Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
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Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
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Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
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Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
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Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2024 | Month : May | Volume : 18 | Issue : 5 | Page : ED08 - ED10 Full Version

A Rare Case of Chondrolipoma of the Breast

Published: May 1, 2024 | DOI:
Pooja Agarwal, Nupur Kaushik, Shwetank Prakash, Himani Singh, Deepa Rani

1. Professor and Head, Department of Pathology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2. Senior Resident, Department of Pathology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. 3. Consultant Lap Surgeon and Urologist, Department of Surgery, Shantived Institute of Medical Sciences, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. 4. Junior Resident, Department of Pathology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. 5. Professor, Department of Pathology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Pooja Agarwal,
79, Gandhi Nagar, By Pass Road, Agra-282003, Uttar Pradesh, India.


In 1971, Arrigoni MG et al., used the term “hamartoma” for breast lesions in 10 patients who presented with encapsulated breast tumours clinically and grossly resembling fibroadenomas. Hamartomas in breast lesions are very uncommon and include adenolipoma and chondrolipoma. Despite the availability of imaging modalities, it is often difficult to distinguish fibroadenoma from breast carcinoma. Chondrolipoma of the breast is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour composed of adipose and mature cartilaginous tissue, which is often mistaken for malignant lesions in preoperative studies, leading to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Hence, a proper histopathological examination is required for a correct diagnosis. Only eight cases have been reported in the literature. This report presents one such rare case of lump in a 67-year-old female, which was suspected to be a fibroadenoma clinically and radiologically, but was diagnosed as chondrolipoma on histopathological examination. All routine investigations were within normal limits, and a clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Mammography was done, comprising fat, soft tissue, and calcific strandings along with coarse calcific specks suggestive of BI-RADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) Category 3: high probability of being benign.


Cartilage, Hamartoma, Mesenchymal tumour of breast

Case Report

A 67-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with complain of a lump in the right breast. The lump had been present for six months and was gradually increasing in size. There was no history of nipple retraction or nipple discharge. On physical examination, the lump measured 5.4×5.0 cm in the lower outer quadrant of the right breast. It was freely mobile and non tender, not attached to the overlying skin or deeper structures. The skin, nipple, areola, and ipsilateral axilla were unremarkable. Based on these findings, a clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made, and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was advised, but the patient refused. Mammography was performed, revealing a well-defined echogenic mass measuring approximately 76 mm×72 mm in the lower outer quadrant of the right breast. The mass was sharply delineated from the surrounding breast tissue and comprised of fat, soft tissue, and calcific strandings along with coarse calcific specks, suggesting BI-RADS Category 3: a high probability of being benign (Table/Fig 1). The left breast was unremarkable.

Routine investigations, including complete blood count and urine routine examination, were within normal limits. The patient was then advised to undergo surgical resection of the lump. The lump was excised and sent for histopathological examination to the pathology department.

A yellowish fibrofatty mass measuring 5.2×5.0 cm was received. It was firm and well-circumscribed with a smooth outer surface. The cut surface showed yellow soft areas and small white gritty areas (Table/Fig 2). The sections were processed after decalcification, and routine H&E staining was performed. Microscopic examination revealed a tumour composed of mature adipose tissue intermingled with lobules of hyaline cartilage. Few areas of calcification and osseous metaplasia were also noted (Table/Fig 3),(Table/Fig 4),(Table/Fig 5)a,b. Mammary tissue was not seen in the tumour. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of chondrolipoma was made. Postoperative follow-up was conducted for three months and was uneventful.


