Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 106469

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionKey MessageAcknowledgementReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : April | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 287 - 290 Full Version

Anatomical study of Dorsalis pedis Artery and Its Clinical Correlations

Published: April 1, 2011 | DOI:

Dept of Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Vijayalakshmi.S, Assistant Professor, Dept of Anatomy,
Saveetha Medical College, Saveethanagar, Thandalam -602105,
Kancheepuram –Tamilnadu-INDIA
E-mail:, Phone: 9444183125


To evaluate patients with arterial disease, palpation of peripheral arterial pulse is commonly used. In lower limb, palpation of dorsalis pedis artery is used to evaluate the arteriosclerotic diseases. Dorsalis pedis artery is the main source of blood supply to the foot. A knowledge about the origin, course and branching pattern of this artery is essential, as it forms the stem for one of the major myocutaneous flaps, used for ankle surgeries in plastic and reconstructive surgeries. Fifty free lower limbs were dissected and the origin, course and branching pattern of dorsalis pedis artery were studied. 50 free lower limbs were collected from the anatomy dissection hall. The dorsalis pedis artery was dissected and its origin, course and branching pattern were studied. In the present study dorsalis pedis artery was found to have a normal course and branching pattern in 56%, variation in origin in 8%, variation in branching pattern in 16%, absence of the artery in 2% and duplication in 2% of the specimens studied. As variation in dorsalis pedis artery is not uncommon, it is essential to have a sound knowledge about the artery. It is advisable to have preoperative angiography for any abnormality, to prevent risks during surgical intervention.


Dorsalis pedis artery, peripheral arterial disease, myocutaneous flap

With changing lifestyle, and increasing stress, mankind is more liable for diseases like diabetes and hypertension. Diabetic neuropathy leads to foot infections and ischemia, leading to the risk of major amputations. In the efforts of salvaging the ischemic limb DPA bypass acts as a major role. The dorsalis pedis artery(DPA) with its major branches is the preferentially used recipient vessel.The myocutaneous dorsalis pedis arterialised flap can be safely used as an island flap, to cover the ankle or heel and as a free flap for palm defects. Hence it was decided to study dorsalis pedis artery.

Material and Methods

Fifty preserved lower extremities were used for the study. These lower limbs were dissected carefully to explore the dorsalis pedis artery, and its branches were traced and painted for clear view and photographed. In case of variations in the course and branching pattern of dorsalis pedis artery, further exploration was made. In cases of variant origin of the dorsalis pedis artery, the posterior compartment was explored and all the data were documented.


The following observations were made after the dissection of the dorsalis pedis artery was carried out in all lower limbs.
The findings of this present study were grouped as follows:
1. Normal course of the dorsalis pedis artery.
2. Variant origin of the dorsalis pedis artery.
3. Variation in the course of the dorsalis pedis artery.
4. Variation in the branching pattern of the dorsalis pedis artery. 5. Absence of the arcuate artery.
6. Absence of dorsalis pedis artery.
1. Normal course of the dorsalis pedis artery
The chief artery of the dorsum of foot is the dorsalis pedis artery. Most often, the anterior tibial artery continues as the dorsalis pedis artery. The anterior tibial artery enters the foot under the inferior extensor retinaculum and runs distally towards the inter-space between the first and second toes. The dorsalis pedis artery divides into two branches in the first dorsal intermetatarsal space. The large branch is the first dorsal metatarsal artery (deep plantar artery) that disappears between the two heads of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, into the sole of the foot. A small-sized arcuate artery, runs transversely across the dorsum and provides most of the dorsal metatarsal arteries, usually two to four. The dorsal metatarsal arteries communicate with the plantar metatarsal arteries and end as tiny dorsal digital arteries.
Branches from the dorsalis pedis artery are:
1. Medial and lateral tarsal arteries.
2. Arcuate artery.
3. First dorsal metatarsal artery.
In the present study, out of 50 free lower limbs, 28 of them had normal course arising from anterior tibial artery and gave all the above said branches as in (Table/Fig 1).
2. Variant origin of the dorsalis pedis artery
The anterior tibial artery was hypoplastic and not reaching the ankle in four limbs. The peroneal artery gave rise to a perforating branch, which pierced the interosseous membrane and descended under cover of the extensor digitorum longus and peroneous tertius and anastomosed with the anterior malleolar branch of anterior tibial artery. Since anterior tibial artery was hypoplastic , the perforating branch of peroneal artery continued as the dorsalis pedis artery with normal course and branching pattern. (Table/Fig 2)
3. Variation in the course of dorsalis pedis artery
In 2 specimens, the dorsalis pedis artery had a lateral deviation away from the midline. In these cases, the dorsalis pedis artery deviated laterally in the proximal aspect and then returned to the first dorsal inter-metatarsal space in the distal aspect. (Table/Fig 3)
4. Variation in the branching pattern of dorsalis pedis artery
In eight specimens, the dorsalis pedis artery was found to have a short straight course and divided into medial and lateral branches. The medial branch continued as the first dorsal metatarsal artery and joined the plantar arch. The lateral branch coursed obliquely towards the head of the other metatarsal bones and gave off the second, third and fourth metatarsal arteries which coursed in the inter-metatarsal spaces. These lateral and medial branches were named as dorsalis arteria medialis and dorsalis arteria lateralis. (Table/Fig 4)
5. Absence of arcuate artery
In three limbs, the arcuate artery failed to arise from the dorsalis pedis artery. (Table/Fig 5)
6. Absence of dorsalis pedis artery
In one limb, the anterior tibial artery was hypoplastic, and the peroneal artery reached the anterior aspect of the ankle. It ended by giving a lateral tarsal branch which supplied the lateral tarsal bones. Further course of the artery was not traceable, so beyond the ankle there was absence of dorsalis pedis artery.The lateral plantar artery is larger and becomes the main source of blood supply to dorsum of foot in the absence of dorsalis pedis artery. (Table/Fig 6)
The variations are summarised and are represented on bar diagram
in (Table/Fig 7)


