing glass ionomer cements. J Dent. 2013;41(10):927-34. [crossref][PubMed]
5.
Agrawal S, Bhatt M, Rai SK, Bhatt A, Dangwal P, Agrawal PK. Silver nanoparticles and its potential applications: A review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2018;7(2):930-37.
6.
Kreve S, Oliveira VC, Bachmann L, Alves OL, Reis ACD. Influence of AgVO3 incorporation on antimicrobial properties, hardness, roughness and adhesion of a soft denture liner. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):11889. [crossref][PubMed]
7.
Teixeira ABV, Vidal CL, de Castro DT, de Oliveira-Santos C, Schiavon MA, Dos Reis AC. Incorporating antimicrobial nanomaterial and its effect on the antimicrobial activity, flow and radiopacity of endodontic sealers. Eur Endod J. 2017;2(1):01-06.[crossref]
8.
Jowkar Z, Jowkar M, Shafiei F. Mechanical and dentin bond strength properties of the nanosilver enriched glass ionomer cement. J Clin Exp Dent. 2019;113(3):e275-81. [crossref][PubMed]
9.
Castro de DT, Valente ML, da Silva CH, Watanabe E, Siqueira RL, Schiavon MA, et al. Evaluation of antibiofilm and mechanical properties of new nanocomposites based on acrylic resins and silver vanadate nanoparticles. Arch Oral Biol. 2016;67:46-53. Doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.03.002. Epub 2016 Mar 16. [crossref][PubMed]
10.
Garcia-Contreras R, Scougall-Vilchis RJ, Contreras-Bulnes R, Sakagami H, Morales-Luckie RA, Nakajima H. Mechanical, antibacterial and bond strength properties of nano-titanium-enriched glass ionomer cement. J Appl Oral Sci. 2015;23(3):321-28. [crossref][PubMed]
11.
Cevallos González FM, Dos Santos Araújo EM, Lorenzetti Simionato MR, Kfouri Siriani L, Armas Vega ADC, Studart Medeiros I, et al. Effects of theobromine addition on chemical and mechanical properties of a conventional glass ionomer cement. Prog Biomater. 2019;8(1):23-29. [crossref][PubMed]
12.
Hafshejani TM, Zamanian A, Venugopal JR, Rezvani Z, Sefat F, Saeb MR, et al. Antibacterial glass-ionomer cement restorative materials: A critical review on the current status of extended release formulations. J Control Release. 2018;262(1):317-28. [crossref][PubMed]
13.
Paulraj J, Nagar P. Antimicrobial efficacy of Triphala and propolis-modified glass ionomer cement: An in-vitro study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2020;13(5):457-62. [crossref][PubMed]
14.
El-Tatari A, de Soet JJ, de Gee AJ, Abou Shelib M, van Amerongen WE. Influence of Salvadora persica (miswak) extract on physical and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cement. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2011;12(1):22-25. [crossref][PubMed]
15.
Prabhakar AR, Yavagal Chandrashekar M, Karuna YM, Mythri P. Effect of turmeric incorporation on fluoride release, antibacterial activity and physical properties of glass ionomer cement. An in-vitro comparative study. IJAM. 2014;5(1):91-101.
16.
Mishra A, Pandey RK, Manickam N. Antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine-cetrimide-modified glass ionomer cements. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2017;35(1):28-33. [crossref][PubMed]
17.
Marti LM, da Mata M, Ferraz-Santos B, Azevedo ER, Giro EMA, Zuanon ACC. Addition of chlorhexidine gluconate to a glass ionomer cement: A study on mechanical, physical and antibacterial properties. Braz Dent J. 2014;25(1):33-37. [crossref][PubMed]
18.
Moheet IA, Luddin N, Rahman IA, Kannan TP, Nik Abd Ghani NR, Masudi SM. Modifications of glass ionomer cement powder by addition of recently fabricated nano-fillers and their effect on the properties: A review. Eur J Dent. 2019;13(3):470-77. [crossref][PubMed]
19.
Mohamed Hamouda I. Current perspectives of nanoparticles in medical and dental biomaterials. J Biomed Res. 2012;26(3):143-51. [crossref][PubMed]
20.
Bruna T, Maldonado-Bravo F, Jara P, Caro N. Silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial applications. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(13):7202. [crossref][PubMed]
21.
Marquis RE. Antimicrobial actions of fluoride for oral bacteria. Can J Microbiol. 1995;41(11):955-64. Doi: 10.1139/m95-133. PMID: 7497353. [crossref][PubMed]
22.
Wang L, Hu C, Shao L. The antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles: Present situation and prospects for the future. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:1227-49. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S121956. [crossref][PubMed]
23.
Yin IX, Zhang J, Zhao IS, Mei ML, Li Q, Chu CH. The antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles and its application in dentistry. Int J Nanomedicine. 2020;15:2555-62. Doi: 10.2147/IJN.S246764. eCollection 2020. [crossref][PubMed]
24.
Xie D, Wu W, Puckett A, Farmer B, Mays JW. Novel resin modified glass-ionomer cements with improved flexural strength and ease of handling. Eur Polym J. 2004;40(2):343-51. [crossref]
25.
Lyapina MG, Tzekova M, Dencheva M, Krasteva A, Yaneva-Deliverska M, Kisselova A. Nano- glass-ionomer cements in modern restorative dentistry. J of IMAB. 2016;22(2):1160-65. [crossref]
26.
Abed FM, Kotha SB, AlShukairi H, Almotawah FN, Alabdulaly RA, Mallineni SK. Effect of different concentrations of silver nanoparticles on the quality of the chemical bond of glass ionomer cement dentine in primary teeth. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022;10:816652. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.816652.[crossref][PubMed]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2023/62448.18074

Date of Submission: Dec 23, 2022
Date of Peer Review: Jan 11, 2023
Date of Acceptance: Feb 11, 2023
Date of Publishing: Jun 01, 2023

AUTHOR DECLARATION:
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? NA
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA

PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Dec 24, 2022
• Manual Googling: Jan 20, 2023
• iThenticate Software: Feb 02, 2023 (13%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin

EMENDATIONS: 6

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com