Arrigoni MG et al., in 1971 used the term “hamartoma” for the breast lesions in 10 patients who presented with encapsulated breast tumours clinically and grossly resembling fibroadenomas. Hamartomas of the breast are very uncommon and include adenolipoma and chondrolipoma. Despite the availability of imaging modalities, it is often difficult to distinguish chondrolipoma and fibroadenoma from breast carcinoma (1). Meis JM and Enzinger FM initially described the rare entity of chondrolipoma originating from soft tissue in 1993 (2). The presence of mesenchymal elements modifies the structure of breast lipoma leading to the development of fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, osteolipoma, myxolipoma, or chondrolipoma. Chondrolipoma is considered a cartilaginous metaplasia encountered in lipomas of large size and long duration (2),(3). They are predominantly seen in women across a wide age range from 14 to 70 years, with a median age of 35 years (4). Chondrolipomas are delimited, asymptomatic lesions that develop in the subcutaneous tissues or at the level of the skeletal muscles, more commonly on the chest wall, back extremity, breast, tongue, buccal mucosa, etc., (5),(6). Benign tumours like fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, phyllodes tumour, and mammary tissue also show cartilage on microscopy. Cartilaginous tissue is usually associated with malignancies such as metaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma. However, calcification was an unusual finding seen in present case and was only reported in three cases earlier (3). Only eight cases have been reported in the literature, and present report is one such rare case of lump in the right breast in a 67-year-old female, suspected to be fibroadenoma clinically and radiologically. Theories associated with the histogenesis of chondrolipoma include: a) Glandular components found inside the tumour act like a choristoma; b) Immature mesenchymal cells differentiate towards both adipocytes and chondrocytes; and c) These tumours originate from cartilaginous metaplasia of the adipose tissue in lipomas (2).

On mammography, it usually presents as a radiolucent mass due to the increased amount of fatty tissue in the absence of mammary stroma or ducts, along with focal opacities induced by the presence of islets of cartilaginous structures (2),(3). The differential diagnosis is broad and includes giant fibroadenoma and malignant lesions such as myxoid liposarcoma, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, soft-tissue chondroma, myoepithelial tumours, and osteosarcoma (4),(7),(8). Myxoid liposarcoma shows mildly atypical spindled cells deposited around a delicate, plexiform vascular pattern. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma has fibrous septa that give it a distinct lobulated appearance. Soft-tissue chondroma occurs in hands and feet and often contains multinucleated giant cells and true hyaline cartilage. Osteosarcoma displays tumour permeation with bone erosion and cortical bone destruction. Tumour cells exhibit pleomorphism with diverse morphology and hyperchromatic nuclei. Mature adipocytes are intensely immunoreactive to S-100 protein, unlike minimally reactive lipoblasts, and variable focal immune reactivity to CD68 and cytokeratin is observed (4),(7),(8). Cytogenetic analysis reveals a balanced translocation t (11;16) (q13;p12-13) involving the fusion of C11orf95 and MKL2 (4).


Chondrolipoma is a rare benign tumour of the breast that can be confused with a malignant tumour on mammography. Preoperative biopsy and histopathological examination are mandatory and usually sufficient for a definitive diagnosis and to demonstrate the absence of malignancy. Therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis when examining a breast lump with adipose tissue on histology.


Alagarsmay J, Lily M. Chondrolipoma of the breast- A case report. Stainley Medical Journal. 2014;1(2):27-28.
Aloul ALA, Savga S, Diaconu C, Savu C, Stiru O, Dimitriu M, et al. Giant chondroid lipoma of the breast: A case report and literature review. Exp Ther Med. 2021;22:1087. [crossref][PubMed]
Sudhamai S, Pandit AA, Kiri VM. Chondrolipoma of breast: A case report with the review of the literature. J Sci Soc. 2012;39:147-48. [crossref]
Goldblum RJ, Folpe AL, Weiss WS. Benign Lipomatous tumour. In: Goldblum JR, editor. Enzinger and Weiss’s Soft-tissue tumour, 6th ed. Phildelphia: Elsevier; 2013. Pp. 452-56.
Vandeweyer E, Scagnol I. Axillary giant lipoma: A case report. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105(6):656-57. [crossref][PubMed]
Ohtsuka H. Chondrolipoma of the popliteal fossa and Japanese reports. J Dermatol. 2006;33(3):202-06. [crossref][PubMed]
Jorwekar GJ, Bhaviskar PK, Sathe PM, Dandekar KN. Giant chondroid lipoma of breast. Indian J Surg. 2012;74(4):342-43. [crossref][PubMed]
Cooper R, Rajak R, Valentine K, Bhargava V. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast. Diagnostic Histopal. 2018;24:83-85.[crossref]

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2024/67515.19387

Date of Submission: Sep 13, 2023
Date of Peer Review: Jan 03, 2024
Date of Acceptance: Mar 01, 2024
Date of Publishing: May 01, 2024

• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. Yes

• Plagiarism X-checker: Sep 14, 2023
• Manual Googling: Feb 23, 2024
• iThenticate Software: Feb 27, 2024 (13%)

ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin


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