Variations in the blood vessels and their anomalous course can be attributed to their development. Tiny blood vessels derived from the blood islands in the 3rd or 4th week of development, merge with each other and form a continuous network, from which buds grow out, canalise and form new vessels. New vessels of the neighbourhood areas form a closed network. Depending on the functional dominance, some vessels regress and others diverge in the mode of origin and course from the principal vessel. The dorsalis pedis artery is noted for its variations (1). By dissecting out 100 limbs, it was noted that, only in one limb, the dorsalispedis artery was replaced by a large perforating branch of the peroneal artery. The anterior tibial artery failed to reach the ankle and was hypoplastic. The posterior tibial artery was found to be traversing the interosseous membrane, 5 cm proximal to lateral malleolus and entered the extensor compartment (2), (3). In the present study, it was found that the dorsalis pedis artery was a continuation of peroneal artery in 4 out of 50 limbs (8%) and the anterior tibial artery was hypoplastic, this variation was related to tobacco smokers (4). After a study of 200 cases, normal distribution was found in 5.5% of cases. In about 3% of cases the artery arose from perforating branch of peroneal artery. In 12% of cases, it was reduced in size and almost absent. In 9% of cases, it deviated from its normal course, either laterally or medially. In 14% of cases the artery was either absent or too small to palpate (5). In the present study, the artery had a normal course in 56% of the cases. In 8% of the limbs, the artery arose from the perforating branch of peroneal artery. In 2% of the limbs, it was absent. In 16% of the cases, the artery divided into medial and lateral branches. In 4% of limbs, it deviated laterally, suggesting the variations among dorsalis pedis artery is common. Study of the course of dorsalis pedis artery in 67 specimens, revealed that the course of the artery was normal in 44 cases. In 15 cases, it divided into 2 terminal branches, Arteria dorsalis medialis and Arteria dorsalis lateralis, 2 cm to 3 cm distal to its origin. In 6 cases, the artery was tiny and the arterial supply of the dorsum of the foot was mainly provided by both lateral malleolar and fibular arteries. In the present study, similar variations in dorsalis pedis artery were noticed in 8 cases (16%) (6). The arcuate artery was defined as that artery branching off from the dorsalis pedis artery at or below the level of tarsometatarsal joints, running laterally across the bases of metatarsals second to fourth and supplying the dorsal metatarsal arteries 2-4. The arcuate artery was present in only 16.7% of cases out 72 cadaveric feet (7). The present study shows presence of arcuate artery in 76% of cases, suggesting that the arcuate artery is not the primary blood supply to the dorsal metatarsal arteries 2-4. The lateral tarsal artery and branches from plantar arch supplied the metatarsal spaces 2- 4, in the absence of arcuate artery. Performance of a study on dorsalis pedis artery in 30 cadaveric limbs revealed that dorsalis pedis artery was absent in 6.7% of cases, the arcuate artery was absent in 33%. The dorsalispedis artery was the continuation of peroneal artery in 6.7% of cases. The dorsalis pedis artery crossed under the extensor hallucis tendon at the ankle in 54%, above the ankle in 43% and below the ankle in 3%, suggesting the optimal site of dorsalis pedis artery anastomosis on the foot is the segment distal to the ankle (8). In the present study, dorsalis pedis artery was absent in 2% and arcuate artery was absent in 6% of cases. It was observed that dorsalis pedis pulse was absent in normal healthy young Chinese (9). In 10 to12 % of people, the dorsalis pedis artery may be too small to palpate or may be away from the normal position or absent. Thus failure to detect a dorsalis pedis pulse, does not always indicate the presence of arteriosclerotic disease, but can be seen in normal persons also (10), (11). Lateral deviation of dorsalis pedis artery and higher bifurcation of anterior tibial artery to form dorsalis pedis at the junction of upper 3/4th and lower 1/4th of leg were observed during routine dissection (12). The same variations were also noticed in the present study in 2% of cases, suggesting that the dorsalis pedis pulse is not always felt lateral to the tendon of extensor hallucis longus, it can be deviated laterally without any vascular disease.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION In the present study, the following variations were noticed in the dorsalis pedis artery. 1. Normal course of dorsalis pedis artery in 56% 2. Variant origin of dorsalis pedis artery in 8% 3. Variation in the course of dorsalis pedis artery in 2% 4. Variation in branching pattern of dorsalis pedis artery in 16% 5. Absence of arcuate artery in 6% 6. Absence of dorsalis pedis artery in 2% Palpation of the dorsalis pedis artery is essential, particularly in suspected cases of arterial disorders. The dorsalis pedis pulse can be usually felt on the dorsum of the foot, where the artery passes over the navicular and cuneiform bones. It may also be felt at the proximal end of first dorsal interosseous space. As observed above, the artery is subjected to variations, ranging from abnormal course, origin, distribution to complete absence. This must be kept in mind during physical examination in cases of thrombo-angitis obliterans, peripheral arterial diseases, thrombosis, acute embolism in which pulse distal to the occlusion site is lost. Knowledge of this variation will be useful in deciding whether the absence of pulse in dorsalis pedis artery is due to thrombosis of the vessel or its abnormal course or absence. Aberration of the usual anatomic pattern of origin, branching and anastomosing pattern are thus of prime importance in surgical operative techniques. Prior confirmation by angiography for any abnormalities will avoid unnecessary surgical risks. The artery serves as an important landmark on the dorsum of foot. The artery is recognized to play an important role in micro vascular surgery of the foot during replantations, reconstruction and repair due to its unique anatomical position and bountiful supply to the foot.

Key Message

The vascularity irrigation of the dorsum of the foot is mainly from
the dorsalis pedis artery (DPA).
Palpation of foot pulses mainly DPA is used to evaluate patients
with arterial diseases. This vessel provides the basis of the anatomical
rationale for surgically raising a flap of skin over the dorsum
of the foot, which can then be used to resurface other areas
of the body


We are grateful to DrMelani Rajendran,Dr Saraswathy,Dr.Haripriya,Dr.Kesavi for their support.


Sadler T.W (1985) In Langman’s Medical Embryology, 5th edition, Willam and Wilkins; 68- 69.
Mirwajahath Ali (1996) Dorsalis pedis artery- variation and clinical significance, Journal of Indian Medical Association; 94; 417-418.
Maral, Tuncel M. CelikTas C(1994) Anomalous Dorsalis pedis Artery, Surgical Radiology Anatomy; 6 ;319 -323.
Muir.L, Labiotis.N, Kutty.S, Kenerman.L(1995); Absence of dorsalis pedis pulse in the parents of children with club foot. Journal of Bone joint surgery; 77; 114-116.
Huber. JF, (1941); The arterial net work supplying the dorsum of foot. Anatomical Records. 80; 373.
Bailleul.JP, Olivez. PR, Mestdagh. H, Viliette. B (1984); Desgraphical anatomy of the dorsalis pedis artery of the foot. Bull association of anatomy (Nancy); 68; 15 – 25.
Dilandro.AC, Lilja.EC, Lepore.FL, (2001); The prevalence of arcuate artery and a cadaveric study of 72 feet. Journal of American Podiatriac Medical Association. – 91 (6); 300 – 305.
Yamada T, Glovicki.P, Bower.TC,(1993). variations of the arterial anatomy of foot.American Journal of Surgery; 166 (2); 130 - 135.
Sun YQ, Zhu DL (1983) Absent dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulsation in normal young Chinese. Chinese Medical Journal (England); 96(9); 643 - 646.
Keith. L. Moore (1992). In clinically oriented anatomy, 3rdedition. Lippincott William and Wilkins; 462 - 471.
Robert. B, Rutherford (1992). In vascular surgery; 4thedition. W.B.Saunders company Tokyo; 798 - 799.
Kesavi D, Keertisingh, Melani Rajendran S. (2002); Anamolous course of dorsalis pedis artery. Anatomical Adjuncts; 3; 29 – 31.

DOI and Others


JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)